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Shakespeare: His Life and Times Adapted from http: //www. public. asu. edu/~muckerrm/English_321_S 2005/Introduction. ppt
Early Life • Born 1564—died 1616 • Stratford-upon-Avon • Parents: John and Mary Arden Shakespeare • Mary—daughter of wealthy landowner • John—glovemaker, local politician
Location of Stratford-upon. Avon From: http: //www. where-can-i-find. com/tourist-maps. html
Stratford-on-Avon in Shakespeare’s Time As reproduced in William Rolfe, Shakespeare the Boy (1896).
Stratford-upon-Avon Today From Stratford’s web site: http: //www. stratford-upon-avon. co. uk/index. htm
Shakespeare’s Birthplace From: http: //perso. wanadoo. fr/danielle. esposito/
Education • Probably attended King’s New School in Stratford • Educated in: • Rhetoric • Logic • History • Latin
King’s New School From: http: //perso. wanadoo. fr/danielle. esposito/
Married Life • Married in 1582 to Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant at the time with their first daughter • Had twins in 1585 • Sometime between 1585 -1592, he moved to London and began working in theatre.
Anne Hathaway’s Cottage From: http: //perso. wanadoo. fr/danielle. esposito/
Theatre Career • Member and later part-owner of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later called the King’s Men • Globe Theater built in 1599 by L. C. M. with Shakespeare as primary investor • Burned down in 1613 during one of Shakespeare’s plays
The Rebuilt Globe Theater, London
The Globe Theater
The Plays • 38 plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare • 14 comedies • 10 histories • 10 tragedies • 4 romances • Possibly wrote three others • Collaborated on several others
The Poetry • 154 Sonnets • Numerous other poems
• Shakespeare did NOT write in “Old English. ” • Old English is the language of Beowulf: Hwaet! We Gardena in geardagum Þeodcyninga Þrym gefrunon Hu ða æÞelingas ellen fremedon! (Hey! We have heard of the glory of the Spear. Danes in the old days, the kings of tribes, how noble princes showed great courage!) Shakespeare’s Language
• Shakespeare did not write in “Middle English. ” • Middle English is the language of Chaucer, the Gawain-poet, and Malory: We redeth oft and findeth y-write— And this clerkes wele it wite— Layes that ben in harping Ben y-founde of ferli thing… (Sir Orfeo) Shakespeare’s Language
• Shakespeare wrote in “Early Modern English. ” • EME was not very different from “Modern English, ” Shakespeare’s Language
• A mix of old and very new • Rural and urban words/images • Understandable by the lowest peasant and the highest noble Shakespeare’s Language
Elizabethan Theatrical Conventions
A theatrical convention is a suspension of reality. v No electricity v Women forbidden to act on stage v Minimal, contemporary costumes v Minimal scenery These control the dialogue.
v Soliloquy v Aside v Blood v Use of supernatural Types of speech Audience loves to be scared.
Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Let`s play Shakespeare
v Use of disguises/ mistaken identity v Last speaker—highest in rank (in tragedies) v Multiple murders (in tragedies) v Multiple marriages (in comedies)
“All the world 's a stage, And all the men and women merely players. ” So…. . Let’s dramatize Shakespeare!!!
1. The line “What light through yonder window breaks? It is the East, and Juliet is the sun. ” BEST illustrates what type of figurative language? A. Hyperbole B. Metaphor C. Simile D. Personification Let’s Review some terms we already know!
2. The line “Rise fair sun and kill the jealous moon, who is sick and pale with grief. ” BEST illustrates what type of figurative language? A. Hyperbole B. Metaphor C. Simile D. Personification
• Dramatic Literature: Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action“. • Act: a main division of a play, ballet, or opera. • Scene: a sequence of continuous action in a play, movie, opera, or book. Dramatic Literature Terms
• Verbal irony occurs when speakers say the opposite of what they mean. For example, a man may say loudly to a manifestly unattractive woman, “You are more than beautiful!” • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=81 c 44 -CDP 7 E Verbal Irony
• is a situation in which the audience knows more than the character onstage. • A character does or says something of greater importance than he or she knows. • The audience, however, is aware of the meaning and importance of the act or speech. Dramatic irony
• Texts--Romeo and Juliet: the other characters in the cast think Juliet is dead, but the audience knows she only took a sleeping potion. • Music/Audio: The sound effects in horror movies: Jaws, Halloween, Friday the 13 th, “Renee” by Lost Boyz • Visual Images: Take a look at the next slides… What are some examples we can think of?
• "Situational irony, sometimes called irony of events, is most broadly defined as a situation where the outcome is incongruous with what was expected, but it is also more generally understood as a situation that includes contradictions or sharp contrasts. . An example would be a man who takes a step aside in order to avoid getting sprinkled by a wet dog, and falls into a swimming pool” (Lars Elleström, Divine Madness. Bucknell Univ. Press, 2002). Situational Irony
• • Alanis Morissette “Ironic” https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Wnec 6 Smj. HP 0 Isn’t it Ironic, now it is: https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=NQ 1 d. PJt 1 K 1 g Situational Irony Examples
Saved by the Bell examples
• A soliloquy is a device often used in drama whereby a character relates his or her thoughts and feelings to him/herself and to the audience without addressing any of the other characters Romeo’s Soliloquy-Act 2 Scene 2: • He jests at scars that never felt a wound. But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou her maid art far more fair than she: Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off. It is my lady, O, it is my love! Soliloquy
Another Soliloquy Example
• An aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By convention the audience is to realize that the character's speech is unheard by the other characters on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly (in character or out) or represent an unspoken thought. Aside
An example of an Aside
• is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues
The Monologue Song
3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a soliloquy? A. B. C. D. It is heard by the audience It is heard by another character The character relates a thought or feeling It is not heard by another character Let’s Review Figurative Language