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“Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules” SBVR Tutorial Open Forum 2008 Donald Chapin “Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules” SBVR Tutorial Open Forum 2008 Donald Chapin John Hall Sjir Nijssen Baba Piprani Business Semantics Ltd Model Systems PNA Group SICOM Canada United Kingdom The Netherlands Co-Chair, OMG SBVR Revision Task Force Co-Chair, OMG Regulatory Compliance SIG Member OMG SBVR Revision Task Force sjir. nijssen@pna-group. nl ISO IEC/ JTC 1 SC 32 WG 2 Metadata and WG 3 Database Languages Donald. Chapin@Business. Semantics. com john. hall@modelsys. com babap@attglobal. net

Your presenter…Baba Piprani, SICOM Canada • Senior IT Consultant with over 30 yrs standardization Your presenter…Baba Piprani, SICOM Canada • Senior IT Consultant with over 30 yrs standardization experience…Computer Languages, SQL, Conceptual Schema, Data Modelliing, IRDS, Metadata Registry, MOF… • Developed award winning implementations of standards-based Data Quality Firewalls with advanced generation architecture data warehouses and Web based applications using SBVR, ORM, NIAM, Master Data Management, Metadata Repositories/Registries using SQL DBMSs… • Clients: Canadian Government departments Transport, Foreign Affairs, Defence, Superintendent of Financial Systems, Public Works…including private sector • Working with Donald Chapin, John Hall and Sjir Nijssen in the progression and advancement of SBVR © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 2

TOPICS • SBVR: What It Is and What it Does • SBVR NOTATIONS: What TOPICS • SBVR: What It Is and What it Does • SBVR NOTATIONS: What would an SBVR Vocabulary look like? • Key SBVR Specification Concepts – Business Context: Communities – Terminology: Noun Concepts & Verb Concepts – Guidance: Business Rules – Formal Logic Foundation – Semantic Formulations • Generic Vocabularies & Integration by Vocabulary Adoption • Business Benefits of Using SBVR • Appendices © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 3

What SBVR Is / What SBVR Does What SBVR Is / What SBVR Does

What SBVR Is • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules” (SBVR) • Effectively What SBVR Is • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules” (SBVR) • Effectively two specifications in one i. e. a semantic model for: – business vocabulary (formal terminology) - as a cohesive set of interconnected concepts, not just a list of terms and definitions, and – business behavioral guidance (policy, rules, etc. ) that govern the business actions of their organization. • Developed by 17 organizations in 7 countries • Adopted by OMG in September 2005 • Published as formal OMG specification January 2008 • Available for review at http: //www. omg. org/cgi-bin/doc? formal/08 -01 -02. pdf • First specification under the Object Management Group’s new stream of Model-Driven Business specifications © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 5

What SBVR Is How SBVR Relates to Existing Language Resources Business Terminology + Rules What SBVR Is How SBVR Relates to Existing Language Resources Business Terminology + Rules = Business Glossary (Noun Concepts, Definitions & Primary Terms) (+) Taxonomy (General/Specific + Whole/Part Hierarchical Relationships) + Thesaurus (Synonyms, Acronyms, Abbreviations, etc. + Multilingual) (Instances of Concepts e. g. Business Events & Business Entities) (Verb Concepts {Business Facts; Relations among Concepts}) + Ontology (Relations among Instances of Concepts) (Definitional Rules) (Definitions, Relationships & Rules specified in formal logic) + Business Rules (Rules Governing Business Actions) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 6

