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Sharing of regional and national experiences Strategic planning with a gender perspective, CIM/OAS Workshop, Sharing of regional and national experiences Strategic planning with a gender perspective, CIM/OAS Workshop, 12 -14 April 2010, Guyana

Presentation outline Overview of: CARICOM CSME CARICOM Plan of Action on Gender mainstreaming Institutionalisation Presentation outline Overview of: CARICOM CSME CARICOM Plan of Action on Gender mainstreaming Institutionalisation of gender and labour issues – COHSOD Issues for consideration 2

ABOUT CARICOM 3 ABOUT CARICOM 3

CARICOM - BACKGROUND 4 • 1973: Treaty of Chaguaramas 2001: Revised of Treaty of CARICOM - BACKGROUND 4 • 1973: Treaty of Chaguaramas 2001: Revised of Treaty of Chaguaramas came into force • • 15 Member States/ 5 Associate Members

COMMUNITY ORGANS AND BODIES OF THE COMMUNITY HEADS OF GOVERNMENT COMMUNITY COUNCIL HUMAN AND COMMUNITY ORGANS AND BODIES OF THE COMMUNITY HEADS OF GOVERNMENT COMMUNITY COUNCIL HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL TRADE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Functional cooperation COUNCIL FINANCE AND PLANNING Regional integration • Legal Affairs Committee • Budget Committee • Committee of Central Bank Governors COUNCIL FOREIGN AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS Foreign policy coordination COUNCIL SECURITY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT Security 5

IMPLEMENTING MECHANISMS COHSOD National COHSODs Working Groups… IDPs, MS, CBOs/NGOs Regional Institutions 6 IMPLEMENTING MECHANISMS COHSOD National COHSODs Working Groups… IDPs, MS, CBOs/NGOs Regional Institutions 6

International instruments CEDAW MDGs BPf. A 7 International instruments CEDAW MDGs BPf. A 7

International instruments (cont’d) CEDAW Eliminate discrimination against women to ensure the same rights for International instruments (cont’d) CEDAW Eliminate discrimination against women to ensure the same rights for men and women in employment Ensure equality between men and women in marriage and family life BPFA Eliminate occupational segregation and all forms of employment discrimination Promote women’s economic rights and independence, including access to employment, appropriate working conditions and control over economic resources Promote harmonization of work and family responsibilities for women and men 8

MDGs • Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a MDGs • Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day • Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people • Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 9

CARICOM Single Market and Economy 10 CARICOM Single Market and Economy 10

What is the CSME? Estab: 2006 • 13 Member States Aim: Objectives: • benefit What is the CSME? Estab: 2006 • 13 Member States Aim: Objectives: • benefit the people of the Region by providing more and better opportunities to produce and sell our goods and services and to attract investment • full exploitation of factors of production • competitive production • improved standards of living and work & sustained economic development 11

Key elements Free movement of goods & services Rights of establishment Common external tariff Key elements Free movement of goods & services Rights of establishment Common external tariff Free circulation Free movement of capital Common trade policy Free movement of labour 12

Free movement of skills Free movement to undertake economic activities Free movement of labour Free movement of skills Free movement to undertake economic activities Free movement of labour Facilitation of travel Free movement to exercise the right of establishment/ commercial presence Free movement to exercise the right to provide services on a temporary basis 13

Wage-earning categories eligible for free movement of skills Graduates & equivalent qualifications Sportspersons Musicians Wage-earning categories eligible for free movement of skills Graduates & equivalent qualifications Sportspersons Musicians Media workers Teachers Nurses Holders of Associate degrees & equivalent qualifications Artisans who have received a CVQ Household domestics Artistes 14

Free movement of skills data, 2008 COUNTRY PERIOD ISSUED SPOUSES AND DEPENDENTS Antigua & Free movement of skills data, 2008 COUNTRY PERIOD ISSUED SPOUSES AND DEPENDENTS Antigua & Barbuda Jul-Oct 13 14 Barbados Jan-Dec 188 N. I. Belize Jan-Oct 56 21 Dominica Jan-Oct 33 3 Grenada Jan-Oct 37 0 Guyana Jan-Dec 547 N. I. Jamaica Jan-Dec 5 362 37 St. Kitts& Nevis Jan-Dec 44 21 St. Lucia N. I. St. Vincent & Grenadines N. I. Suriname 2008 16 0 Trinidad & Tobago Jan-Nov 6 251 N. I. 15

If we want to become really good at something we have to leave Barbados If we want to become really good at something we have to leave Barbados to do it. No professional tennis player has ever been from Barbados; that’s why I have to leave. It’s the only way of ensuring that my children would have a better future. 85% of Caribbean nationals between the ages of 15 and 29 would leave their countries for more developed ones, if they had the choice and the necessary resources. If they existed [better tertiary education facilities existed] I would not leave, I have needs wants and desires that cannot be met here. It is hard to see life here in the next five years if you can’t afford to buy food or support yourself…. . as it is everyone wants to leave here and so do I. 16

