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Sharing Blended Learning Activities: Interoperability of Learning Environments James Dalziel Professor of Learning Technology Sharing Blended Learning Activities: Interoperability of Learning Environments James Dalziel Professor of Learning Technology & Director, Macquarie University E-learning Centre of Excellence (MELCOE) james@melcoe. mq. edu. au www. melcoe. mq. edu. au Presentation for UK HE Academy “SSe. LF” Workshop, London, Oct 17 th, 2005

Overview • Beyond E-learning Content • Pedagogy and Technical Standards • Lessons from COLIS Overview • Beyond E-learning Content • Pedagogy and Technical Standards • Lessons from COLIS • Learning Design and LAMS example • Modelling Blended Learning Activities • Hands-on tasks • Discussion

The Problem: E-learning Content Today • Most assumes single learner, self-paced learning • Often The Problem: E-learning Content Today • Most assumes single learner, self-paced learning • Often little more than textbooks online? • Content-centric, transmission model of education – What is the implied pedagogy?

E-learning Content Today • Teachers can feel something fundamental is missing “This doesn’t feel E-learning Content Today • Teachers can feel something fundamental is missing “This doesn’t feel like what I do everyday in my teaching” • Why doesn’t e-learning facilitate “Lesson Plans”? – That is, software that describes and manages sequences of collaborative learning activities (not just content) • We have but what about “best practice content” “best practice process”?

ICT ? Information and Communication Technologies ICT ? Information and Communication Technologies

Pedagogical Models and Standards • With the exception of Learning Design, current elearning standards/specifications Pedagogical Models and Standards • With the exception of Learning Design, current elearning standards/specifications tend to assume: – Single, isolated learner – Primary focus on content delivery – Interactivity provided by self-test questions, exercises – Course length generally 30 minutes to a few hours • Pedagogical theory? – Transmission model of education – Computer as authority by proxy – Learning as short, bite-sized “chunks” • Focus on technical details, not learner experience

Pedagogical Models and Standards • Learning Design assumptions: – Single or multi-learner environments, flexible Pedagogical Models and Standards • Learning Design assumptions: – Single or multi-learner environments, flexible groupings – Primary focus on sequencing of learning activities – Interactivity provided by discussion groups, chat rooms, etc (as well as by self-test & simulations) – Includes content delivery as one type of learning activity – Able to describe long-term learning • Pedagogical theory? – Supports different models, including constructivist & transmission – Computer as gateway to other learners and resources – Learning is still broken down into “chunks”, but can be part of a broader whole

COLIS Global Use Case: Final Version Authority Creator Cataloguer Arranger Infoseeker Learner Facilitator Monitor COLIS Global Use Case: Final Version Authority Creator Cataloguer Arranger Infoseeker Learner Facilitator Monitor Do Learning Facilitate Learning Monitor Learning Do Assessment Facilitate Assessment Monitor Assessment Prescribe Author Add Metadata & Submit to Learning Object Repository (LOR) Outcomes/ Competencies Design Learning Activity Search LORs via Gateway for LOs & Learning Designs Review Metadata & Resources (& Licenses if DRM) Quality Assurance Obtain Links or Download LOs & Learning Designs Package New/ Modified LO/LD Structure LOs & Activities Structure Assessment Certify Organise Student Roles/Groups Student Login Student Searches Record

COLIS Global Use Case: Final Version - Learning Activites = Authority Creator Cataloguer Arranger COLIS Global Use Case: Final Version - Learning Activites = Authority Creator Cataloguer Arranger Infoseeker Learner Facilitator Monitor Do Learning Facilitate Learning Monitor Learning Do Assessment Facilitate Assessment Monitor Assessment Prescribe Author Add Metadata & Submit to Learning Object Repository (LOR) Outcomes/ Competencies Design Learning Activity Search LORs via Gateway for LOs & Learning Designs Review Metadata & Resources (& Licenses if DRM) Quality Assurance Obtain Links or Download LOs & Learning Designs Package New/ Modified LO/LD Structure LOs & Activities Structure Assessment Certify Organise Student Roles/Groups Student Login Student Searches Record

Learning Objects versus Learning Activities Run-time tool description XML Learning Object Meta-data XML Data Learning Objects versus Learning Activities Run-time tool description XML Learning Object Meta-data XML Data interchange XML “Rendering” XML

Learning Objects versus Learning Activities Run-time tool description XML LAMS Learning Object Meta-data XML Learning Objects versus Learning Activities Run-time tool description XML LAMS Learning Object Meta-data XML Data interchange XML “Rendering” XML

Why content is not enough: The recipe analogy (1) • Any recipe is made Why content is not enough: The recipe analogy (1) • Any recipe is made up to two fundamental components – A list of ingredients (ie, content) – A set of activities to create the meal (ie, process) • A list of ingredients (no matter how amazing the individual ingredients) does not a meal make – Imagine a cookbook full of only lists of ingredients…. – Expensive ingredients are no guarantee of an edible meal