SBVR is a Synthesis from Four Disciplines 1. TERMINOLOGY & VOCABULARY: – The foundation SBVR is a Synthesis from Four Disciplines 1. TERMINOLOGY & VOCABULARY: – The foundation for SBVR is ISO TC 37 (Terminology and Language & other Content Resources) terminology science standards ISO 704 and 1087 • 2. About human communication using special purpose language in the context of natural language FACT-ORIENTED MODELING with interpretation in FORMAL LOGIC: – The precision of formal logic was added to ISO 1087 -1 concepts, designations, and concept relations by fact-oriented modeling* • Precise meanings for SBVR Vocabulary and Behavioral Guidance enables them to be transformed into IT system designs without losing or changing the business semantics. * ISO Technical Report TR 9007: 1987, "Concepts and Terminology for the Conceptual Schema and the Information Base”, and “A Logical Analysis of Information Systems: Static Aspects of the Data Oriented Perspective” (http: //www. orm. net/Halpin_Ph. Dthesis. pdf) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 7

SBVR is a Synthesis from Four Disciplines 3. LINGUISTICS & LINGUISTIC ANNOTATION OF NATURAL SBVR is a Synthesis from Four Disciplines 3. LINGUISTICS & LINGUISTIC ANNOTATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE GRAMMAR – Target natural language grammar structures (external to SBVR) were provided by: – – – linguistics, ISO TC 37/SC 4 “Linguistic Representation” standards, and defacto industry standards as input to the design of SBVR semantic formulations so that they would both: – – – 4. adequately formulate in logic with a formal interpretation the most complicated definitions and logic statements expressed using selected natural language grammar features, and adequately connect these definitions and logic statements to the underlying SBVR vocabulary of concepts and representations via verb concepts (ISO TC 37 concept relations made formal by fact-oriented modeling) Provided the basis for a future rich multilingual natural language notation for SBVR BUSINESS PRACTICE of VOCABULARY & BUSINESS RULES: – Practical applicability of SBVR in Organizations was provided by hundreds of collective man-years experience in business consultancy applying vocabulary and business rule approaches to the needs of organizations © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 8

Benefits of Synthesizing from Four Established Disciplines • World-Class expertise and best practices … Benefits of Synthesizing from Four Established Disciplines • World-Class expertise and best practices … – No re-inventing the wheel • More complete, pragmatic and theoretically sound than any one of the disciplines on its own • Breakthrough synthesis • Unmatched depth of experience in real-world application and practice • Existing communities of usage © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 9

SBVR Is a Dictionary – Except … Like lexicography – development of natural language SBVR Is a Dictionary – Except … Like lexicography – development of natural language dictionaries – Rooted in Natural Language and Human Communication – Different in these ways: • Concept-centric; not word centric (meanings in concept systems) • Special Purpose language only • Speech community, subject field, and other concepts provide context for a unique meaning for each term • Formal definitions understood in terms of characteristics with built-in taxonomies • Defined reference schemes for identifying individual things that are instances of noun concepts • Formal treatment of roles and aspects (perspectives) • Verb concepts (subject-verb-object plus, sometimes, preposition-object) as entries • Entries interpretable in formal logic • Able to support formal and natural language specification of behavioral guidance. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 10

SBVR Vocabulary Structure & Extensibility • Structured Like Dictionaries – Flat structures without levels, SBVR Vocabulary Structure & Extensibility • Structured Like Dictionaries – Flat structures without levels, except formal logic interpretation • There is an analogy with a dictionary: the constructs used to define the organization of the dictionary and the structure of its entries (the dictionary’s metamodel) are themselves defined in the dictionary. – Although the conceptual schema and fact instances are distinguished in an SBVR Body of Shared Meanings, • they are all part of the same Body of Shared Meanings. – All SBVR vocabulary entries can be in other Body of Shared Meanings reused by adoption. • Inherently extensible like a dictionary - without losing the formal basis – SBVR Vocabularies given by this specification are themselves vocabularies that can be included in other business vocabularies. – An extended SBVR vocabulary can be created by adopting from an SBVR vocabulary. – New concepts immediately become the basis for other concepts © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 11