Migration Rate of Persons with Secondary and Tertiary Education to OECD States Lost more Migration Rate of Persons with Secondary and Tertiary Education to OECD States Lost more than 5 m people to migration(ECLAC, 2005) Highest net migration rates worldwide with wide variations within the Region Av 3% of the Car’b pop … migrants (ECLAC, 2005 ) most host countries are currently within the third and fourth generations of migration Jamaica, Grenada, Guyana, and St. Kitts and Nevis lost between 85 and 90 per cent of their most skilled populations and over 30 per cent of their skilled workforce over the thirty-five year period from 1965 to 2000 (IMF, 2006) 17

Migration, Citizenship, Caribbean Identity & the CSME Fear of free movement and the expected Migration, Citizenship, Caribbean Identity & the CSME Fear of free movement and the expected influx of foreigners Huge gaps in the level of integration Broad sense of suspicion that the CSME benefits “some other country” other than their own Concerns that countries would not benefit but individuals would Larger islands may be in a better position to take advantage of CSME as their citizens can access university education in their own countries and may therefore be better qualified than the majority of persons from the smaller islands who have to travel overseas to be trained and educated. 18

Migration, Citizenship, Caribbean Identity & the CSME (cont’d) Young people of the region share Migration, Citizenship, Caribbean Identity & the CSME (cont’d) Young people of the region share the view that the free movement is too restrictive and does not facilitate the advancement of a common Caribbean identity Lacks any tangible manifestation that they are satisfied with what makes them feel truly Caribbean Influence of foreign cultures We Garifuna first and Caribbean after Surinamese citizen first then Caribbean 19

Perception of “others” by youth citizens in host country Gov’t/immigration fail to protect country Perception of “others” by youth citizens in host country Gov’t/immigration fail to protect country from foreigners • Competition for jobs • “The foreigners come to our land they buy us out and when they get where they want they kick us and treat us like dogs you understand, that’s why nuff the youth nowadays right we so violent if we see a foreigner we would be killing um. ” 20

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What are Contingent Rights? Contingent Rights are rights to which The principal beneficiary Spouse What are Contingent Rights? Contingent Rights are rights to which The principal beneficiary Spouse and dependents Managerial, supervisory and technical of the principal beneficiary Spouse and dependents of managerial, supervisory and technical staff of the principal beneficiary are entitled in the host country under the condition that the principal beneficiary has moved to exercise one core CSME rights 22

Contingent Rights Definitions General rights Rights to social services Contingent rights Education Principal beneficiary Contingent Rights Definitions General rights Rights to social services Contingent rights Education Principal beneficiary Health Spouse Disaster relief Dependents Social Security 23

Potential gender concerns of CSME The effects of CSME will be experienced differently by Potential gender concerns of CSME The effects of CSME will be experienced differently by women and men, boys and girls because of their distinct roles in society, the differences in their access to opportunities and productive assets, and importantly because of the distinct ways in which they participate in social, cultural, political and religious decision-making. This will be further nuanced by race and class. 24

Examples of impacts Labour Reproductive: increase time demands Productive: job opportunities, wage differentials Revenue Examples of impacts Labour Reproductive: increase time demands Productive: job opportunities, wage differentials Revenue Taxes: opening up of market will led to cheaper extra-regional goods. . . undermine local productive sector & lowering national tax revenue. . higher taxes to make up for the shortfall in government revenue VAT: effects on state and household income Human rights Recognition of unions Maintenance and protection issues (security, enforcement of judgements) Cultural/religious differences Labour laws 25

CIDA Project – gender & CSME Harmonisation & standardisation of administrative practice & procedures CIDA Project – gender & CSME Harmonisation & standardisation of administrative practice & procedures Recognition of licensing & certificates Information flows Widening of participation Environment Call down facility Gender CTCP 26

Project elements - gender Component 1 Agender impact analysis of CSME • Conduct research Project elements - gender Component 1 Agender impact analysis of CSME • Conduct research on the effects and impacts of CSME • Comparative analysis of other free movement arrangements • Identify mitigation strategies to minimise negative and enhance positive impacts • Collation of national reports Component 1 B: • Regional policy Regional Report recommendations Component 2: Development of proposed gender indicators • Identify data gaps and • Develop proposed gender indicators 27

CARICOM Plan of Action on Gender mainstreaming CARICOM Plan Of Action To 2005: Framework CARICOM Plan of Action on Gender mainstreaming CARICOM Plan Of Action To 2005: Framework For Mainstreaming Gender Into Key CARICOM Programmes Approved in 2002 Rolled over. . Decision of COHSOD 12 (Apr 2005) 28

