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Smart Grids: Present and Future NPTI, Bangalore 4 th July, 2011 Dr. Rahul Tongia, Smart Grids: Present and Future NPTI, Bangalore 4 th July, 2011 Dr. Rahul Tongia, with Mohd. Saquib and H S Ramakrishna Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP)

Smart Grids: Present and Future Background • Basics of a Smart Grid • Focus Smart Grids: Present and Future Background • Basics of a Smart Grid • Focus on what aspects are applicable to the particular utility Aside: most people worry about the “what” and the “how”, ignoring the important question of “why”

Smart Grids: Present and Future • “Smart Grids” “A smart grid delivers electricity from Smart Grids: Present and Future • “Smart Grids” “A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability. ” – Wikipedia (More formal definitions are far more complex) 3

Smart Grids: Present and Future § A Smart Grid is a Transformation of the Smart Grids: Present and Future § A Smart Grid is a Transformation of the power system based on harnessing digital communications and control § Utilities will be able to: § § § Know what power is going where, and when Charge “appropriately” for it Control the use of (if not flow) of power § Although Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is considered to be the basic building block for a Smart Grid, the Smart Grid is not just AMI! v The Smart Grid is a much broader set of technologies and solutions 4

Smart Grids: Present and Future Smart Grid Inter. Connections Distributed Generation Centralized Generation Transmission Smart Grids: Present and Future Smart Grid Inter. Connections Distributed Generation Centralized Generation Transmission Network Distribution Network Electric Vehicles Smart Metering / AMI Meters & Displays CONSUMER DEMAND Loads and Appliances Micro. Generation Energy Efficiency Supplier Transactions Consumer Behavior 5

Smart Grids: Present and Future • India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF), which is a Smart Grids: Present and Future • India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF), which is a non-profit voluntary consortium of public and private stakeholders, was launched on 26 th May 2010. • Also, India Smart Grid Task Force (SGTF) is formed, which is an Inter-Ministerial Group and will serve as a focal point for activities related to the smart grid technology. Shri Sam Pitroda, Advisor to PM on Public Information Infrastructure & Innovation is the Chairman for Task Force. 6

Smart Grids: Present and Future India Smart Grid Forum Working Groups: • WG - Smart Grids: Present and Future India Smart Grid Forum Working Groups: • WG - 1 - Advanced Transmission (incl. PMU, WAMS, FACTS etc. ) • WG - 2 - Advanced Distribution (incl. SCADA / DMS, Distribution / Substation automation, Power Electronics, FLISR, islanding, self healing, distributed generation/renewables, etc) • WG - 3 Communications • WG - 4 - Metering • WG - 5 Consumption and Load Control (Demand Response, Home Automation, Appliances, Storage, Vehicles etc. ) • WG- 6 - Policy and Regulations (incl. Tariffs, Finance etc. ) • WG - 7 - Architecture and Design (Standards, Interoperability, Security, CIM etc. ) 7

Smart Grids: Present and Future India Smart Grid Task Force Working Groups: • WG Smart Grids: Present and Future India Smart Grid Task Force Working Groups: • WG -1 - Focus on Trials/Pilots on New Technologies & Ideas • WG -2 - Focus on loss reduction and theft control including data gathering and analytics, energy accounting • WG -3 - Focus on access of power to rural areas and reliability & quality of power to urban areas • WG - 4 - Focus on distributed generation and renewable • WG - 5 - Focus on physical cyber security, standards & spectrum 8

Smart Grids: Present and Future Broad Aspects of Smart Grids • Generation – Distributed Smart Grids: Present and Future Broad Aspects of Smart Grids • Generation – Distributed – Renewable • Transmission – Improve transfer capacity – Reliability (avoid blackouts) • Distribution – – {Includes consumption} Area of most effort One aspect is “smart metering” Others include Demand Response aka Load Control • Dynamic instead of mere DSM 9

Smart Grids: Present and Future Advanced Transmission • PMU, WAMS, • FACTS • Remote Smart Grids: Present and Future Advanced Transmission • PMU, WAMS, • FACTS • Remote monitoring and operation of Substations • Strategic Asset management • Self Healing Power Systems • Adaptive Islanding Systems Advanced Distribution • Automation: FLISR, substation automation, SCADA/DMS • Integrating generation & Storage: Renewables, Distributed • Operation: Islanding (micro-grids), • Control: Power Electronics: STATCOM • Strategic Asset management Smart Grid integrates SCADA, AMR, GIS, ERP, Smart Substation Management System (SSMS), Advanced Metering Infrastructure, etc.

