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Session 5 : E-PRTR QUALITY CONTROL/QUALITY ASSESSMENT Iksan van der Putte
E-PRTR Regulation (EC 166/2006)
Quality assurance Operators are responsible for the quality of the information that they report. • completeness, • consistency E-PRTR data inclusion in EMAS or ISO 14001 is possible • credibility Competent authorities have to assess quality and Commission coordinates quality assurance and assessment Validation Tool ? The Commission will deliver an appropriate validation tool in due time to the Member Statesin order to facilitate the transfer of the data.
Credibility refers to the authenticity, reliability, comparibility and transparency of the data The competent authorities have the duty to assess the quality of information provided by the operators In order to ensure the quality of the data reported, facilities may wish to take the information provided in the IPPC monitoring BREF into account
IPPC Monitoring BREF The main quality considerations may include: • Traceability of the measurements’ results to a reference specified by the competent authorities, this includes calibration of the monitoring system when relevant. • Maintenance of the monitoring system. • For self-monitoring, the use of recognised Quality Management Systems and periodic checks by an external Accredited laboratory. • Certification of instruments and personnel under recognised certification schemes. • Updating of monitoring requirements
Monitoring data production chain consists of the following seven steps: 1. Flow measurement. 2. Sampling. 3. Storage, transport and preservation of the sample. 4. Sample treatment. 5. Sample analysis. 6. Data processing. 7. Reporting of data. The practical value of the measurements and the monitoring data depends on the degree of confidence, i. e. reliability, that can be placed on the results, and their validity when compared to other results from other plants, i. e. comparability. Therefore, it is important to ensure the appropriate reliability and comparability of the data.
Shematic of quality of emission data
Competent authorities have to assess quality……. . DATA VERIFICATION/Validation/Management Ref. Monitoring Analyze duplicate or split samples Inspecting the laboratories that are analyzing samples Inspecting the regulated entities, including their sampling and analyzing procedures Random, unprogrammed check monitoring Ref. Reporting Timeliness Uniformity format R Completeness Reliability Data Management: electronic or hard copy filing
Example Bulgaria RIEW: Regional Inspectorate for Environment and Water MOEW: Ministry of Environment and Water Ex. EA: Executive Environment Agency; EEA: European Environment Agency
Example the NETHERLANDS The e-MJV system: ELECTRONIC ANNUAL REPORTING • An intelligent form (100+ pages) – Many checks and balances • A central database with the historical and new data • A web-site (public and non-public part) to: – Give user support (additional helpdesk) – Reporting of data (to spreadsheets) – Reporting of status information
Example the NETHERLANDS: Electr. Ann. Rep. Technology used • Disconnected tax-form – Visual Basic application on CD or download • Synchronising via internet – XML, Soap toolkit, 128 bit encryption, SSL • Oracle database – Hosting in subnet, at least three components (firewalls) between internet and the (Oracle) database • Authentication via login, password and pin-code – (ldap) Verisign certification (comparable with financial transactions)
Example the NETHERLANDS: Electr. Ann. Rep. / e. MJV) The four components of the Dutch Environmental e. MJV) 1. A Visual Basic client application communicating directly with the central database 2. Web-services (for non anonymous use) and a central database Company (700 in the Netherlands), • Receives CD with a Visual Basic application • Receives a letter with username, password, pincode • After installing the application connects with the central database • Receives the historical data • Uses the VB-application to fills in the form • Sends the current year to the central database Data layer Oracle opslag Oracle DBMS 3. A non anonymous secure website 128 bit SSL, HTTPS For reporting, status information, Up- and downloads of XML files and CSV-files, FAQ list Internet Application layer Dot. Net + IIS 128 bit SSL, HTTPS, SOAP, XML Internet HTTP Presentation layer Www. rivm. mnp. nl I-Planet ent. Webserver HP UX Internet (Local) authorities and supporting organisations (200 in the Netherlands) • Receives CD with a Visual Basic application, an username, password, pincode • After installing this application connects with the central database • Receives the historical data and the forms of this year of the companies under their authority • Use the same VB-application to judge the information, they can approve, ask for changes etc. • All communications goes via the central database 4. A public website For general information
ICT architectuur of the Dutch Environmental e. MJV Companies, (Local) authorities, supporting organisations Non-anonymous internet zone www. rivm. nl Iplanet ent. webserver SUN/UX Reverse Proxy (i. Chain) SSL Data layer • Caching • SSL en/decoding • Tokens / certif. Internet VPN, LDAP authorisation FO/ I, Deloitte & Touche SSL, HTTP Oracle DBMS PIX firewall Cisco PIX firewall • IP filtering Tunix firewall • application filtering (HTTP) LDAP • application logging • anti spoofing For authentication mechanisme Cisco • loggen of source-routed PIX firewall • IP filtering pakketten • only known ports Application layer HTTP www. emjv. nl/beveiligd Dot. Net + IIS Presentation layer Www. rivm. mnp. nl I-Planet ent. Webserver HP UX Storage Blue Blackt Physical infrastructure Red Identification & Authentication Win 2000 UNIX
