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Session Outline • What is a WBS and where is it useful? • What Session Outline • What is a WBS and where is it useful? • What is successive decomposition? • How is the WBS used on a program? • How can I tell if I have a good WBS? • Numbering notation. • Examples. • Common errors. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Outline P 2 - 1

Where is WBS Useful? • Rocket Science? • Brain Surgery? • CVISN? Day 0, Where is WBS Useful? • Rocket Science? • Brain Surgery? • CVISN? Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory P 2 - 2

The Work Breakdown Structure Is. . . • “Product-oriented hierarchy of goods and services. The Work Breakdown Structure Is. . . • “Product-oriented hierarchy of goods and services. ” • Form: inverted tree; or indented list. • Visualizing the entire project. • Common framework for planning and control. • Vehicle to divide work into tasks that are: • Manageable • Independent • Measurable • Integratable • Graphically displays entire project. • Clear definition of all effort. • “Top Assembly Drawing” of the project. • “Product Breakdown Structure” or “Project Breakdown Structure” more apt name! Or perhaps “Work Buildup Structure”. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 3

Create a WBS via Recursive Product-Oriented Decomposition (Call This Level 1) Associated Support Service Create a WBS via Recursive Product-Oriented Decomposition (Call This Level 1) Associated Support Service Level 2 Principal Product Associated Support Product Level 2 more decomposition Associated Support Service Level 3 Sub-Product Associated Support Product Level 3 more decomposition Associated Support Service Level 4 Sub-Sub. Product(s) Associated Support Product Level 4 and so on, while it makes sense Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Construction P 2 - 4 2000 -01 -26

Example: Break Down 100% (1 of 2) 100% Decomposition Day 0, P 2 Work Example: Break Down 100% (1 of 2) 100% Decomposition Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Summation 2000 -01 -26 P 2 - 5

Example: Break Down 100% (2 of 2) 100% 10% 20% 60% 10% more decomposition Example: Break Down 100% (2 of 2) 100% 10% 20% 60% 10% more decomposition 20% 5% 25% 10% more decomposition 2% Summation 20% 3% and so on, while it makes sense Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 2000 -01 -26 P 2 - 6

By decomposing, eventually. . you get to activities that can be assigned and scheduled. By decomposing, eventually. . you get to activities that can be assigned and scheduled. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Construction P 2 - 7

Example Extended WBS for a Complex Program • Note the different orientations from top Example Extended WBS for a Complex Program • Note the different orientations from top to bottom. • WBS unfolds and evolves as scope and design become known. The Work to be Done! Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 8

Ill us tr at iv e WBS for Brain Surgery (tree format) Sources: 1. Ill us tr at iv e WBS for Brain Surgery (tree format) Sources: 1. Bailey & Loves’s Short Practice of Surgery , 22 nd Edition, edited by Charles V. Mann, R. C. G. Russell, and Norman S. Williams. Chapman & Hall Medical, 1995. ISBN 0 -412 -49490 -6. 2. Brain Surgery – Complication Avoidance and Management , by Michael L. J. Apuzzo, M. D. Churchill Livingstone, Inc. , 1993. ISBN 0 -443 -08709 -1. See Chapter 1, “Preoperative and Surgical Planning for Avoiding Complications” by Robert G. Grossman. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory P 2 - 9

WBS for Brain Surgery (indented list) e at iv 5. 0 Postoperative Care Written WBS for Brain Surgery (indented list) e at iv 5. 0 Postoperative Care Written Care Orders Briefing of Recovery Staff by Surgeon Vital Signs and Fluid-Loss Monitoring Neurophysiological Monitoring 6. 0 Long-Term Patient Care Follow-up Clinical Visits Physical Therapy Ill 2. 0 Planning of the Operation Communications Among Team Patient and Team Positioning (for neurosurgery) Acquisition of Needed Instruments & Equipment Scheduling of Needed Specialists Practice Run-Throughs 4. 0 Execution of the Operation (Actual Surgery) Verify Patient Identity and Location of Surgery Anesthesia Patient Under the Knife Real-time Diagnostic Biopsies Therapeutic Surgery Vital Signs and Fluid-Loss Monitoring Neurophysiological monitoring (during neurosurgery) Maintain Neat and Clean Operative Field Wrap-up: Verify Small Part Count (sponge, needle, cottonoid, Michel clips) Operative Notes and Chart Updates tr 1. 0 Diagnosis History General Medical Condition Specific Complaint Clerking? ? (for elective surgery? ? ) Clinical Exam Imaging Ultrasonography Plain Radiography (X-Ray) Computed Tomography (CAT Scan) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Blood and Tissue Tests Likely Diagnosis Risk Assessment Education of Patient (e. g. anatomy) Alternative Analysis & Trade-Offs Treatment Plan 3. 0 Preoperative Patient Care Verify Patient can Handle Stress of Surgery Stop Drugs that Would Interfere with Surgery us Surgical Treatment Project Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory P 2 - 10

WBS is The Basis For. . . • Cost estimates and budgets. • Milestones WBS is The Basis For. . . • Cost estimates and budgets. • Milestones & schedules. • Responsibility assignment. • Allocation of resources. • Schedule horizontal and vertical traceability. • Risk analysis. • Concurrence of participants. • Integrating the total project effort. • Summarizing costs, schedules, performance. • Forcing the Project Manager to think through all elements of the project. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 11