What SBVR Does Best • Documents the way a community of people conceptualize things What SBVR Does Best • Documents the way a community of people conceptualize things they work with – NOT optimized for reasoning engines; optimized for people • Completely separates meaning from representation in its core structure – Multilingual capability built into core structure • Provides broader (complete? ), but less precise, support for reasoning – FOPL and Henkin Semantics Higher Order Logic – Formally structured – Subset of natural language statements understood formally • Logic & rules • Definitions • Provides the business semantics for Semantic Metadata (e. g. ISO/IEC 11179) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 12

What SBVR Does Best • Enables domain experts to document their own definitions and What SBVR Does Best • Enables domain experts to document their own definitions and rules • Leverages existing terminologies based on ISO terminology standards – Existing vocabulary/terminology adoption built in • Enables the bridge from: – the language actually used by people to operate the organization, to: – the software system and how it thinks and expresses itself to its users in their terms • Enables IT to document meaning of existing data and information in terms of language actually used by the people who operate the organization © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 13

SBVR is Used to Document … • the business language i. e. terminology (concepts SBVR is Used to Document … • the business language i. e. terminology (concepts and terms) – shared among people in internal / cross-organization communities • for thinking and communicating about what they have to deal with to conduct their: Primary Purpose – business activities in business natural language ontologies Special Purpose – still documents concepts & terms in minds of community members – requirements definition activities in requirements definition natural language ontologies – class-of-platform independent modeling activities in class-of-platform independent modeling natural language ontologies – class-of-platform specific modeling activities in class-ofplatform specific modeling natural language ontologies – vendor platform specific modeling activities in vendor platform specific modeling natural language ontologies © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 14

SBVR Notations: What Would an SBVR Vocabulary Look Like? SBVR Notations: What Would an SBVR Vocabulary Look Like?

SBVR Support for Linguistic Notations • Supports Alternative Notations for Business Specifications – Textual SBVR Support for Linguistic Notations • Supports Alternative Notations for Business Specifications – Textual or graphic symbols – Outlines, tables, categories, hyperlinks, decision tables, etc. • Puts real semantics and formal logics behind a subset of any natural language or formal logic based notation • What would the SBVR model look like? – MOF/XMI compliant XML – SBVR Structured English – Graphical Model: • UML Profile for SBVR (see SBVR specification Annex H) • ORM, Cog. NIAM • Other? – Proprietary language, e. g. Rule. Speak™ There is no normative or mandatory SBVR notation © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 16

SBVR Notation Example: SBVR Structured English (fragment) current contact details Concept Type: role Definition: SBVR Notation Example: SBVR Structured English (fragment) current contact details Concept Type: role Definition: contact details of rental that have been confirmed by renter of rental Definition: contract that is with renter and specifies use of a car of car group and is for rental period and is for rental movement optional extra Definition: Item that may be added to a rental at extra charge if the renter so chooses Example: One-way rental, fuel pre-payment, additional insurances, fittings (child seats, satellite navigation system, ski rack) Source: CRISG [“optional extra”] rental actual return date/ time Concept Type: role Definition: date/time when rented car of rental is returned to EU-Rent rental requests car model Synonymous Form: car model is requested for rental Necessity: Each rental requests at most one car model. Possibility: The car model requested for a rental changes before the actual pick-up date/time of the rental. Necessity: No car model requested for a rental changes after the actual pick-up date/time of the rental © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 17

SBVR Notation Example: SBVR Model in Rule. Speak™ (fragment) • A rental may be SBVR Notation Example: SBVR Model in Rule. Speak™ (fragment) • A rental may be open only if an estimated rental charge is provisionally charged to the credit card of the renter of the rental. • The rental charge of a rental is always calculated in the business currency of the rental. • The rental charge of a rental must be converted to the currency of a price conversion requested by the renter of the rental. – Note: Rule. Speak does not recommend the “If …then…” syntax for operative business rules. • Principles of the Business Rule Approach, pp. 114, 126, 255 256, 288, 297. • A cash rental always honors its lowest rental price. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 18

