Скачать презентацию So Far This Year 14 th century Скачать презентацию So Far This Year 14 th century

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  • Количество слайдов: 27

So Far This Year • 14 th century • • • Plague Earliest Sparks So Far This Year • 14 th century • • • Plague Earliest Sparks of the Renaissance Split between Eastern and Western Europe w 1 st Hundred Years War Italy is Solidifying its role as trading middle man Mongols rule in Russia • 15 th Century • • • Renaissance Begins in Earnest Northern Renaissance Henry the Navigator is Exploring the coast of Africa Constantinople Falls to the Ottoman Turks Increased interest in Afrian Slaves Habsburg-Valois Wars Rise of Renaissance Princes/New Monarchs Consolidation of Habsburg Empire Mongols kicked out of Russia • 16 th Century • • Age of Exploration Spanish Golden Century Transition from Mediterranean to Atlantic Power centers Reformation/English Reformation Council of Trent 1 st half of the Wars of Religion Ottoman Empire reaches its peak… threatens Eastern Europe Start of the Scientific Revolution • • 17 th Century • • • 2 nd Half of the Wars of Religion (30 Years War) Witch hunts Rise of Absolutism in France, Prussia, Russia, Austria Constitutionalism in England the Netherlands (English Civil War, Glorious Revolution) France becomes culturally dominant Spain falls Netherlands has a Golden Age Continuation of the Scientific Revolution Early Enlightenment • 18 th Century • • Heart of the Enlightenment 2 nd Hundred Years War Enlightened Absolutism (2 nd )Agricultural Revolution Population Explosion Early Industrial Revolution (ignited by Cottage Industry) Explosion of the Atlantic Economy and Associated Trade Wars Capitalism Unseats Mercantilism •

2 nd Agricultural Revolution • 1 st Agricultural Revolution – Development of farming • 2 nd Agricultural Revolution • 1 st Agricultural Revolution – Development of farming • replaced hunting and gathering • 10, 000 BC – Animal power – Land can only produce so much (nitrogen exhaustion) • Slash and burn agricultural or limited population size • Medieval Improvements – Open Field system • Strips of farmland – Not easy to turn an ox – Communal » Insurance against poor yield in one part of the field – ‘The Commons’ – Fallow • Field rotation • Medieval Limitations – Fallow is Inefficient • 1/3 of fields aren’t used – Famine cycle – 1 bushel of seed yields 5 -6 bushels of crop • Modern farmers are closer to 40 bushels of crop

The Open Field System The Open Field System

2 nd Agricultural Revolution (cont. ) • 2 nd Agricultural Revolution Innovations • End 2 nd Agricultural Revolution (cont. ) • 2 nd Agricultural Revolution Innovations • End of the fallow – Field rotation v crop rotation • Nitrogen replacing crops – Crops up, manure, up, crops up cycle • Enclosure – Land taken up by the wealthy and enclosed • Land is more productive, but… • End of the common- no more safety net • Dutch – Scientific because of dykes – Golden Age • Wealth and stable population support experimentation with crops • English – Copy the Dutch – Turnip Townsend • Agricultural boom population boom – As a result, standard of living does not rise in general

18 th Century Poem The law locks up the man or woman Who steals 18 th Century Poem The law locks up the man or woman Who steals the goose from off the common But leaves the greater villain loose Who steals the common from off the goose. The law demands that we atone When we take things we do not own But leaves the lords and ladies fine Who take things that are yours and mine.

17 c European Agrarianism 17 c European Agrarianism

Leaders: The Dutch Leaders: The Dutch

The Cost of Enclosure: Fair? English Farmer Continental Farmer The Cost of Enclosure: Fair? English Farmer Continental Farmer

The Cost of Enclosure: Unfair? Heh, heh… The Cost of Enclosure: Unfair? Heh, heh…

Cost of Enclosure: Author’s Assessment VS Cost of Enclosure: Author’s Assessment VS

Population Growth • Factors that limit it are slowly removed – Black death dies Population Growth • Factors that limit it are slowly removed – Black death dies out mysteriously – Better ability to spread food about because of improved infrastructure • New world crops – Slight improvements in health from better sanitation • Standards of living did NOT increase