Tests for a Good WBS: þ Product-oriented hierarchy of goods and services. þ Top Tests for a Good WBS: þ Product-oriented hierarchy of goods and services. þ Top level may be dictated by contract. þ Basis for cost estimating, project organization, assigning responsibility, task scheduling, and status reporting. þ Basis for understanding and communication. þ Each element should be “manageable”. þ Based on System Engineering: interfaces are minimized; units are stand-alone testable. þ Eliminating one product element will delete the associated costs. þ Segregate recurring from non-recurring costs. þ Identifies and defines all effort to be expended: correlation of lower levels to specification tree, contract line items, data items, and work statement tasks. þ Useful! Reflects the way the work is managed and performed. þ Sufficiently low level to establish adequate visibility and confidence for cost estimating, project planning, and project control. þ Technical/cost/schedule can be integrated at every level for each element. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 12

WBS Levels & Numbering Notation Level 1 Level 2 (Level Satellite Mission Project 1) WBS Levels & Numbering Notation Level 1 Level 2 (Level Satellite Mission Project 1) (Level 2) 1. Project Management 2. Science Instruments 2. 1 Magnetometer 2. 2 Spectrograph 3. Spacecraft Bus 3. 1 Propulsion Subsystem 3) (Level 3. 2 Attitude Control Subsystem 3. 3 Command & Data Handling Subsystem 3. 3. 1 C&DH Hardware (Level 4) 3. 3. 1. 1 Processor Card (Level 5) 3. 3. 1. 2 Memory Card 3. 3. 2 C&DH Software 3. 3. 3 Subsystem Integration 4. Ground Support Equipment Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 WBS Definition P 2 - 13

Scenario Exercise Imagine you are working at the Atlantic Pacific Sea Vision Fountain Pen Scenario Exercise Imagine you are working at the Atlantic Pacific Sea Vision Fountain Pen Manufacturing Company Motto: “Yesterday’s Technology Solving Today’s Problems Tomorrow” Let’s develop a WBS for our proposed mechanical pencil project. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Exercise P 2 - 14

Where Does the Work Get Done? !! Satellite Mission Project Product-Oriented Nouns 1. Project Where Does the Work Get Done? !! Satellite Mission Project Product-Oriented Nouns 1. Project Management 2. Science Instruments 3. Spacecraft Bus 3. 1 Propulsion Subsystem 3. 2 Attitude Control Subsystem 3. 3 Command & Data Handling Subsystem 3. 3. 1 C&DH Hardware 3. 3. 1. 1 Processor Card 3. 3. 1. 1. 1 Engineering Design 3. 3. 1. 1. 2 Layout & Package Design 3. 3. 1. 1. 3 Fabrication 3. 3. 1. 1. 4 Assembly & Test 3. 3. 2 C&DH Software 3. 3. 2. 1 Command Parsing Module 3. 3. 2. 1. 1 Architectural Design 3. 3. 2. 1. 2 Detailed Design 3. 3. 2. 1. 3 Coding 3. 3. 2. 1. 4 Unit Test 3. 3. 3 Subsystem Integration 3. 3. 3. 1 Integration Plan 3. 3. 3. 1 Integrate Instruments with Bus 4. Ground Support Equipment Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Process-Oriented Here is real work! Verbs WBS Definition P 2 - 16

Typical WBS for a State CVISN Program Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Day Typical WBS for a State CVISN Program Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Sample P 2 - 17 2001 -06 -14

Elements Not to Include in WBS • Do not use the structure of the Elements Not to Include in WBS • Do not use the structure of the contractor’s organization as the basis of a WBS. • At the top levels do not begin by decomposing into the functions or cost categories associated with developing those products. What not to do! Program Design Build Test Adapted from Department of Defense Handbook – Work Breakdown Structure, MIL-HDBK-881. Available at: http: //www. acq. osd. mil/pm/newpolicy/wbs. html. Includes examples from the defense industry. Hardware Software • Do not use generic names -- use actual system names and nomenclature. • No disembodied software -- software developed to reside on specific equipment must be identified as a subset of that equipment. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 18

Common Errors When Creating WBS • Does not include all of the work. • Common Errors When Creating WBS • Does not include all of the work. • Example: The project calls for a prototype and a final version, but the WBS shows only one of these. Or it shows the prototype in detail, and then simply lists the other without showing the work needed to produce it. • The level of detail is not sufficient to manage the program. • Example: The big pieces may be there, but they are not broken down sufficiently to enable the work to be assigned, tracked, and managed. (The test would be: Can you use this WBS to make a good, detailed CPM network? ) • Important but not readily apparent steps are left out. • Example: The omission of integration and testing. • The work is there, but it’s not arranged logically. • Example: Lower-level product integration and testing is there, but its off on its own and you cannot tell what it is to be applied to or when. Day 0, P 2 Work Breakdown Structure Review & Prep! CVISN Planning Workshop 3/15/2018 2: 24 PM The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory WBS Definition P 2 - 19