Monitoring and Reporting (M&R) principles under EU ETS scheme Completeness (all sources in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC) Consistency (comparable over time; same methods) Cost effectiveness (highest achievable accuracy, no excessive costs) Faithfulness (verified emission report is true in what it should represent) Improvement of performance in monitoring and reporting emissions (Verified emission report should lead to better performance in M&R) Transparency (in obtaining, recording, compiling, analysing and documenting of data for verifier and CA) Trueness (with appropriate monitoring methodologies and assessment of uncertainties)
Example ETS enforcement system in the Netherlands
MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY 6. 5 mg/Nm 3 alone gives no indication of the range of possible concentrations. 6. 5 ± 0. 3 mg/Nm 3 clearly defines the range of possible concentrations. the “true” concentration would be likely to lie within the range 6. 2 – 6. 8 mg/Nm 3 with a defined degree of confidence, typically 95% for which it can be assumed that 95 times out of 100 the result would be within those bounds
LCP Directive ANNEX VIII- Methods of measurements of emissions From 27 November 2002 and without prejudice to Article 18(2) Competent authorities shall require continuous measurements of concentrations of SO 2, NOx, and dust from waste gases from each combustion plant with a rated thermal input of 100 MW or more.
ANNEX VIII A. 6 QUALITY The values of the 95 % confidence intervals of a single measured result shall not exceed the following percentages of the emission limit values: Sulphur dioxide 20 % Nitrogen oxides 20 % Dust 30 % Any day in which more than three hourly average values are invalid due to malfunction or maintenance of the continuous measurement system shall be invalidated. If more than ten days over a year are invalidated for such situations the competent authority shall require the operator to take adequate measures to improve the reliability of the continuous monitoring system.
Directives: LCPD, WID The Directives define the requirements for monitoring of large combustion plant and waste incineration plant. The directives place requirements on the use of CEN standard methods where these exist. If relevant CEN standards do not exist then a hierarchy of standards may be used, with preference for ISO or other Internationally recognised standards, followed by National Standards, such as those produced by BSI, VDI, ASTM or the US EPA, and finally other methods
Standard Reference Methods for Monitoring Standard reference methods have been developed by CEN and ISO, which address all of the determinants covered by the LCDP and WID. These include Particulates (Total dust) Low levels < 50 mg/m 3 EN 13284 -1 High levels > 50 mg/m 3 ISO 9096 Nitrogen oxides EN 14792 Carbon monoxide EN 15058 Sulphur dioxide EN 14791 Total organic carbon EN 12619 Hydrogen chloride EN 1911 Hydrogen fluoride ISO 15713 Oxygen EN 14789 Water vapour EN 14790
Standard Reference Conditions Oxygen The combustion of a carbon-based fuel consumes oxygen. The 21% oxygen content present in the combustion air that is fed to a furnace will be depleted to some lower level in the exhaust gas. The interpretation clause of IPPC licenses typically require emission data to be reported at reference oxygen conditions that are defined according the fuel type, for example: _ Gas and liquid fuels 3% ref O 2 _ Solid fuels 6% ref O 2 _ Waste incineration 11% ref O 2 _ Other fuels (e. g. fume thermal oxidiser): - The application of reference oxygen conditions will be determined on a case-by-case basis. _ Emissions from all sources: Temperature 273. 15 K, Pressure 101. 325 k. Pa
CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS CEMS SYSTEMS Continuous Emission Monitoring System consists of: 1. system for automatic measuring systems for measuring and monitoring Ø AMS – Automated Measuring System AMS Data 2. system for automatic evaluation systems for the calculation of emissions Ø AES – Automated Evaluation System Ref. Dr. Jurij Čretnik, RACI d. o. o. , SLOVENIA Energy Community Treaty to SEE Kosovo Seminar 2006 AES
EU DIRECTIVES REQUIRE UNIFORM OPERATIONAL MONITORING INSIDE THE EU Ø for Automated Measuring Systems requirements are very complex Ø selection of AMS is left to the user Ø existing level of AMS in EU, and also inside the EU member states, is very different Ø to improve and to uniform the emission measuring inside EU, CEN has prepared and published a new standard: Ø EN 14181: 2004 Stationary source emissions, Quality assurance of automated measuring systems. induced by: v EU directive 2001/80/EC: On the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants - LCPD v EU directive 2000/76/EC: On the incineration of waste - WID
EN 14181 IS EUROPEAN QA STANDARD FOR AUTOMATIC MEASURING EQUIPMENT EN 14181 defines three so called quality assurance levels (QAL) and an annual surveillance test (AST) for automatic emission monitors: QAL 1: Requirement for use of automatic measuring equipment that has had its suitability tested (The QAL 1 test complies with EN ISO 14956); QAL 2: Installation of automatic measuring device (AMS), calibration of AMS using the standard reference measuring method (SRM), determination of measuring uncertainty/variability of AMS and check for observance of present measuring uncertainties; QAL 3: Continuous quality assurance by the operator (drift and precision of the AMS, verification on control card); AST: Annual surveillance test including SRM measurement to check the uncertainty of the AMS values.