Smart Grids: Present and Future • Status of transmission today – What are the Smart Grids: Present and Future • Status of transmission today – What are the exact Transmission losses today? (is it known in every state? ) – How do these vary, and why? • Seasonality (loading) • Source of supply? • Is transmission congestion an issue? – New generation capacity – Increased loading • How can we price for congestion and impact on grid? 11

Smart Grids: Present and Future • What would happen to our grid if, say, Smart Grids: Present and Future • What would happen to our grid if, say, wind becomes 25% of the capacity? – What are the options to deal with this? • More (fast ramp) supply • Curtail demand • Load shedding • Smart systems / Demand Response 12

Smart Grids: Present and Future Drivers for Smart Grids • US and Other Developed Smart Grids: Present and Future Drivers for Smart Grids • US and Other Developed Countries – – Meter reading Grid modernization Robustness Saving $$ • Deregulation exposed a lot of costs – Some consumers saw 2040% increase in tariffs • Needs Time of Use (To. U) if not Real Time Pricing (RTP) • Indian (Developing Country) – Power system has challenges • Loses Rs. 1+/k. Wh on average • Supply << Demand – 20+% shortfall – Growth is a big need – Theft is a major concern • Large segment of load is unmetered (agriculture) – Reforms ongoing • May allow new operating models 13

Smart Grids: Present and Future (or even Subtle) Drivers • US and Others – Smart Grids: Present and Future (or even Subtle) Drivers • US and Others – Carbon and green – Bi-directional power • (Plug in) Hybrid vehicles – New services • Home automation • Home monitoring • Green Power • India – Remove the “human element” in operations – The peak is NOT industrial – Smart peak management • No more load shedding • Even in emergencies can allow smart control – LEAPFROG 14

Smart Grids: Present and Future What Smart Grids really mean • Cost Implications* ↑? Smart Grids: Present and Future What Smart Grids really mean • Cost Implications* ↑? • More choices – Includes renewables ↑↑ ↑↑ ↓↓ • Better quality and service • Greater resiliency / robustness • Increased efficiency and asset utilization 15

Smart Grids: Present and Future Fundamental Qs for the Regulator • Is a Smart Smart Grids: Present and Future Fundamental Qs for the Regulator • Is a Smart Grid worthwhile? – Cost Benefit Analysis • Who should pay for it? – High capital costs • What changes are needed in pricing models? – Variable if not Dynamic pricing – Need to reflect the peak *marginal* cost of power • To what extent must the solutions be deployed? Can the utility optimize based only on – Geography – Consumer, etc. ? [80: 20 rule] 16

Smart Grids: Present and Future Indian Examples of Functionalities • Loss reduction – Requires Smart Grids: Present and Future Indian Examples of Functionalities • Loss reduction – Requires precise and full metering – 15 minute or 30 minute or even hourly readings can help give visibility for operations • Ending load shedding – Only two options • Buy more (peak) power • Reduce Demand • (Third “Option” is to load shed!) 17

Smart Grids: Present and Future Drivers for Smart Grids • Rhetorical Q: if developed Smart Grids: Present and Future Drivers for Smart Grids • Rhetorical Q: if developed nations don’t have high AT&C losses, and no load shedding, why do they need a smart grid? • A smart grid is about more than the above – Labor costs are an issue in the West – Renewables and electric vehicles are high on the agenda in the west, esp. Europe • The regulator may not mandate smart grids – May only require smart meters – May also require To. U tariffs or renewable integration • This de facto requires some level of a smart grid • Many nations have put in Smart Grid/Smart Meter mandates (legislation), e. g. , EISA (2007) in USA – India does not yet have any legislative / policy support for smart grids 18

Smart Grids: Present and Future Peak is growing faster than average (Independent System Operator-New Smart Grids: Present and Future Peak is growing faster than average (Independent System Operator-New England [ISO-NE] Example) [Source: Kathleen Spees, CMU/CSTEP] 19

