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Simple Sentence Rules
What is a simple sentence? A sentence that has one independent clause.
What is an independent clause? A group of words that: (1) Makes a complete statement (2) Has a subject and a verb
The subject of a sentence • The subject is the – Person – Place – Thing – Quality or ideas Nouns
What is a noun • The following is a clip from Grammar rocks Nouns!
Examples • John went for a walk. (Person) • Towns are quiet after a snow fall. (Place) • Eggs roll on a counter. (Thing) • Silence is golden. (Quality) • Peace is at hand. (Idea)
Verb A verb is a word that shows the action or state-of-being of the subject of the sentence. Examples: • Sally sneezed. (Physical action) • John thinks. (Mental action) • Jesse is my friend. (State of being)
What are Verbs? • A clip from Grammar Rocks Verbs! • It is a bit dated but fun to watch
One more clip • Clip from Grammar Rocks! The tale of Mr. Morton. • The verb will be identified as the predicate (verb phrase)
Verb-Subject Identification Procedure • Step 1: Look for the action or state-ofbeing word to find the verb. Example: Kevin reported theft. • Step 2: Ask yourself, “Who or what (verb)? ” to find the subject. Example: Paula is an astronaut.
Example set 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. S V Jane went to the pool. S V Paul is a very nice guy. S V Cakes lined the store window. S V I love chocolate ice cream. S V Bikes are very expensive.
Example Set 1 (con’t) S V 6. Dad is strict. S V 7. Bananas taste good. S V 8. Kathy has a son named Jimmy. S V 9. Raccoons raid our garbage cans every night. S V 10. Flowers are in bloom everywhere.
Noun Phrase A noun phrase includes several nouns linked together that are used in the subject. The red delicious apple tastes good. Noun phrase: red delicious apple Subject: apple
Example Set 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. S V The old gray mare limped down the lane. S V The silver-winged plane soared. S V Johnny’s baby sister cried for hours. S V The first three girls giggled. S V Fourteen good pilots died in the war.
Example Set 2 (con’t) S V 6. The chairman of the meeting left early. S V 7. The chrome-plated motorcycles glistened in the sun. S V 8. The pioneers in our family fled from England. S V 9. The dog’s buried bones rotted in the ground. S V 10. Carol’s best china plate broke into a hundred pieces.
Verb Phrase A verb phrase is a group of verbs that describe one action. Jim must have gone. Verb Phrase: must have gone Sometimes this is called the predicate (remember Mr. Morton? )
Helping Verbs am are is might can could do does did has have had may must shall should be been being was were will would
Example Set 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. S V The bus must have gone by now. S V My best friend could not work tonight. S V The light green grapes have been eaten. S V The committee of environmentalists is working to solve the smog problem. S V Steven’s aunt is not following her new diet.
Example Set 3 (con’t) S V 6. The old rickety wagon should not have been filled to the top. S V 7. The merry pied piper would have played a happy tune. S V 8. A stray sunbeam could have pierced the clouds. S V 9. The paint on the old gray house was peeling. S V 10. The peace treaty might have been signed today.
Exceptions V S Down the street moved the bulls. V Will you go to the movies tonight? S
Compound Subject A simple sentence may contain two or more subjects. S S Example: Bill and Sue want to go to the movies.
Example Set 4 1. S S V Bill and Sue want to go to the movies. 2. S S V Jason and his friends work together. 4. S V S Are the car and truck parked outside? S S V The park and sidewalks were covered with snow. 5. S S V Hiding and seeking are fun activities. 3.
Example Set 4 (con’t) 6. V S S The old man and his black cat have lived long lives. S S V 7. The station and its surrounding parking lot have become dangerous after 9: 00 pm. S S S V 8. Arnie, Karen, and Ty went to buy a new van. S V S 9. Peace and war are direct opposites. S S V 10. Did Marty and Kathy travel 500 miles just to speak at the conference?
Compound Verb Just like subjects, sentences can have two or more words that represent the action. Jill ran and sang down the street.
Example Set V 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. S V V Sally swam and played all afternoon. S V V The dogs had barked all night and slept all day. V S V Michelle came home yesterday and did not work all day. V V S The basketball team rode on a bus and flew in a plane to attend the game. V S V The park is dark and spooky at night and can be delightful on sunny days.
Example Set V con’t V 6. V S Did Jane call her father and tell him the news? S V V 7. I miss my sister and want to see her again soon. V S 8. Children should not be allowed to watch T. V. and V should be encouraged to play. V V S 9. Will you sit by the sea and paint the ships? V S V 10. The books were stacked on the floor and were ruined by the flood.
Compound Subjects and Verbs Some sentences have both a compound subject and a compound verb. What is a compound subject? What is a compound verb?
Example Set VI S S V V 1. The ponies and calves scampered and played in the field. S V S 2. Kathy and her father do not like to play tennis V and hate to jog. S S V 3. The Army and the Navy had a football game and V filled the stadium.
Example Set VI con’t S S V 4. The two boys and their fathers were sick and V did not attend the father-son banquet. S V S 5. Parties and dances are usually fun and V can be thrilling. S S V 6. Cards and dice were used at the party and have V been scattered everywhere.
Example Set VI con’t 7. V S S Radio towers and tall buildings must have lights V and must be visible at night. 8. V S S Candles and flowers can brighten the table and 9. can make a guest feel special. V S S Tape and string are needed to secure packages V V and can be used for other things.
Example Set VI con’t S S 10. The graduates and their parents V V posed for pictures and celebrated with a party.
Simple Sentence formulas 1. 2. 3. 4. S SS V V VV VV
Cue card • • P E N S Pick a formula. Explore words to fit the formula. Note the words. Search and check your sentence.