Скачать презентацию Service Facility Location Learning Objectives n n Скачать презентацию Service Facility Location Learning Objectives n n

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Service Facility Location Service Facility Location

Learning Objectives n n n Discuss how different customer service criteria affect facility location. Learning Objectives n n n Discuss how different customer service criteria affect facility location. Locate a single facility using the cross-median approach. Use the Huff model to evaluate the economic feasibility of a retail service location. Locate multiple facilities using the set covering model. Discuss nontraditional location strategies.

Service Facility Location Planning n n Competitive positioning: prime location can be barrier to Service Facility Location Planning n n Competitive positioning: prime location can be barrier to entry. Demand management: diverse set of market generators. Flexibility: plan for future economic changes and portfolio effect. Expansion strategy: contiguous, regional followed by “fill-in, ” or concentrated.

Geographic Representation Location on a Plane Y Destination j Yj Euclidean Origin i Yi Geographic Representation Location on a Plane Y Destination j Yj Euclidean Origin i Yi Metropolitan 0 Xi Xj X

Effect of Optimization Criteria City A 10 15 3 2 5 * -10 * Effect of Optimization Criteria City A 10 15 3 2 5 * -10 * -5 5 10 15 -10 City B 1. Maximize Utilization 20 25 * -5 -15 1 City C (City C: elderly find distance a barrier) 2. Minimize Distance per Capita (City B: centrally located) 3. Minimize Distance per Visit (City A: many frequent users)

Estimation of Geographic Demand n Define the Target Market (Families receiving AFDC) n Select Estimation of Geographic Demand n Define the Target Market (Families receiving AFDC) n Select a Unit of Area (Census track, ZIP code) n Estimate Geographic Demand (Regression analysis) n Map Geographic Demand (3 D visual depiction)

Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 3 (W 3=3) 2 (W 2=1) 1 Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 3 (W 3=3) 2 (W 2=1) 1 (W 1=7) 4 (W 4=5)

Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 3 (W 3=3) 2 (W 2=1) 1 Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 3 (W 3=3) 2 (W 2=1) 1 (W 1=7) 4 (W 4=5) Solution is line segment y=2, x=2, 3

Huff Retail Location Model First, a gravity analogy is used to estimate attractiveness of Huff Retail Location Model First, a gravity analogy is used to estimate attractiveness of store j for customers in area i. Aij= Attraction to store j for customers in area i Sj = Size of the store (e. g. square feet) Tij= Travel time from area i to store j lambda = Parameter reflecting propensity to travel

Huff Retail Location Model Second, to account for competitors we calculate the probability that Huff Retail Location Model Second, to account for competitors we calculate the probability that customers from area i will visit a particular store j.

Huff Retail Location Model Third, annual customer expenditures for item k at store j Huff Retail Location Model Third, annual customer expenditures for item k at store j can now be calculated. Pij = Probability customers from area i travel to store j Ci = Number of customers in area i (e. g. census track) Bik = Annual budget for product k for customers in area i m = Number of customer areas in the market region

Huff Retail Location Model Fourth, market share of product k purchased at store j Huff Retail Location Model Fourth, market share of product k purchased at store j can now be calculated.

Site Selection Considerations 1. Access: Convenient to freeway exit and parking entrance ramps Served Site Selection Considerations 1. Access: Convenient to freeway exit and parking entrance ramps Served by public transportation 2. Visibility: Set back from street Surrounding clutter Sign placement 3. Traffic: Traffic volume on street that may Indicate potential impulse buying Traffic congestion that could be a hindrance (e. g. . , fire stations) 4. Parking: Adequate off-street 5. Expansion: Room for expansion 6. Environment: Immediate surroundings should complement the service 7. Competition: Location of competitors 8. Government: Zoning restrictions Taxes

Breaking the Rules n Competitive Clustering (Among Competitors) (e. g. Auto Dealers, Motels) n Breaking the Rules n Competitive Clustering (Among Competitors) (e. g. Auto Dealers, Motels) n Saturation Marketing (Same Firm) (e. g. An Bon Pain, Ice Cream Vendors) n Marketing Intermediaries (e. g. Credit Cards, HMO) n Substitute Electronic Media for Travel (e. g. telecommuting, e-Commerce) n Impact of the Internet on Service Location (e. g. Amazon. com, e. Bay, Fed. Ex)

Strategic Location Considerations Front Office External Customer (consumer) Internal Customer (employee) Back Office Is Strategic Location Considerations Front Office External Customer (consumer) Internal Customer (employee) Back Office Is travel out to customer or customer travel to site? Can electronic media substitute for physical travel? Is location a barrier to entry? Is service performed on person or property? Is co-location necessary? How is communication accomplished? Availability of labor? Are self-service kiosks an alternative? Are economies of scale possible? Can employees work from home? Is offshoring an option?

Topics for Discussion n n Pick a particular service, and identify shortcomings in its Topics for Discussion n n Pick a particular service, and identify shortcomings in its site selection. How would you proceed to estimate empirically the parameter λ in the Huff retail location model for a branch bank? Why do you think set covering is an attractive approach to public sector facility location? What are the benefits of using intermediaries in the service distribution channel?

Interactive Exercise The class breaks into small groups and each group comes up with Interactive Exercise The class breaks into small groups and each group comes up with examples of service facility locations that seem to defy the analytical models discussed in the chapter.

Athol Furniture Site Alternatives 4 State Park 1 2 3 A 5 Bluff lake Athol Furniture Site Alternatives 4 State Park 1 2 3 A 5 Bluff lake Z 7 6 9 4 Railroad Freeway Major street Park boundary River Census block group Existing retail outlets Potential sites B 8 Y 11 10 X 12

Athol Furniture Data COMPETITORS’ STORE SIZES Store A B MAXIMUM SIZE LIMIT OF SITES Athol Furniture Data COMPETITORS’ STORE SIZES Store A B MAXIMUM SIZE LIMIT OF SITES Sales area, sq ft 10, 000 15, 000 Site X Y Z Maximum sales area, sq ft 15, 000 20, 000 10, 000 MINIMUM TRAVEL TIME BETWEEN POTENTIAL AND EXISTING SITES AND BLOCK GROUPS, Min Site A B X Y Z 1 7 10 16 12 7 2 5 8 14 10 5 3 5 8 14 10 5 4 9 10 16 12 7 Census block group 5 6 1 3 7 3 13 8 9 5 4 2 7 4 3 7 4 1 8 5 2 6 3 4 9 7 1 4 2 3 10 10 2 4 4 10 RELATIONSHIP OF STORE SIZE TO MARGIN ON SALES, EXPENSES, AND NET OPERATING PROFIT AS % OF SALES Sales area, sq ft 10, 000 15, 000 20, 000 Margin on sales 16. 2 15. 6 14. 7 Expenses 12. 3 12. 0 11. 8 Net operating profit before taxes 3. 9 3. 6 2. 0 11 14 2 2 2 10 12 17 5 2 5 13

Athol Furniture Demographics MARKET DATA Census block group 1 2 3 4 5 6 Athol Furniture Demographics MARKET DATA Census block group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of households 730 1130 1035 635 160 105 125 470 305 1755 900 290 7, 640 Average annual income $65, 000 -$70, 000 45, 000 -50, 000 80, 000 -85, 000 150, 000 -over 25, 000 -30, 000 20, 000 -25, 000 40, 000 -45, 000 30, 000 -35, 000 75, 000 -80, 000 85, 000 -90, 000 150, 000 -over Average annual furniture expenditures per household $180 125 280 350 75 50 60 115 90 265 215 370

Store Site Selection Store Site Selection

Market Share Analysis Market Share Analysis