Smart Grids: Present and Future Peak Load in ISO-NE Change Between 1980 and 2006 Smart Grids: Present and Future Peak Load in ISO-NE Change Between 1980 and 2006 [Source: Kathleen Spees, CMU/CSTEP] 20

Smart Grids: Present and Future Variability in Demand (NY) Source: Walawalkar et. al 2007 Smart Grids: Present and Future Variability in Demand (NY) Source: Walawalkar et. al 2007 21 21

Smart Grids: Present and Future 6648 Load shed = 1150 MW 0 8760 22 Smart Grids: Present and Future 6648 Load shed = 1150 MW 0 8760 22

Smart Grids: Present and Future What is the Value of one k. Wh AVOIDED? Smart Grids: Present and Future What is the Value of one k. Wh AVOIDED? • It could be from rooftop PV or smart grid or anything… • Today’s system for both CONSUMERS and UTILITY are based on average cost accounting – Ignoring cross-subsidies even • What we want is the marginal cost – “Costly power” = UI, Power Exchange, IPPs, Diesel, etc. • The answer depends on when, where, etc. 23

Smart Grids: Present and Future 24 Smart Grids: Present and Future 24

Smart Grids: Present and Future Buying Peaking Power • Peak power is always more Smart Grids: Present and Future Buying Peaking Power • Peak power is always more expensive than the average – Plants operate at only 500 or 1000 hours per year – Ignores 15% target spinning reserves, today articulated as 5% by Go. I • Blending such peak power today is what the West does – Raises the costs for ALL users for ALL k. Wh – KN example – Raises purchase cost for utilities by Rs. 1/k. Wh! • Alternative – peaking tariff – let those who contribute to the peak pay for it – Requires appropriate metering 25

Smart Grids: Present and Future Cost by utility Source: Wartsila Report (2009): Real Cost Smart Grids: Present and Future Cost by utility Source: Wartsila Report (2009): Real Cost of Power 26

Smart Grids: Present and Future A Smart Grid needs Smart Tariffs • Short run: Smart Grids: Present and Future A Smart Grid needs Smart Tariffs • Short run: Pilot • Long run: full-scale deployment • Today, limited off-take for To. U (voluntary, bulk consumers) – Differential appears too low to be attractive • Tariff Options – Time of Use/Time of Day • Seasonal adjustments – Real-time • Likely to be complex – Can allow selected RTP signaling like critical peak pricing (CPP) – rare conditions • Can a utility undertake tariff innovations in a selected area or for selected consumers? 27

Smart Grids: Present and Future • Business case Some Hard Policy Qs – If Smart Grids: Present and Future • Business case Some Hard Policy Qs – If it made sense, wouldn’t utilities already do it? – The “numbers” depend on many unknowns (Time horizons, Consumer responsiveness, Future tariffs and costs, Discount rates, etc. ) • Incentives to participate – Utility • If they are on a costs-plus regulated world, why do they care? – Global experience has been capital-centric – Consumer • Unless I am paid to modify my behaviour, why should I change? • To. U or even real time pricing – Need much more than voluntary, small differentials – There are many challenges in policy • Transfer of social welfare – even if just a few people participate, EVERYONE can benefit • There will be some winners and some losers – now what? • How much should the schemes be mandatory vs. voluntary; opt-in vs. opt-out? • Privacy and Security – At the very least, the utility will know if a consumer is home or not 28

Smart Grids: Present and Future Costs and Benefits are Hard to Calculate • Investor Smart Grids: Present and Future Costs and Benefits are Hard to Calculate • Investor (utility) Return on Investment is somewhat easier than societal impacts – Selected difficulties • Long timespans • Uncertainty of participation and effectiveness • Cost allocation for Smart Grid vs. Grid Upgrade • Societal Cost-benefit is needed – E. g. , Improved power quality helps the consumer • No need for diesel generator/inverter backups • Rigour is more than academic – Confounding factors include annual load growth, seasonal variations, “unusual” events, etc. 29

Smart Grids: Present and Future What do we need for a CBA? • Cost Smart Grids: Present and Future What do we need for a CBA? • Cost Benefit Analysis needs ALL costs (monetary, nonmonetary, etc. ) to ALL stakeholders across the life of the project • How do we convert implicit or value-laden impacts (e. g. , time)? – Assumptions • Challenges – Different time periods – Different values by different people – High uncertainty (performance and more) 30