SBVR Notation Example: XML (fragment) –Standard SBVR Interchange Format <is-obligation-claim=”oc”/> <modal-formulation-embeds-logical-formulation modal-formulation=”oc” logical-formulation=”n”/> <logical-negation-has-negand SBVR Notation Example: XML (fragment) –Standard SBVR Interchange Format © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 19

SBVR Model in UML (fragment) This diagram is UML notation with SBVR semantics (like SBVR Model in UML (fragment) This diagram is UML notation with SBVR semantics (like a UML Profile) and shows some EU Rent vocabulary from SBVR Annex E. with two different interpretations. See SBVR Clause 13 and Annex H. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 20

SBVR Model in ORM (fragment) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Model in ORM (fragment) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 21

SBVR Model in Cog. NAIM (fragment) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum SBVR Model in Cog. NAIM (fragment) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 22

Key SBVR Specification Content Key SBVR Specification Content

SBVR: Context, Content and Logical Formality Community Context Clause 11 defines Content Business Meaning SBVR: Context, Content and Logical Formality Community Context Clause 11 defines Content Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Expression in Languages Business Vocabulary: Clause 8, 11 Business Rules: Clause 12 Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins uses expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Structure of Meaning Clause 9 Formal Interpretation Clause 10 © Model Systems / Business Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Clause numbers are those in the SBVR Specification – see slide 4 Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 24

Business Context: Community Context Clause 11 defines Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Business Context: Community Context Clause 11 defines Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as underpins Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins uses expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 25

Semantic Communities Share Meanings Semantic Community Definition community whose unifying characteristic is a shared Semantic Communities Share Meanings Semantic Community Definition community whose unifying characteristic is a shared understanding (perception) of the things that they have to deal with Necessity Each semantic community owns exactly one body of shared meanings. • A semantic community defines the scope of an SBVR Body of Shared Meanings: • what concepts (both noun concepts and verb concepts) are to be included • what business rules it needs to build on them • Usually, the most important semantic community is the organization for which you are building the SBVR Body of Shared Meanings, e. g. EU-Fly. • You will often have to consider other semantic communities that do or could share some of the vocabulary, e. g. the airline industry, national trade associations, EU-Fly customers • When you define rules, you do it from the perspective of the owning semantic community • Two kinds of Semantic Communities in business: • Collaborative Community, e. g. A department, cross-function programme team, a internal service • Community of Practice, e. g. project managers, operational excellence champions, departmental budget managers • Two scopes for Semantic Communities: • Internal to an organization • Among parts of different organizations © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 26

Body of Shared Meanings body of shared meanings set of concepts and elements of Body of Shared Meanings body of shared meanings set of concepts and elements of guidance for which there is a shared understanding in a given semantic community The EURent Car Rental Business has a body of shared meanings which contains the set of concepts of general and specific things of importance to the EURent car rental business © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 27

Speech Community Share Terms & Language Speech Community Definition subcommunity of a given semantic Speech Community Share Terms & Language Speech Community Definition subcommunity of a given semantic community whose unifying characteristic is the vocabulary and language that it uses Example The EU-Fly UK Community shares the English-based vocabulary of symbols used in EU-Fly’s business. The symbols include English words for EU-Fly’s concepts plus symbols adopted from other languages Dictionary Basis group of people sharing a characteristic vocabulary, and grammatical and pronunciation patterns for use in their normal intercommunication [W 3 ID ‘speech community’] Necessity Each speech community is subcommunity of exactly one semantic community. Necessity Each speech community owns exactly one terminology. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 28