CC Po. A- Gender and Labour PRIVATE LABOUR Economy SPHERES PUBLIC Cross-cutting: MEDIA Household CC Po. A- Gender and Labour PRIVATE LABOUR Economy SPHERES PUBLIC Cross-cutting: MEDIA Household Education Religion Governance 29

Gender relations Ideological: gender socialisation Material: unwaged work occupational clustering occupational hierarchy wage differentials Gender relations Ideological: gender socialisation Material: unwaged work occupational clustering occupational hierarchy wage differentials 30

Translation of premises Unwaged work in the home translates into low-waged work in the Translation of premises Unwaged work in the home translates into low-waged work in the labour market Responsibility they have for childcare shapes. . waged work forces them to engage in various survival strategies and to accept a lack of social protection and job insecurity implications for the adequate care of children Female workers are treated as though they are not primary breadwinners Less time for leisure activities and has long-term implications for their health 31

Impact on the social dialogue Tri-partite social partnership…. labour, the private sector & government Impact on the social dialogue Tri-partite social partnership…. labour, the private sector & government BUT labour = waged & unionised IGNORES: Non-unionised workers in the formal sector Workers in the growing informal sector Domestic workers Unwaged workers 32

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Model Labour Laws CARICOM Declaration on Labour and Industrial Relations Principles (1995) 4 model Model Labour Laws CARICOM Declaration on Labour and Industrial Relations Principles (1995) 4 model laws Enacted in some Member States Termination of Employment Adopted Non-discrimination & Equality in Employment Recognition of Trade Union &Employers’ Organisations Occupational Health, Safety &the Working Environment 35

GE Model Legislation Genesis in 1980 Funded by CIDA, Commonwealth Secretariat Areas of focus: GE Model Legislation Genesis in 1980 Funded by CIDA, Commonwealth Secretariat Areas of focus: citizenship domestic violence equal pay inheritance sexual harassment sexual offences maintenance and maintenance orders equality for women in employment 36

Review of model legislation Review: 2008 Funded/Technical support: Commonwealth Secretariat, UNIFEM, UNECLAC Some successes- Review of model legislation Review: 2008 Funded/Technical support: Commonwealth Secretariat, UNIFEM, UNECLAC Some successes- DV, Sexual Offences Legis 37

Review highlights Model laws have influenced specific legislation Model laws drafted in the early Review highlights Model laws have influenced specific legislation Model laws drafted in the early 1990 s Rapes/sexual offences and sexual harassment model laws are fairly comprehensive Equality of women in employment and equal pay…. sharpening of definitions Maintenance and maintenance orders …. model laws adopt a modern approach to child and spousal support 38

Recommendations Priority areas for further work – family maintenance, sexual harassment Need for clear Recommendations Priority areas for further work – family maintenance, sexual harassment Need for clear procedures was underscored sexual offences 39

Indicative policy options Audit or inventory of work-based organisations other than unions should be Indicative policy options Audit or inventory of work-based organisations other than unions should be carried out Methods should be identified to bring the concerns and experiences of sectors not organized in unions into the social dialogue Existing organisations of domestic workers should be recognised as workers’ organisations Gender should be mainstreamed into the social dialogue framework at national, sub-regional, regional and international levels CARICOM decision to measure and value unwaged work should be implemented Gender imbalance in the groups currently represented in the social dialogue should be addressed 40

COHSOD 15 - Agreement on the Establishment of the Social Floor Eight core ILO COHSOD 15 - Agreement on the Establishment of the Social Floor Eight core ILO Conventions relating to : • Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining • Elimination of Forced and Compulsory Labour; the Abolition of Child Labour • Elimination of Discrimination in the Workplace • Migration Conventions 41

What is required? Establish and/or strengthen effective national machinery, supported by gender mainstreaming throughout What is required? Establish and/or strengthen effective national machinery, supported by gender mainstreaming throughout government departments, to advise on the impact on women of all government policies, monitor the situation of women comprehensively and help formulate new policies and effectively carry out strategies and measures to eliminate discrimination. (General Recommendation #6) 42

What else is required? (2) BPf. A Ensure equality and non-discrimination under the law What else is required? (2) BPf. A Ensure equality and non-discrimination under the law and in practice (SOI. 2) Integrate gender perspectives in legislation, public policies, programmes and projects (SO H. 2) Generate and disseminate gender disaggregated data and information for planning and evaluation (SO H. 3) Create or strengthen national machineries and other governmental bodies (SO H. 1) 43

Some other recommendations. . Data collection disaggregated by sex and age Non-discrimination and dignity Some other recommendations. . Data collection disaggregated by sex and age Non-discrimination and dignity at the workplace Maternity protection and family responsibilities Health, safety and the work environment Promote social dialogue for women workers Extend social protection to women Right to collective bargaining and labour unions Gender equity and equality in human resources development 44

Thank you for your time and attention 45 Thank you for your time and attention 45