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Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative: A Key Component of an Ocean Observing System Shawn R. Smith Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies Florida State University Tallahassee, FL USA
SAMOS Initiative Mission: To ensure routine access to calibrated, quality assured, surface meteorological data collected by shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOS) on research vessels (R/V) and Volunteer Observing Ships (VOS) in a manner that: – supports science objectives of national and international climate programs – improves global data coverage, especially from important but data sparse regions (e. g. , Southern Ocean) – enhances observations for operational meteorology and oceanography Courtesy NOAA OCO
What is a SAMOS? Automated data logging system – Sampling interval 1 minute or less Typical observations: – Navigation: position, heading, course and speed over ground – Continuous recording – Meteorology: true wind vector, air temperature, moisture, pressure – Typically bow or mast mounted on R/V or VOS Courtesy WHOI – Oceanography: sea temperature, salinity, conductivity Additional capability: – Pitch, roll, heave, ship-relative winds, precipitation, multiple radiation components, visibility, ceiling height, swell and waves – Some direct flux measurements
SAMOS Data Applications SAMOS observations provide benchmark data for: – Validation studies (e. g. , global model fields, satellite observations) – Air-sea flux fields (SAMOS are capable of providing observations with sampling rates and accuracy desired for estimating air-sea fluxes) SAMOS data also support comparison studies between insitu platforms (e. g. , ship-to-ship, ship-to-buoy). – Allows independent assessment of biases in marine observations assimilated into global models. Sea. Winds on Midori
SAMOS vs. Bridge Obs Air temperatures show cold bias in bridge reports for the Knorr – Lower number of matches may skew results for Knorr Meteor comparison very good without adjusting for differing thermometer heights (bridge: 11 m, SAMOS 28 m) Courtesy NOAA OCO
Issues for Applications Each R/V generally operates independently – Data collection, calibration, quality assurance, distribution methods differ – Long term archival lacking in some cases – Little organized data management infrastructure exists Improve data quality – Necessary to achieve flux accuracy desired by international climate programs – Need better calibration methods and uniform metadata – Regular evaluation of both instrument systems and data collected Improve data access for research and operations – Include data streams that have not been readily available – Collect all necessary parameters to estimate quality air-sea fluxes – Decrease time from data collection to making the observations available to the user community
Plan for SAMOS initiative seeks to unify the current fragmented R/V observations into a sustained network of mobile observation platforms. Initial network will rely on U. S. research vessels – Dialog to include international vessels is underway Activities of SAMOS initiative will focus on: – Data Stewardship – Data Accuracy – Training SAMOS network will complement other components of ocean observing system (e. g. , moorings, flux reference stations, floats, drifters)
SAMOS Vessels Vessel network will build upon existing technology – SAMOS already deployed on many research vessels – Most improvements will be in communications, data & metadata standards – Some sensor enhancement possible Vessels operated by a wide range of U. S. institutions and agencies are under consideration to participate in the SAMOS initiative – 14 -22 University operated R/Vs – 18+ NOAA vessels – 3 USCG and 2 NSF polar vessels – ? VOS SAMOS (numbers unclear at present) Expansion to include international research vessels will begin with vessels operating at high latitudes
Data Stewardship A centralized data assembly center (DAC) for U. S. SAMOS data has been established at FSU through NOAA OCO funding. The 2005 pilot project – Established daily electronic transfer of 1 -min. average data from R/Vs to the DAC – Set standards for parameters collected, metadata, sampling and averaging, and data exchange – Automated data tracking, quality control, distribution – Preliminary data from WHOI R/Vs available 5 minutes after arrival of daily file at DAC – http: //samos. coaps. fsu. edu/
Data Accuracy The DAC is working with international partners to develop data accuracy and precision targets for SAMOS observations. NOAA ESRL/PSD and WHOI have started development of a portable standard for onboard comparison to the R/V’s SAMOS – Vision includes a state-of-the-art flux measurement system and a set of individual sensors for side-by-side comparison to the R/V instruments – Routine comparisons will occur during typical science cruises SAMOS plans include routine airflow modeling of vessels to: – Correct data for biases due to upstream structures – Determine optimal sensor locations and effective measurement heights Courtesy National Oceanography Centre, UK
Training A reference manual of best procedures and practices for the observation and documentation of meteorological parameters, including radiative and turbulent fluxes, in the marine environment has been drafted. – Emphasis is on measuring climate quality data suitable for estimating radiative and turbulent fluxes – Manual includes information on sensor exposure, flow and heat distortion, calibration, sensor comparisons, metadata, algorithms, etc. – On-line reference will establish sources/contacts where expertise can be obtained by data collectors and users. In future, SAMOS initiative seeks to host training workshops for marine technicians SAMOS continues to encourage funding agencies to support human capital development through education and training.
Final Thoughts The SAMOS initiative continues to seek input from our potential user community (both operational and research) Plan is for sustained collection, distribution of high-quality marine AWS data – Will support international experiments (e. g. , CLIVAR, GODAE), but will not limit focus to experiment oriented data Additional SAMOS information (including reports from the first two workshops) are available at: – http: //www. coaps. fsu. edu/RVSMDC/Workshops/ Thank you to the NOAA Office of Climate Observation for supporting both the workshop and SAMOS activities at several U. S. institutions.