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SIGNATURE FORGERIES AND THEIR DETECTION Dr. S. C. Mittal Principal Scientific Officer CFSL, CBI NEW DELHI
TYPES OF SIGNATURE FORGERIES • • Traced Forgery Simulated or Copied forgery Practiced Forgery Spurious Forgery Transplanted Forgery Computerized Forgery Colour Copy Forgery
Traced Forgeries Using carbon Direct Tracing Using transmitted Light Using Tracing paper Paper
TRACED FORGERY • Traced signatures are forged by tracing from some genuine model of signature. Traced forgeries exhibit the presence of guidelines underneath the signatures. These guidelines may be in the form of indentations or carbon outlines and ink strokes will be found adhering to the guidelines.
FORGERY BY SIMULATION/COPYING • The signatures in this type of forgery are produced by copying the genuine signatures of any person by process of drawing just keeping the model signature in front of him and making a copy by drawing. Such type of forged signatures show all kind of defects in their line quality.
PRACTISED FORGERY • These Signatures are Created by practice over a Genuine model of Signature and temporary memorizing the Model and Design of signature. Such signatures lack natural variations in comparison with genuine Signatures. They show Hybrid Characters of original writer as well as forger. Size of such signature is normally bigger than the genuine signatures.
SPURIOUS FORGERY • Signature executed on any document in the name of a non-existent person or in the name of any person without seeing the genuine signature of that person. This type of forgery is normally freely written and the authorship is fixable with the standards.
TRANSPLANTED SIGNATURES • Genuine signatures are transplanted on Desired Documents using Cello Tape, Computer Scanner and Printer, Colour Xeroxing and Cut and Paste method using Xeroxing.
COMPUTERISED FORGERY • Signatures forged by Computers using Scanner and Colour Printer can be identified by a careful examination using good Quality Lens with Light Source. The Signature created by Inkjet printing will show only colour Dots and there will be no track of Ball Pen, Nib or Fiber tip Pen.
COLOR COPY FORGERY • This type of signature forgery is done by taking coloured xerox print using some genuine model of signature. On careful examination of such signatures using magnifying glass will show numerous segmented horizontal and vertical lines. Continuous and curve lines will be missing in this type of forgery.
TRICKERY FORGERY • These forgeries involve most of the genuine portion of writing / signature and slightly addition of strokes in the rest of the portion of writing / signature. These kind of forgeries can be detected using different kind of light sources viz infrared , ultraviolet or high intensity light source etc.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GENUINE SIGNATURES • Any thing of any kind that shows carelessness on the part of the writer are the signs of genuineness. • Pen Movement • Ball-Point Pen Movement • Pen-lifts , Halts and Hesitations • Increase in Pen-lifts due to Ill-Health
l The salient features which are indicative of forgery (except in case of simple forgery and built-up documents) are (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) slow and drawn writing. show pen lifts at the unusual places. retouching / careful additions. hesitations and tremors in writing. presence of indentations or carbon outlines in the vicinity of the suspected signatures.
GUIDELINES Do not pass a Cheque or TC: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. There is Chemical eraser below the signature. There is Physical eraser below the signature. Signature is executed with a Sign or Thick Pen. Slant of Signature on Cheque and Specimen card is altogether different. Size of the signature show mark difference. Spellings of Name of signatory are different. Use of Mr. Or Mrs. Before the signature. Signature lacks naturalness, Speed and Rhythm. If two signatures superimpose over each other.
INCASE OF DOUBT ASK FOR ANOTHER SIGNATURE Or CONSULT HANDWRITNG EXPERT