Smart Grids: Present and Future Framework for Cost-Benefit Analysis • Costs – Pilot costs Smart Grids: Present and Future Framework for Cost-Benefit Analysis • Costs – Pilot costs are always higher than in full-scale deployment – Depend heavily on current status of grid readiness • Benefits – – – – – AT&C loss reduction Freeing up capacity (peak) Avoiding load shedding Avoiding blackouts Improved power quality Load planning Asset optimization CRM benefits etc. 31

Smart Grids: Present and Future Role of the Regulator • Balance the needs of Smart Grids: Present and Future Role of the Regulator • Balance the needs of suppliers with consumers • Assumption: Utility is to make a regulated (stipulated) return at best, assuming performance targets (e. g. , AT&C improvements) – Any increase in tariffs (peak) must be balanced with a commensurate decrease (off-peak) – QUESTION: WHAT ABOUT TRANSACTION COSTS? • There are two types of tariffs – wholesale (utility buys) and retail (consumer pays) – It is very problematic to allow one to be market while the other is purely regulated (e. g. , California crisis) – Must have a plan in place for both • Suggestion: make both dynamic, reflective of the dynamic cost at the margin (by time of day) • Does the regulator want to cap consumer liabilities? – E. g. , cap on peak rates (not allowing market full pass through) 32

Smart Grids: Present and Future Beware Parmenides Fallacy {Comparing the future to the present, Smart Grids: Present and Future Beware Parmenides Fallacy {Comparing the future to the present, instead of alternative futures} • Today’s and Smart Grid future are not easily comparable – Latter may have no (feeder level) load shedding – A 15 minute automated reading cannot be compared to today’s monthly manual (often out-sourced) reading • Clearly, saving the Rs. 1 -3/month for the meter reader is not sufficient to justify a Smart Grid/AMI • BUT, the AMI enables many new functionalities, such as – – Load profiling Energy audits / loss reduction Power purchase planning Outage detection, etc. 33

Smart Grids: Present and Future Business Case Technology DESIGN There always trade-offs: Integrated Design Smart Grids: Present and Future Business Case Technology DESIGN There always trade-offs: Integrated Design Policy / Regulations 34 34

Smart Grids: Present and Future Choosing an Architecture • Each utility should optimize based Smart Grids: Present and Future Choosing an Architecture • Each utility should optimize based on factors like – – Needs / goals Fuel mix Consumer base Legacy equipment, etc. • Considering just an AMR example, different utilities have chosen RF mesh, PLC, GSM/GPRS, optical fibers, etc. Adage from the IT world: “Cheaper, Faster, Better” – Pick any two” 35

Smart Grids: Present and Future Business Model Issues • Smart Grids are Capital Expenditure Smart Grids: Present and Future Business Model Issues • Smart Grids are Capital Expenditure (capex) heavy – Benefits accrue over time • Utility has 2 main choices (esp. given most are cash-strapped) – Treat capex into the rate base for Ro. R calculations • Raises tariffs on paper • Reduces rise in future tariffs due to monetization of benefits – Undertake outside funding • Loan – has debt servicing implications • Grant (from state or central govt. ) – Limited in availability, and unlikely beyond a pilot • Public-private partnerships (PPP) • What’s in it for a private player? – Sharing benefits (ala ESCO model) • ESCO models – Require very strong calculations of baselines and metrics (targets) • Baselines must be over 1 year long due to annual growth and seasonal variations (forget if it is an election year!) – Irony – the worse the present condition, the easier it is to justify a Smart Grid (e. g. , loss reduction) • But one has to be honest in what is due to a Smart Grid vs. improved operations 36

Smart Grids: Present and Future The Future will be Different • Consumers may become Smart Grids: Present and Future The Future will be Different • Consumers may become generators – Possibly with distributed and/or renewables • IT has improved to the point where even smaller consumers (residences) can meaningfully participate in utility load control schemes – Residences are a major part of the Indian peak • The future should have ZERO load-shedding (at a feeder level, at least) • Discrimination across and within categories of consumers is present today and may remain – Let’s do it more intelligently • Incentivize behavior at the margin • Provide a minimum assured supply 24/7 37