Why content is not enough: The recipe analogy (2) • Most cooks like to Why content is not enough: The recipe analogy (2) • Most cooks like to change recipes and ingredients easily – they avoid rigid, complex lists of ingredients • Substituting different ingredients leads to a new meal • Pre-packaged whole meals are rarely considered high quality food, and involve little joy in creation for cooks

Introducing Learning Design • Learning Design is a name given to a new field Introducing Learning Design • Learning Design is a name given to a new field of e-learning technology – about process not just content • Learning Design = Sequence of Collaborative Learning Activities • Learning Designs can incorporate single learner content, but also collaborative tasks such as discussion, voting, small group debate, etc • Potential to “wrap” a single-learner Learning Objects with a sequence of collaborative tasks • **Learning Designs can be stored, re-used, customised

Introducing Learning Design • Learning Design has various other names: – – – – Introducing Learning Design • Learning Design has various other names: – – – – Pedagogic Design Pedagogic Frameworks Learning Trails Learning Activity Sequences “Powerpoint for educational activities” Educational Modelling Language, “Process VLE”, etc • Learning Design as Lesson Plans – But not just a description of the activities Learning Design software can help facilitate the activities

Demonstration Example: LAMS • LAMS illustrates the Learning Design approach • In trials for Demonstration Example: LAMS • LAMS illustrates the Learning Design approach • In trials for over two years in Australia and UK – Strong positive response from both teachers and learners – State school trials in New Zealand, NSW, SA, Tas, others • Applicable to all education sectors (schools, VET, HE, corporate training, adult and community learning, etc) – Eg, UK Df. ES/SST & JISC trials; Oxford, Cambridge, ANU, New Zealand Ministry of Education/National Library, etc • LAMS released as freely available open source software by the LAMS Foundation, commercial support services provided by LAMS International Pty Ltd – Both supported by Macquarie University

LAMS Live Demonstration (see screenshots over) Case Study: LAMS UK School Implementation - JISC LAMS Live Demonstration (see screenshots over) Case Study: LAMS UK School Implementation - JISC Video http: //www. jisc. ac. uk/uploaded_documents/kemnal. wmv

LAMS Live Demonstration Example: What is Greatness? (short version, from Dalziel, 2003) - Week LAMS Live Demonstration Example: What is Greatness? (short version, from Dalziel, 2003) - Week 1: Discussion environment - initial thoughts - Week 2: Review of content and search for websites - Week 3: Small group debates with scribe reporting back to whole class - Week 4: Submit report for marking and comments Demonstrations: - Student view - Monitoring view - Authoring view

Progress indicator for activities: Hand = Current Main Activity Area: Blank = Yet to Progress indicator for activities: Hand = Current Main Activity Area: Blank = Yet to come Contains the relevant Text = Completed tool for each activity Students can access For example, this is current and past the main page for activities an asynchronous discussion forum, showing instructions Student notebook/ journal. Thoughts at the top of the can be entered at page, and a any time, or as teacher-generated part of a sequence thread below actvitiy. Entries have two options: private to student or viewable by teacher Student Environment

Discussion page within a thread from the main forum page The initial post was Discussion page within a thread from the main forum page The initial post was prepared by the teacher during authoring of this sequence, with student posts over time below

Share Resources tool, with teacher selected websites/files viewable in pop-up windows (with instructions) Share Resources tool, with teacher selected websites/files viewable in pop-up windows (with instructions)

Pop-up window with website loaded below and teacher created instructions, advice, etc above. Instructions Pop-up window with website loaded below and teacher created instructions, advice, etc above. Instructions can have several steps.

Example of student submission of website to be shared with group (can include pop-up Example of student submission of website to be shared with group (can include pop-up comments)

Combined chat and scribe tool Chat window in top half of screen, showing sample Combined chat and scribe tool Chat window in top half of screen, showing sample chat session Scribe tool with questions prepared by teacher during authoring, with open boxes for scribe to record outcomes of chat session (others either agree or continue chat)

Small group chat session outcomes from the scribe are sent to a whole class Small group chat session outcomes from the scribe are sent to a whole class noticeboard: several small group outcomes shown in this example.

Students upload a report from their desktop for comments and marking by teacher (can Students upload a report from their desktop for comments and marking by teacher (can be a range of file types)

This is the teacher monitoring area for a live sequence. The “Sequence” tab shows This is the teacher monitoring area for a live sequence. The “Sequence” tab shows a live “whole class” view of student progress – green dots indicate individual students. Monitoring Environment

The “Learners” tab in monitoring shows a live view of each student’s progress – The “Learners” tab in monitoring shows a live view of each student’s progress – Blue = completed Red = current Green = yet to do. To view s student’s individual contributions to a task, the teacher clicks on the relevant activity. The student’s view (including their contributions) of the selected activity is shown in a pop-up window