Set of Representations of Speech Community all the representations that belong to a given Set of Representations of Speech Community all the representations that belong to a given speech community – is a multilingual management unit – expresses only one Body of Shared Meanings – is a part of an SBVR model for one shared language, which may be: • A natural language, such as English, German, Dutch • Specialised terminology such as that used by lawyers or engineers • The preferred terms used by some group, department or function • A constructed language such as the UML ( or SBVR Structured English) • A speech community representation set (not a defined term, but 3 elements are) includes these kinds of representations: – terms and names for the noun concepts – ‘readings’ for the verb concepts – definitions for concepts – descriptions, descriptive examples, notes and references for meanings – statements for elements of guidance and facts © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 29

Business Vocabulary: Business Meaning of Concepts Noun Concepts Community defines Business Community with sub-communities Business Vocabulary: Business Meaning of Concepts Noun Concepts Community defines Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies uses Content Business Vocabulary: Clause 8, 11 Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as underpins Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 30

Noun Concepts EU-Fly Definition EU-win the airline that is part of The EU Travel Noun Concepts EU-Fly Definition EU-win the airline that is part of The EU Travel and Leisure Group Definition EU-winner EU-Fly’s loyalty programme Reference Scheme Definition Necessity EU-win membership number person who is a member of EU-win Each EU-winner travels on at least one qualifying flight within three months after becoming a member of EU-Win flight Source an act of flying; a journey made through the air or in space, especially a timetabled journey made by an airline [ODE 1] timetable Definition Dictionary Basis flight [timetable] Reference Scheme Definition a schedule of flight departure times from and arrival times at airports a chart showing the departure and arrival times of trains, buses, or aircraft [ODE] flight number entry in an airline timetable defining a route to be flown, departure and arrival times, and the days of the week on which corresponding flights (operations) will be flown operations Definition Dictionary Basis flight [operations] Reference Scheme Definition the operation of an airline the action of functioning or the fact of being active or in effect [ODE, operation] flight number and departure date flight that is operated by an airline © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 31

Noun Concepts – Examples • Noun concepts – four kinds: – Fundamental: airport (adopted) Noun Concepts – Examples • Noun concepts – four kinds: – Fundamental: airport (adopted) – Category of ‘airport’: EU-Fly airport, with delimiting characteristics (unary verb concepts): • airport that is used (by EU-Fly) – Role of ‘EU-Fly airport’: • EU-Fly airport is destination of flight – Facet (aspect) of ‘EU-Fly airport’: • [Operations]: location that EU-Fly flies to and from • [Finance]: facility that has to be contracted and paid for © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 32

Forms of Noun Concept Definition • Intensional (based on ISO 1087): – More general Forms of Noun Concept Definition • Intensional (based on ISO 1087): – More general concept – Delimiting characteristics to define category within more general concept • E. g. elite tier frequent flier: frequent flier who flew at least 25000 qualifying miles in the preceding year and flew on at least 4 qualifying flights in the preceding year • Extensional (based on ISO 1087): – List of concepts (not necessarily individual concepts) • E. g. European operating country: EU member state or Norway or Switzerland • Individual concept (based on ISO 1087): – Is named – May not need any additional definition • E. g. Switzerland, US Dollar, Boeing Corporation • Adopted definition – Reference to source – E. g. rule: Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE), ‘rule’ [1] “one of a set of explicit or understood regulations or principles governing conduct or procedure within a particular area of activity; a law or principle that operates within a particular sphere of knowledge, describing or prescribing what is possible or allowable” © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 33

Synonyms and Homonyms • Required for local ease of use • Especially important when Synonyms and Homonyms • Required for local ease of use • Especially important when dealing with closelyinvolved semantic communities, e. g. – After merger/acquisition – Working with outsourcers and value chain partners • Noun concepts are referenced by preferred terms – Business can require that ‘official’ communications use preferred terms – In practice, is impossible to enforce preferred terms for all business discourse • Synonyms reference preferred terms • Homonyms need a disambiguating context, e. g. – flight [timetable]: occupies a “slot” in the schedule – flight [operations]: actual flight that transports passengers © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 34

