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SIMPLE vs CONTINUOUS SUMMARY SIMPLE vs CONTINUOUS SUMMARY

DYNAMIC & STATIVE MEANINGS ® DYNAMIC MEANINGS Most verbs have dynamic meanings. They describe DYNAMIC & STATIVE MEANINGS ® DYNAMIC MEANINGS Most verbs have dynamic meanings. They describe • ACTS ( hit, knock, buy) • ACTIVITIES ( play, walk, work) • PROCESSES ( change , develop) The continuous form has a dynamic meaning ®STATIVE MEANINGS Verbs with stative meaning usually describe • STATE OF MIND (knowledge, emotion, perception) • STATE OF AFFAIRS ( being or having) The simple forms express stative meaning

VERBS WITH STATIVE MEANING Agree, appear, believe, belong, consist of, Contain, deserve, detest, dislike, VERBS WITH STATIVE MEANING Agree, appear, believe, belong, consist of, Contain, deserve, detest, dislike, doubt, envy, exist, feel (opinion), forget, fit, hate, have, hear, imagine, include, involve, know, like, love, own, possess, prefer, realise, recognise, resemble, seem, sound, suppose, suspect, think (opinion), understand, want

SIMPLE PRESENT Vs I usually work in the mornings PRESENT CONTINUOUS I am working SIMPLE PRESENT Vs I usually work in the mornings PRESENT CONTINUOUS I am working this morning HABITUAL ACTIONS REPEATED ACTIONS PERMANENT SITUATIONS ACTION IN PROGRESS PARTICULAR ACTION TEMPORARY SITUATIONS Every, always, often usually, rarely, ever, never On Mondays Now, at the moment, today, tonight, on Monday, this……, next………

SIMPLE PAST I worked a lot yesterday ACTIONS DEFINED TIME Yesterday, last… Ago, in SIMPLE PAST I worked a lot yesterday ACTIONS DEFINED TIME Yesterday, last… Ago, in 1990, When/what time On Monday In London etc…. Vs PAST CONTINUOUS While I was working I found the missing report DESCRIPTIONS CONTINUOUS ACTION INTERRUPTED BY ANOTHER ACTION While, as

PRESENT PERFECT Vs PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have worked all my life. ACTIONS UNDEFINED PRESENT PERFECT Vs PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have worked all my life. ACTIONS UNDEFINED TIME HAS NOT FINISHED Just, already, ever, never, yet, Today, this……(week) This is the 1 st…time I have been working since 9 o’clock this morning 1. ACTION STARTED IN PAST AND CONTINUES IN THE PRESENT. 2. ACTION FINISHED BUT EFFECT CONTINUES IN PRESENT For/since +stative verbs For / since + all verbs

SINCE FOR è PERIOD OF TIME · FOR 2 SECONDS · FOR 2 MINUTES SINCE FOR è PERIOD OF TIME · FOR 2 SECONDS · FOR 2 MINUTES · FOR 2 HOURS · FOR 2 DAYS · FOR 2 MONTHS · FOR 2 YEARS · FOR 2 CENTURIES · FOR A LONG TIME è STARTING POINT · SINCE 2 O’CLOCK · SINCE MONDAY · SINCE LAST WEEK · SINCE 1990 · SINCE YESTERDAY · SINCE THE WAR · SINCE I LEFT SCHOOL · SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE MONTH

Present perfect vs present perfect continuous Simple present Present continuous Present perfect vs present perfect continuous Simple present Present continuous

I know Mary very well I met Mary ten years ago I still see I know Mary very well I met Mary ten years ago I still see her now SO I’ve known her for 10 years NOT “I have been knowing…. Do you know Mary? When did you meet her? Do you still see her? How long have you known her? Simple present Present perfect

Present Continuous I started reading this book last month I am still reading it Present Continuous I started reading this book last month I am still reading it SO (Present Continuous) I’ve been reading this book since last month (Present perfect continuous) I’ve read 100 pages so far (present perfect) Present prefect cont. = How long? Present perfect simple =How much/many? When did you start reading the book? Are you still reading it? How long have you been reading it ? How many pages have you read?

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