Greatness is a very linear sequence. Non linear sequences can be created using sets Greatness is a very linear sequence. Non linear sequences can be created using sets of optional activities. Activity sequences are stored in a repository for re-use, and to be shared with colleagues if desired Authoring Environment Activity Tools are stored in a library, and can be dragged and dropped into the main workspace to create sequences This is the Greatness sequence from an authoring perspective with links between tools created by drawing lines between activities using the “Transition” tool

Example : Teacher Training “What are the qualities of an effective teacher? Scenario A: Example : Teacher Training “What are the qualities of an effective teacher? Scenario A: One hour face to face tutorial Scenario B: One week of online tasks Scenario C: Combination of A & B Scenario D: Online & F 2 F in the classroom

Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? Initial Questions • Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? Initial Questions • What is the purpose of teaching students about the qualities of an effective teacher? • What kind of learning do you wish to take place? • How can students best learn what you want to teach them?

Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario A: Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario A: One hour face to face teaching • One hour lecture about research literature? or… • One hour discussion of student views? or… • Structured set of activities and content 1. Break into small groups to discuss own ideas 2. Present small group views back to whole class 3. Whole class discussion of group similarities and differences 4. Teacher presentation of findings from research literature 5. Whole class discussion comparing research to original ideas 6. (Assessment essay on own views, informed by peers and research)

LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario A: One hour of face to face teaching LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario A: One hour of face to face teaching

Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario B: Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario B: One week of online tasks • A collection of readings from the research literature? or… • A threaded discussion list for student views? or… • Structured set of tasks 1. Break into small groups to discuss own ideas 2. Present small group views back to whole class 3. Whole class discussion of group similarities and differences 4. Teacher presentation of findings from research literature 5. Whole class discussion comparing research to original ideas 6. (Assessment essay on own views, informed by peers and research)

LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario B: One week of online tasks LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario B: One week of online tasks

Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario C: Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario C: One hour face to face and one week of online tasks • Lectures and readings from the research literature? or… • Face to face and online discussion of student views? or… • Structured set of tasks – mixing face to face and online 1. Break into small groups to discuss own ideas (face to face) 2. Present small group views back to whole class (face to face) 3. Whole class discussion of group similarities and differences (mixed) 4. Teacher presentation of findings from research literature (online) 5. Whole class discussion comparing research to original ideas (online) 6. (Assessment essay on own views, informed by peers and research)

LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario C: One hour face to face and one week of LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario C: One hour face to face and one week of online tasks

Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario D: Example: Teacher Training What are the qualities of an effective teacher? • Scenario D: Online and face to face in the classroom • Structured set of activities – using extra LAMS features 1. Break into small groups to discuss own ideas (online) • Random group allocation; anonymous? 2. Present small group views back to whole class (online) • Online scribe reporting back to whole class web page 3. Whole class discussion of group similarities and differences (mixed) • Q&A and voting using “Define in Monitor” mixed with face to face debate 4. Teacher presentation of findings from research literature (mixed) • Only after teacher releases a “stop point” before articles 5. Whole class discussion comparing research to original ideas (online) • Begin in online forum, could continue for following week 6. (Assessment essay on own views, informed by peers and research)

LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario D: Online and face to face in the classroom LAMS Demonstrations of Scenario D: Online and face to face in the classroom

Example: Teacher Training What does this example of LAMS illustrate? • Modelling of educational Example: Teacher Training What does this example of LAMS illustrate? • Modelling of educational processes – “Digital lesson plans” • Mixing of online and face to face teaching methods • Mixing of activities and content

Hands On Task Consider a topic in your discipline area that is appropriate for Hands On Task Consider a topic in your discipline area that is appropriate for discussion/debate Think of a teaching context (fully online, face to face tutorial, lecture + online over the following week, etc) Create a simple sequence of activities in LAMS that models your “Learning Design” Consider which activities could be run with or without technology to create different sequences Optional – show and explain it to nearby colleagues

From “e-learning” to “learning” • Next version of LAMS will allow any activity to From “e-learning” to “learning” • Next version of LAMS will allow any activity to be run in online or face to face mode – If you select online, LAMS will configure the relevant environment, link to other activities, etc – If you select face to face, LAMS will be able to print off a set of instructions about how to run the activity without technology, including potential for student worksheets • LAMS becomes a general lesson planning tool, with technology-based delivery of activities as an option

Sharing Learning Designs: The LAMS Community • We have just launched the “LAMS Community” Sharing Learning Designs: The LAMS Community • We have just launched the “LAMS Community” – a global website for communities of LAMS users to: – Discuss the use of LAMS, new features, tech issues – **Share sequences, search for sequences, comment on and rate sequences, and get statistics on downloads – Find colleagues with similar interests, form sub-communities • We use Creative Commons “open content” licensing of LAMS sequences • Is this the birth of “Open Source Teaching”?

LAMS Community example – Community view (K-12) LAMS Community example – Community view (K-12)

LAMS Community example – Sequence Repository LAMS Community example – Sequence Repository

Discussion Discussion