EN 14181 FOUR LEVELS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE Level Application Data required QAL 1 Suitability of equipment Ø Performance evaluations Ø Uncertainty calculations QAL 2 Correctly installed, calibrated and functional Ø Reference tests Ø Functionality checks Ø Calibration function Ø Variability test Ø Uncertainty calculations QAL 3 Stability of performance Ø Zero drift Ø Span drift AST Annual calibration and functionality test Ø see QAL 2 Ø “small” calibration
EN 14181 SIMPLIFIED Suitability Test Installation Calibration Continuous Testing QAL 3 QAL 1 QAL 2 Annual Testing AST Producer Operator
EN 14181 SIMPLIFIED 2 Instrument Certification pr. EN 15267 -3 Certification of AMS QAL 1 EN 14956 Time Calibration On-going QA Linearity Check Zero and Span Calibration Check Purchase Installation QAL 2 QAL 3 1 Year AST
Illustration of ranges appropriate for QAL 1 testing .
CEMS SYSTEM IN TE-TOL, SLOVENIA TERMOELEKTRARNA TOPLARNA LJUBLJANA COMMAND ROOM 111 ETHERNET LABORATORY KPV ETHERNET MODEM PHONE LINE REMOTE WORKPLACE MODEM OL M TES – SYSTEM TETOL PC WITH EMIDATE CLIENT PC WITH EMIDATE REMOTE PC WITH EMIDATE SERVER EXPANSION POSSIBLE INTERNETLINK PROFIBUS STANDARD CABLE www. te-tol. si/zacetek. htm LOCATION: VKLM 1, VKLM 2, BKG 1, BKG 2 LOCATION: K 1, K 2 OPTICAL LINK 250 m 200 m LOCATION: K 3 LOCATION: DIMNIK DISPLAY Šubičeva ulica, LJUBLJANA OLM ET 200 M DATA ACQUISITION DISPLAY Zaloška cesta, LJUBLJANA EXPANSION POSSIBLE ET 200 M DATA ACQUISITION AMS 3 Ref. Dr. Jurij Čretnik, RACI d. o. o. , SLOVENIA Energy Community Treaty to SEE Kosovo Seminar 2006 30 m ET 200 M DATA ACQUISITION AMS 2 ET 200 M DATA ACQUISITION AMS 1
Chemiluminescence Analysers Chemiluminescence is the emission of light energy that results from a chemical reaction. It was found in the late 1960 s that the reaction of NO and ozone (O 3) produced infrared radiation from about 500 to 3000 nm. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) does not undergo this reaction and must be reduced to NO before it can be measured by this method. Most commercial analysers contain a converter that catalytically reduces NO 2 to NO. The NO (converted from NO 2) plus the original NO in the sample is then reacted with O 3 as described above to give a total NO + NO 2 (NOx) reading.
Surrogate parameters for checking monitoring systems (b) qualitative surrogates the temperature of the combustion chamber of a thermal incinerator and the residence time (or flow rate) - the temperature of the catalyst in a catalytic incinerator -the measurement of CO or total VOC of the flue gas from an incinerator (c) indicative surrogates. temperature of the gas flow from a condenser -pressure drop, flow rate, p. H and humidity of a compost filtration unit - pressure drop and visual inspection of a fabric filter