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Serologi Forensik Farmasi Forensik Mayagustina Andarini
Mayagustina Andarini, (Dra, Apt, M. Sc) Sarjana Apoteker M. Sc : Fakultas Farmasi UGM : Div. Molecular Toxicology, Department of Pharmacochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Pekerjaan : Dosen tidak tetap FF-UPS Direktorat Penilaian OT, SM dan Kosmetik, Badan POM RI
Uji Serologi pada Farmasi Forensik Pendahuluan Darah Golongan Darah Sistem Faktor Rhesus Transfusi Darah Penyidikan Darah dengan Polimorfisme Pewarnaan Darah Pemeriksaan Darah untuk Kasus Kriminal
Pendahuluan (1) Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to : 1. an infection (against a given microorganism), 2. against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), 3. or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease)
Pendahuluan (2) Forensic science a multidisciplinary subject used for examining crime scenes and gathering evidence to be used in prosecution of offenders in a court of law. Forensic science techniques are also used to examine compliance with international agreements regarding weapons of mass destruction. The main areas used in forensic science are biology, chemistry, and medicine, although the science also includes the use of physics, computer science, geology, and psychology. Forensic scientists examine objects, substances (including blood or drug samples), chemicals (paints, explosives, toxins), tissue traces (hair, skin), or impressions (fingerprints or tidemarks) left at the crime scene. The majority of forensic scientists specialize in one area of science.
Pendahuluan (3) Subdivisions Computational forensics concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination. Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, ballistics, firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations. Typically, evidence is processed in a crime lab. Digital forensics is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover data from electronic / digital media. Digital Forensic specialists work in the field as well as in the lab. Forensic anthropology is the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of skeletonized human remains. Forensic archaeology is the application of a combination of archaeological techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement. Forensic DNA analysis takes advantage of the uniqueness of an individual's DNA to answer forensic questions such as paternity/maternity testing or placing a suspect at a crime scene, e. g. in a rape investigation. Forensic entomology deals with the examination of insects in, on, and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death. It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death. Forensic geology deals with trace evidence in the form of soils, minerals and petroleums. Forensic meteorology is a site specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss. Forensic odontology is the study of the uniqueness of dentition better known as the study of teeth. Forensic pathology is a field in which the principles of medicine and pathology are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry. Forensic psychology is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods. Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior. Forensic seismology is the study of techniques to distinguish the seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions from those generated by earthquakes. Forensic toxicology is the study of the effect of drugs and poisons on/in the human body. Forensic document examination or questioned document examination answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship. Forensic video analysis is the scientific examination, comparison, and evaluation of video in legal matters. Forensic engineering is the scientific examination and analysis of structures and products relating to their failure or cause of damage. Forensic limnology is the analysis of evidence collected from crime scenes in or around fresh water sources. Examination of biological organisms, particularly diatoms, can be useful in connecting suspects with victims. Forensic Accounting is the study and interpretation of accounting evidence Forensic Botany is the study of plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes Forensic Dactyloscopyis the study of fingerprints(patent and latent fingerprints) Trace Evidence Analysis is the analysis and comparison of trace evidence including(glass, paint, fibers, hair, etc. Forensic Chemistry is the study of detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in arson cases, explosive and gunshot residues Forensic Optometry is the study of glasses and other eye wear relating to crime scenes and criminal investigations Forensic Serology is the study of blood groups and blood for identification purposes following a crime, the study of how blood splaters, and the analysis of blood stains Forensic Linguistics deals with anything in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise
Pendahuluan (3) Serologi Forensik: Untuk menentukan tipe dan karakterisasi darah, tes darah, uji pewarnaan darah, dan penyiapan tanda bukti. Analisis semen, saliva atau cairan tubuh lainnya, baik yang melibatkan tipe DNA atau tidak.