Smart Grids: Present and Future Rethinking Quality • Today, consumers face load-shedding and numerous Smart Grids: Present and Future Rethinking Quality • Today, consumers face load-shedding and numerous momentary interruptions – NOT captured in declared KPIs like SAIDI, CAIFI, etc. – Recommend adding MAIFI – Recommend adding scheduled and un-scheduled load shedding data, and making this public • A Smart Grid can immediately end feeder-level loadshedding! – Load limiting control switch integrated into meters (remote controllable connect/disconnect) – Quality impacts consumers • Diesel and backups • Pumpset burnouts (est. implicit costs Rs. 0. 50/k. Wh or higher) • Can one split the benefits between utility and consumer? E. g. , – “Normal” tariff is, say, Rs. 5/unit, and diesel costs Rs. 14/unit – Above a minimum assured supply, during shortage periods only, charge a premium for unrestricted supply on a voluntary basis, e. g. , Rs. 10/unit (or enough to cover the utility costs) 38

Smart Grids: Present and Future How to move ahead? • Utilities must propose a Smart Grids: Present and Future How to move ahead? • Utilities must propose a roadmap/plan for smart grids – What functionalities are desired? • Why (use/business cases)? – What is the architecture and cost? • Pilot deployments – Learning Pilots • Learn about technology, its impact (benefits), consumer participation rates/happiness, etc. – Deployment pilots • Worry about price-points, integration, scalability, etc. • Since we don’t know the “best” solution, we must experiment, learn, and iterate… 39

Smart Grids: Present and Future Challenges in doing a Pilot • Pilot may be Smart Grids: Present and Future Challenges in doing a Pilot • Pilot may be limited to “off the shelf” components/design • Need vendors and partners with appropriate experience and expertise • Design goals – Open standards – Scalability – Modularity • Must rethink the entire ecosystem of providers – This is not like R-APDRP • There is no SRS or template • The solutions are evolving and must be iterative – “Lowest Cost” per se is a false choice • Lifecycle costs matter • Performance (functionality) matters • Pilots will always be more expensive! 40

Smart Grids: Present and Future Pilot Projects: Possible Varying Functionality in stages (not necessarily Smart Grids: Present and Future Pilot Projects: Possible Varying Functionality in stages (not necessarily linear) • • Smart Metering Reliability and Robustness (supply switching) Renewables, storage, and distributed generation Load control and Demand Response – Smart Appliances – Signaling to consumers and devices [who controls is TBD] • Sensor networks, etc. ICT for Power Systems: Accounting → Auditing → Monitoring → Control (R-APDRP) 41

Smart Grids: Present and Future Selected Qs for the DESIGN • What are the Smart Grids: Present and Future Selected Qs for the DESIGN • What are the metrics, both prior and targets? – Input side and output side • What functionalities are to be deployed? • How can we incentivize participation? – Specialized tariffs – needs regulator’s approval • Suggestion: supply and quality guarantees • How deep does the utility want to go? – All consumers? – Inside the home? - Direct control vs. economic incentives • Suggestion: hybrid mechanisms • How can we gather the right data? – Granular data is missing before policies can be implemented • “Average” cost of supply numbers need updating • Only dynamic systems can measure consumer contributions to the peak OR their response to pricing – Information overload is a real challenge – need good analytics if not Decision Support Systems (DSS) 42

Smart Grids: Present and Future Services are the key to Transformation • IT is Smart Grids: Present and Future Services are the key to Transformation • IT is a means to an end? – Same with power! • Heat, Cool, light, move, etc. • Can we value not just megawatts but negawatts? (else Rate of Return thinking limits value of saving power) – Should we focus on making a car 10% or 30% more fuel efficient or lower carbon emitting? • What about getting rid of the car entirely? • It’s not about a more efficient air condition per se – what about redesigning for passive cooling? 43

Smart Grids: Present and Future Thinking of the Future…We need Smart Grids • Business Smart Grids: Present and Future Thinking of the Future…We need Smart Grids • Business as usual (BAU) will not be sustainable – Adding supply is necessary but not sufficient – must make consumption smarter • Consumers must see and behave based on not just their average costs but their incremental impact on the grid – This will create a few losers but (hopefully) more winners • Appliances and consumption will become smarter – Whirlpool announced that by 2015 ALL their selected household appliances will be smart grid capable (worldwide) – It’s not a question of when, not if… 44

Smart Grids: Present and Future Questions? Smart Grids: Present and Future Questions?