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Smart grids in Europe Support provided by Joint Research Centre (JRC) STOA Workshop “Challenges Smart grids in Europe Support provided by Joint Research Centre (JRC) STOA Workshop “Challenges arising from the large-scale deployment of Smart Grids in Europe” Marcelo MASERA Energy Security Unit Institute for Energy and Transport Joint Research Centre

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Joint Research Centre The JRC inside the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso 27 Joint Research Centre The JRC inside the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso 27 Commission Members Commissioner Mairé Geoghegan-Quinn Research, Innovation & Science Director-General Dominique Ristori DG Research & Innovation (RTD) Joint Research Centre 3/19/2018 3

JRC - Who are we and what do we do? • The Joint Research JRC - Who are we and what do we do? • The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission’s in-house science service. • It provides the science for policy decisions, with a view to ensuring that the EU achieves its Europe 2020 goals for a productive economy as well as a safe, secure and sustainable future. • The JRC plays a key role in the European Research Area and reinforces its multi-disciplinarity by networking extensively with leading scientific organisations in the Member States, Associated Countries and worldwide. 3/19/2018 4

JRC established in 1957 • 7 institutes in 5 countries: Italy, Belgium, Germany, The JRC established in 1957 • 7 institutes in 5 countries: Italy, Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain • 2, 845 permanent and temporary staff in 2010 • 1, 398 scientific publications in 2010 • 125 instances of support to the EU policymaker annually • Budget: € 356 million annually, plus € 62 million earned income Where you can find us • Corporate Services – Brussels • IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements) – Geel, Belgium • ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) – Karlsruhe, Germany and Ispra, Italy • IET (Institute for Energy and Transport) – Petten, The Netherlands and Ispra, Italy • IPSC (Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen) – Ispra, Italy • IES (Institute for Environment and Sustainability) – Ispra, Italy • IHCP (Institute for Health and Consumer Protection) – Ispra, Italy • IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies) – Seville, Spain 3/19/2018 5

JRC Institute for Energy and Transport Ispra, Italy Petten, The Netherlands The mission of JRC Institute for Energy and Transport Ispra, Italy Petten, The Netherlands The mission of the Joint Research Centre – Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) is to provide support to Community policies and technology innovation related both: • energy - to ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use and • transport - to foster sustainable and efficient mobility in Europe.

JRC-IET priorities ENERGY SUPPLY STATIONARY Deploy Clean Energy ENERGY DEMAND Modernise the Grid Increase JRC-IET priorities ENERGY SUPPLY STATIONARY Deploy Clean Energy ENERGY DEMAND Modernise the Grid Increase Energy Efficiency Interoperability TRANSPORT Deploy Alternative Fuels Electrification of Transport Increase Vehicle Efficiency Techno-economic Modelling & Analysis Experimental Activities

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Power system – present Power system – present

Smart grid: (possible) future Smart grid: (possible) future

Smart grid: dimensions, domains and zones Source: EC Smart Grid Standardisation Reference Group Smart grid: dimensions, domains and zones Source: EC Smart Grid Standardisation Reference Group

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Smart Electricity Systems http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/ Mission The Smart Electricity Systems team Smart Electricity Systems http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/ Mission The Smart Electricity Systems team performs independent scientific research and acts as in-house scientific consultant for EU policy-making actors, with focus on the on-going transformations towards smart electricity systems

A multi-layer problem PHYSICAL CYBER ECONOMIC SOCIAL POLITICAL A multi-layer problem PHYSICAL CYBER ECONOMIC SOCIAL POLITICAL

The multi-layer approach of Smart Electricity Systems DATA GATHERING & PROCESSING SCIENTIFIC MODELLING, ANALYSES The multi-layer approach of Smart Electricity Systems DATA GATHERING & PROCESSING SCIENTIFIC MODELLING, ANALYSES & EXPERIMENTS POLICY SUPPORT DISSEMINATION COOPERATION PHYSICAL CYBER ECONOMIC SOCIAL POLITICAL

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Background Rising political attention on Smart Grids as a means to achieve EU energy Background Rising political attention on Smart Grids as a means to achieve EU energy policy objectives. Need to unlock market investment potential. age Pros um ers s le b wa Dist e Ge ribu. EV en R t ne rat ed rs ion ggregato A Demand Respo nse s eter t. M mar S Stor Market