Darah (1) Penting sebagai bukti kriminal Menentukan posisi dan tindak pidana Blood is the most common, well-known, and perhaps most important evidence in the world of criminal justice today. There's no substitute for it, whether for medical or forensic purposes. Its presence always links suspect and victim to one another and the scene of violence. Bloodstain patterns tell a lot about position and movement during the crime, who struck whom first, in what manner, and how many times. This destroys most alibi and self-defense arguments for crime, and at the very least, trips most suspects up in their explanation of what happened. Over the years, criminals have tried many ingenious ways to hide, clean up, and remove blood evidence, but it's an area where criminal justice technology has always stayed one step ahead of them.
Darah (2) Slightly Alkaline fluid: water, cells, enzymes, proteins, and inorganic substances that circulate throughout the vascular system carrying nourishment and transporting oxygen and waste. The most fluid portion plasma, (water, and serum) yellowish and contains white cells and platelets. The most non-fluid portion red cells Medical scientists white cells Forensic scientists red cells and secondly with serum. Serum determine the freshness of a blood sample because serum clots several minutes after exposure to air (a centrifuge is necessary to separate clotted material from the rest of serum). In serum are also found antibodies, which have important forensic implications. With red cells, the analyst looks for smaller substances residing on their surfaces, such as antigens, which have important forensic implications. One might even say that forensic serology is all about antigens and antibodies, but that is the domain of immunology.
Darah (3) Pada hukum forensik, darah sbg kekuatan barang bukti: Tipe golongan darah individu Memperkirakan hubungan orang tertentu dg orang lain Profil antibodi berbeda walaupun pd kembar identik
Golongan Darah (1) Tipe Gol. darah: Sistem A-B-O, th 1901 LANDSTEINER Th 1937: Reaksi antigen-antibodi ABH, Mn, Rh & Gm (diantara >100 antigen yang ada) Rh (faktor Rhesus) lbh dikenal D-antigen Antigen: struktur kimia yg melekat pd permukaan sel darah merah Antibodi: protein yang mengambang pada cairan darah
Golongan Darah (2) Prinsip dasar serologi: Setiap ada antigen, akan terbentuk antibodi yang spesifik Golongan Darah : Antigen pada sel darah merahnya dan ada antibodi terhadap antigen tersebut di dalam serumnya. A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system.
Golongan Darah (3)
Golongan Darah (4) BLOOD TYPE IS GENETIC The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B. The A and B alleles code for enzymes that produce the type A and B antigens respectively. A third version of this gene, the O allele, codes for a protein that is not functional and does not produce surface molecules. Two copies of the gene are inherited, one from each parent. The possible combinations of alleles produce blood types in the following way:
Golongan Darah (5) Blood Types and the Population O positive is the most common blood type. Not all ethnic groups have the same mix of these blood types. Hispanic people, for example, have a relatively high number of O’s, while Asian people have a relatively high number of B’s.
Sistem faktor Rhesus (1) Rh Blood Types Rh blood types were discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener. This was 40 years after Landsteiner had discovered the ABO blood groups. Over the last half century, we have learned far more about the processes responsible for Rh types. This blood group may be the most complex genetically of all blood type systems since it involves 45 different antigens on the surface of red cells that are controlled by 2 closely linked genes on chromosome 1. The Rh system was named after rhesus monkeys, since they were initially used in the research to make the antiserum for typing blood samples. If the antiserum agglutinates your red cells, you are Rh+. If it doesn't, you are Rh-. Despite its actual genetic complexity, the inheritance of this trait usually can be predicted by a simple conceptual model in which there are two alleles, D and d. Individuals who are homozygous dominant (DD) or heterozygous (Dd) are Rh+. Those who are homozygous recessive (dd) are Rh- (i. e. , they do not have the key Rh antigens). Clinically, the Rh factor, like ABO factors, can lead to serious medical complications. The greatest problem with the Rh group is not so much incompatibilities following transfusions (though they can occur) as those between a mother and her developing fetus. Mother-fetus incompatibility occurs when the mother is Rh- (dd) and the father is Rh+ (DD or Dd). Maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and destroy fetal red blood cells. The risk increases with each pregnancy. Europeans are the most likely to have this problem-13% of their newborn babies are at risk. Actually only about ½ of these babies (6% of all European births) have complications. With preventive treatment, this number can be cut down even further. Less than 1% of those treated have trouble. However, Rh blood type incompatibility is still the leading cause of potentially fatal blood related problems of the newborn. In the United States, 1 out of 1000 babies are born with this condition. Rh type mother-fetus incompatibility occurs only when an Rh+ man fathers a child with an Rh- mother. Since an Rh+ father can have either a DD or Dd genotype, there are 2 mating combinations possible:
Sistem faktor Rhesus (2) Only the Rh+ children (Dd) are likely to have medical complications. When both the mother and her fetus are Rh- (dd), the birth will be normal. Human fetus in a mother's uterus (the umbilical cord and placenta connect the fetus to its mother) Rh antibodies are harmless until the mother's second or later pregnancies. If she is ever carrying another Rhpositive child, her Rh antibodies will recognize the Rh proteins on the surface of the baby's blood cells as foreign, and pass into the baby's bloodstream and attack those cells. This can lead to swelling and rupture of the baby's RBCs. A baby's blood count can get dangerously low when this condition, known as hemolytic or Rh disease of the newborn, occurs
Sistem faktor Rhesus (3) If a father's Rh factor genes are + +, and the mother's are + +, the baby will have one + from the father and one + gene from the mother. The baby will be + + Rh positive. If a father's Rh factor genes are + +, and the mother's are - -, the baby will have one + from the father and one - gene from the mother. The baby will be + - Rh positive. If the father's genes are - -, and the mother's are - -, the baby will be: - - Rh negative If the father's genes are + - Rh positive, and the mother's are + - Rh positive, the baby can be: + + Rh positive + - Rh positive - - Rh negative If the father's genes are - -, and the mother's are + , the baby can be: + - Rh positive - - Rh negative
Sistem faktor Rhesus (4) Why is Rh disease a concern? When an Rh negative mother has a baby that is Rh positive, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother. This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. It may also happen, however, anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure such as an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. The mother's immune system sees the baby's Rh positive red blood cells as foreign. Just as when bacteria invade the body, the immune system responds by developing antibodies to fight and destroy these foreign cells. The mother's immune system keeps the antibodies in case the foreign cells appear again, even in a future pregnancy. The mother is now Rh sensitized. Although it is not as common, a similar problem of incompatibility may happen between the blood types (A, B, O, AB) of the mother and baby in the following situations: Mother's Blood Type O A B Baby's Blood Type A or B B A In a first pregnancy, Rh sensitization is not likely. Usually it only becomes a problem in a future pregnancy with another Rh positive baby. During that pregnancy, the mother's antibodies cross the placenta to fight the Rh positive cells in the baby's body. As the antibodies destroy the red blood cells, the baby can become anemic. The anemia can lead to other complications including jaundice and organ enlargement. Rh disease is also called erythroblastosis fetalis during pregnancy. In the newborn, the resulting condition is called hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Some of the more common complications of Rh disease for the fetus and newborn baby include the following: anemia (in some cases, the anemia is severe with enlargement of the liver and spleen) jaundice - yellowing of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. severe anemia with enlargement of the liver and spleen hydrops fetalis - this occurs as the fetal organs are unable to handle the anemia. The heart begins to fail and large amounts of fluid build up in the fetal tissues and organs. A fetus with hydrops fetalis is at great risk of being stillborn. After birth, the red blood cell destruction may continue. Problems may include the following: severe jaundice The baby's liver is unable to handle the large amount of a substance called bilirubin that results from red blood cell. breakdown. The baby's liver is enlarged anemia continues. kernicterus The most severe form of too much bilirubin and results from the build up of bilirubin in the brain. This can cause seizures, brain damage, deafness, and death
Sistem faktor Rhesus (5) Population data The frequency of Rh factor blood types and the Rh. D neg allele gene differs in various populations. Population data for the Rh D factor and the Rh. D neg allele[