18 c Population Growth Rate 18 c Population Growth Rate

Putting Out System • Ironically, the increase in Agricultural Production actually increased the numbers Putting Out System • Ironically, the increase in Agricultural Production actually increased the numbers of poor peasants. Why? – Growing population but stable amount of land – Profits to be made in farming encouraged the wealthy to buy up farmland – Thus Underemployed peasants (Proletariat- landless farmers) • Enterprising merchants in the cities devised the Putting Out System – Take product to the countryside where landless farmers are desperate for work – Production in the homes – Come back and pick up the product and sell it – Capitalism before that word even existed – Challenge to guild system – Weakens the grip of governments’ mercantilist control over the economy, which the governments don’t like, but feel they have no choice. • Why? – What else do you do with mobs of hungry peasants? • First spark of the Industrial Revolution

Cottage System Start Sheep Farm Merchant Buys Wool 4 th Town Merchant Sells Textiles Cottage System Start Sheep Farm Merchant Buys Wool 4 th Town Merchant Sells Textiles Makes Profit 2 nd Cottage Merchant Drops Off Wool 3 rd Cottage Merchant Picks Up Textiles

2 nd Hundred Years War • English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Portuguese fight over 2 nd Hundred Years War • English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Portuguese fight over the wealth of the New World and Atlantic Trade • Mercantilism puts them at odds with each other – Goods from the English colonies can only be traded to England on English ships so that all of the profit stays with England, etc. – This pisses off other countries and the colonists themselves. Why? • Perhaps the first world wars – fighting in Europe and the New World – Fighting in Europe is part of general balance of power struggles • By the 18 th century, Portugal, Spanish, and Dutch were fading powers – Dutch had burned themselves out fighting Louis XIV, Spanish in Wars of Religion, Portuguese had fought Spain and the Netherlands – Two dominant powers were France and Britain

British Dominance of Atlantic Economy • Britain, especially held that mercantilism should help the British Dominance of Atlantic Economy • Britain, especially held that mercantilism should help the people as well as the monarchy • Roots in the Navigation Acts (interregnum) – Aimed at Dutch (Manhattan) and then French • England could get involved in wars in the New World but avoid continental part of wars – Gave them an advantage over the French • English seamen could quickly become navy in times of crisis • Side Issue: – England and Scotland England, Scotland, and Ireland

Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Succession – England felt hemmed in by French and Spanish in the New Word (see map) – Ended by Peace of Utrecht – British win asiento and some French land in New World • War of the Austrian Succession • Seven Years War Name in Colonies • Queen Anne’s War • King George’s War • French and Indian War

Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Succession • War of the Austrian Succession – Sparked by Frederick the Great’s seizure of Silesia – Fighting in India and North America between British and French – Inconclusive Between British and French • Seven Years War Name in Colonies • Queen Anne’s War • King George’s War • French and Indian War

Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Battles in Europe and New World Name in Europe • War of the Spanish Succession • War of the Austrian Succession • Seven Years War – Frederick the Great spared by Peter III – Key battle between French and British – (1 st) Treaty of Paris – France loses new world possessions – Spain and Britain get them – India goes to Britain for good Name in Colonies • Queen Anne’s War • King George’s War • French and Indian War

2 nd HYW Isn’t Over Yet • French and Indian War will help spark 2 nd HYW Isn’t Over Yet • French and Indian War will help spark American Revolution, which in turn helps spark the French Revolution • Both of these are, to a large degree, continuations of a fight between England France over supremacy and control of the Atlantic Economy

Capitalism • Part of the Enlightenment – Natural law of economics • A rejection Capitalism • Part of the Enlightenment – Natural law of economics • A rejection of mercantilism – Argues that the government moves too slowly to regulate the economy efficiently

 • Basic Ideas of Capitalism – Choices can be made more efficiently by • Basic Ideas of Capitalism – Choices can be made more efficiently by actors in the economy (rather than gov. ) • Entrepreneurs and citizens make choices – These choices will be made correctly due to the natural law of the invisible hand of the market • supply and demand • Enlightened self-interest – Free trade brings greater wealth to everyone • Not a zero-sum game – There are occasional times when the government should interfere with the economy • Maintain internal and external order • Provide a small number of goods that the market won’t provide naturally – Example: freeways – All merchants gain from a freeway, but who will invest the capital to pay for them? ? ? – Example: Fire stations – If you don’t pay for them, won’t society have to work to put out a fire in your house anyway?

There, there it is again—the invisible hand of the marketplace giving us the finger. There, there it is again—the invisible hand of the marketplace giving us the finger.

Animation of Smith’s Invisible Hand Why YUCK! I willme a start business making lord? Animation of Smith’s Invisible Hand Why YUCK! I willme a start business making lord? ! hamburgers. YUM! ha, ha. Ha, Skinny I will start a #@%!#! business making hamburgers. Where was the invisible hand? $10, 000