Background • Smart Grids projects: − Growing number: deployment, demonstration/pilots, R&D − Participants: Grid Background • Smart Grids projects: − Growing number: deployment, demonstration/pilots, R&D − Participants: Grid operators, service providers, R&D actors. . − Wide scope: smart meters, super grid, integrated systems. . • No inventory of Smart Grid projects in Europe available in 2011: − − Limited sharing of project experiences and lessons learned Need to monitor the developments on the field • JRC-DG ENER Reference Report “Smart Grid projects in Europe: lessons learned and current developments”

 • Uneven distribution of investments across Europe. Most of investments in EU 15 • Uneven distribution of investments across Europe. Most of investments in EU 15 Countries • Over 5 billions of investments, but still at the beginning of the Smart Grid transition

Smart grid investments Bulk of investment in a few countries Smart grid investments Bulk of investment in a few countries

Starting date across stages of development The data collection and analysis continues – contact Starting date across stages of development The data collection and analysis continues – contact us! Smart Electricity Systems: http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/ Note: not all projects planned to start in 2011 answered yet to JRC survey

Share of R&D, demo and deployment projects • Deployment projects: greatest part of investment, Share of R&D, demo and deployment projects • Deployment projects: greatest part of investment, main focus: Smart Meters roll-outs • R&D and Demonstration projects: mostly small-medium scale (4. 5 and 12 million € of average budget respectively), wider portfolio of technologies and applications

Budget, leading organisation and development stage M€ Distribution System Operators (DSOs) are the main Budget, leading organisation and development stage M€ Distribution System Operators (DSOs) are the main investors

Funding by development stage (DSO-led projects) • Most of the DSO-led projects in RD&D Funding by development stage (DSO-led projects) • Most of the DSO-led projects in RD&D are financed through publicprivate partnerships • Funding comes mainly from EU Framework programmes (FP 6 and FP 7), national funds and regulatory funds • Funding and incentives for RD&D are important for further progress in the development of Smart Grids

Smart Grids Knowledge Sharing Platform (JRC-EURELECTRIC joint initiative) http: //www. smartgridsprojects. eu/ Smart Grids Knowledge Sharing Platform (JRC-EURELECTRIC joint initiative) http: //www. smartgridsprojects. eu/

JRC inventory of Smart Grid projects • JRC database to act as European repository JRC inventory of Smart Grid projects • JRC database to act as European repository of Smart Grid projects • New JRC online form available: http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/: JRC on-line form JRC DB

JRC inventory of Smart Grid projects • JRC database to act as European repository JRC inventory of Smart Grid projects • JRC database to act as European repository of Smart Grid projects • New JRC online form available: http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/: Send information on NEW PROJECTS or provide UPDATES! JRC on-line form

One repository for different users Projects Smart Grid Task Force DB Projects JRC DB One repository for different users Projects Smart Grid Task Force DB Projects JRC DB EEGI – SETIS Other users DB DB DB Projects http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu Visualisation platforms www. smartgridsprojects. eu

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Policy context and impact JRC Inventory and analysis of SG projects Snapshot of smart Policy context and impact JRC Inventory and analysis of SG projects Snapshot of smart grid landscape Use of case studies EC Communication “Smart Grids: from innovation to deployment” April 2011 EC Regulation proposal for Energy Infrastructure November 2011 JRC Report on CBA guidelines for Smart Metering Deployment JRC Report on CBA guidelines for Smart Grid Projects EC Assessment framework for evaluation of smart grid projects (EC Task Force EG 4) EC Recommendation on Smart Metering Deployment March 2012 Selection of Smart Grid projects of common interest within the Infrastructure Package

CBA for smart meters/grids • The JRC has defined an assessment framework to provide CBA for smart meters/grids • The JRC has defined an assessment framework to provide guidance for conducting cost benefit analyses of Smart Grid projects and smart metering deployment. • This work draws on the existing collaboration between the EC and the US Department of Energy (Do. E) in the framework of the EU-US Energy Council Downloadable from http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu

CBA for smart meters/grids • The assessment framework is based on the work performed CBA for smart meters/grids • The assessment framework is based on the work performed by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). ‒ Several modifications to fit the European context have been proposed. • A European Smart Grid project from the JRC inventory (Inov. Grid, led by Guidelines for Cost Benefit Analysis of Smart Grids projects the Portuguese distributor EDP Distribuição) has been used as a case study to fine-tune and illustrate the proposed assessment framework. Available soon on http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu

General assessment framework Quantifiable impacts Non-quantifiable impacts (Societal CBA) (Qualitative impact analysis) üEconomic Net General assessment framework Quantifiable impacts Non-quantifiable impacts (Societal CBA) (Qualitative impact analysis) üEconomic Net Present Value (ENPV) üEconomic internal rate of return (ERR) üB/C ratio Merit deployment of the roll-out (contribution to policy goals, e. g. security of supply, RES integration) CBA Externalities (e. g. employment, safety, environmental impacts) KPI analysis Qualitative descriptions / physical units

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Smart Grids Simulation Centre • JRC is permanent member of the Reference Group for Smart Grids Simulation Centre • JRC is permanent member of the Reference Group for smart grids standardisation: pressing need for smart grids component testing and integration evaluation • JRC-US increased cooperation on e-mobility and smart grids through the interoperability centres: JRC priority

Electric Vehicles Ispra (IT) Batteries, components and new materials Integrated Testing Centre Information and Electric Vehicles Ispra (IT) Batteries, components and new materials Integrated Testing Centre Information and communication technology The centres research will include: • Electric vehicle performance, safety and energy efficiency • Vehicle battery safety, durability and charging time as well as performance under different environmental conditions • Vehicle-to-grid communication and compatibility Ispra (IT) Smart Grids Simulation Centre Ispra (IT) Petten (NL) Interoperability lab

Smart Grids Sim. Centre ENTSOE ENTSOG, GCG Energy networks data inventory Eurostat, and others Smart Grids Sim. Centre ENTSOE ENTSOG, GCG Energy networks data inventory Eurostat, and others JRC ICT network emulation Other JRC-external economic/ environmental models Other JRC-external energy models Visualisation Risk assessment Cost-benefit Indicators Simulation Offline modules Simulation HPC GIS Display Evaluation Real-time modules Mobile unit Simulator modules Power components Power Companies Pilot cases ICT components Manufacturers Power modules Real world power Installations Pilot cases

Smart Grids Simulation Centre • Real time simulator and several hardware equipment: – First Smart Grids Simulation Centre • Real time simulator and several hardware equipment: – First set bought 2010 -11 – Plans for further modules • Objective – Ultra-fast Dynamic simulations of power system behaviour – Hardware-in-the-loop testing (electric vehicles, batteries, …)

Critical infrastructure protection • OBJECTIVE - Identification of ‘European critical infrastructure’ – Critical infrastructure Critical infrastructure protection • OBJECTIVE - Identification of ‘European critical infrastructure’ – Critical infrastructure whose disruption or destruction might have a significant impact on at least 2 member states • MAIN ASSUMPTIONS: – The most critical infrastructure for a cyber-attack are the 400 k. V substations – A coordinated cyber-attack would aim at opening all switches at the substation(s) busbars • PROBLEM - classical contingency analysis tools do not analyse: – consequences of failure (disconnection of overloaded lines and transformers) – possible failure propagation (cascading effect) – network reaction (primary reserve, load shedding, …)

Simulation of cascading effects • Disconnection in steps of highly overloaded lines (I > Simulation of cascading effects • Disconnection in steps of highly overloaded lines (I > 1. 3 x Imax), until there is no congestion • All generators contribute to load balancing (simulation of the primary reserve) • No load shedding is implemented • European criticality measured by lost load abroad

q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q q The JRC - Institute for Energy and Transport q Smart Grid landscape q Smart Electricity Systems at JRC-IET q Smart Grid projects in Europe q Costs and benefits of smart grids q JRC Smart Grids Simulation Centre q Networking and cooperation

Networking and cooperation (selected examples) • Argonne Nat Lab: Smart Grid – Electric Vehicles Networking and cooperation (selected examples) • Argonne Nat Lab: Smart Grid – Electric Vehicles interoperability • Israel: smart grids/cities and e-mobility • Mediterranean solar power integration (HELIOS, MEDGRID, . . ) • US Department of Energy: smart grid assessment methodologies • Universities/Research Centres: EERA, TU Delft, TU Eindhoven, RSE, Poli. TO, Poli. BA, … • Industry: ENTSOE, EURELECTRIC, CIGRE, EDP, EDF, ENEL, … • R&D projects: FP 7 AFTER (power system vulnerability), IEE Grid. Tech (transmission costs-benefits), FET SEEDS CS (agent-based models), FP 7 ICT 4 SSG (ICT for smartgrids), NGI…

Thank you for your attention Smart Electricity Systems http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/ Thank you for your attention Smart Electricity Systems http: //ses. jrc. europa. eu/