Noun Concepts (Discrete Meaning) -(represented • by Terms, Names & Definitions) Two kinds of Noun Concepts (Discrete Meaning) -(represented • by Terms, Names & Definitions) Two kinds of noun concepts are: – ‘general concept’, and – individual concept • The ‘general cocnept’ that denotes the set of airports EU-Fly flies to and from: – DEFINITION: • airport that is used [by EU-Fly] – TERM: • EU-Fly airport • airport • The ‘individual concept’ that denotes one airport EU-Fly flies to an from: – DEFINITION: • Zürich’s airport – NAME: • Kloten Airport • Zürich Flughafn © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 35

Verb Concepts airline owns flight (timetable) flight [timetable] has flight number Synonymous Form flight Verb Concepts airline owns flight (timetable) flight [timetable] has flight number Synonymous Form flight number is for flight (timetable) flight [operations] is based on flight [timetable] Definition The flight [operations] is planned to have the route and arrival and departure times of the flight [timetable] and to occur on a date that matches a ‘day flown’ of the flight [timetable] Necessity Each flight [operations] is based on exactly one flight [timetable] aircraft type is assigned to flight [timetable] aircraft is assigned to flight [operations] Note The aircraft assigned to a flight would normally be of the type assigned to the flight’s flight schedule entry, but this does not always happen. code share partner shares flight [timetable] airline markets flight [timetable] Necessity If the airline does not own the flight [timetable] then the airline is a code share partner of the flight [timetable]. The airline markets the flight [timetable] using the flight number for the flight [timetable] that is owned by the airline. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 36

Verb Concepts • AKA “fact types” • Represented by “Fact Symbols” (verb phrases) • Verb Concepts • AKA “fact types” • Represented by “Fact Symbols” (verb phrases) • Verbs are taken to have no meaning except in verb concepts (“manager runs company”, “horse runs race”) – definitions are for entire verb concepts, not for verbs in isolation • Trade off simple synonyms against simplicity of verb concepts, – e. g. if currency in which trip is charged is used in lots of verb concepts, consider defining “currency of trip” as a synonym for “currency of operating country of departure airport of first leg of trip” © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 37

Verb Concepts – Examples • Verb concepts – Unary (characteristic): flight is full • Verb Concepts – Examples • Verb concepts – Unary (characteristic): flight is full • 1 placeholder, filled by ‘flight’ – Binary: aircraft is assigned to flight • two placeholders, filled by ‘aircraft’ and ‘flight’ – N-ary: reassigned flight replaces missed flight after late arrival • three placeholders representing roles, filled by ‘flight’, ‘flight’ and ‘late arrival’ • Can objectify a verb concept and use it as a noun concept © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 38

Business Vocabulary: Forms of Meaning Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural Business Vocabulary: Forms of Meaning Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies defines Content Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as underpins Verb Concepts Community Different Ways of Saying the Same Thing uses Business Vocabulary: Clause 8, 11 Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 39

Multiple Verb Concept Forms for One Verb Concept (Discrete Meaning) • One Verb Concept Multiple Verb Concept Forms for One Verb Concept (Discrete Meaning) • One Verb Concept (e. g. Associative Verb Concept) – E. g. Open tickets have expiry dates can be put together in many forms: – Sentential Forms open ticket expires on date(semantics in verb) open ticket has expiry date (semantics in role name) – Noun Forms open ticket expiring on date open ticket having expiry date – Multiple orderings • Sentential Form Open ticket expires on date is expiration of open ticket (active) (passive) • Noun Form expiry date of open ticket having expiry date © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 40

Business Rules: Business Meaning of Rules Community defines Business Community with sub-communities that may Business Rules: Business Meaning of Rules Community defines Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies uses Content Business Rules: Clause 12 Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as underpins Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 41

Business Rules • Is (surprisingly) small part of the OMG’s SBVR Specification – about Business Rules • Is (surprisingly) small part of the OMG’s SBVR Specification – about 13% • Reuses Business Vocabulary features of SBVR – the bulk of the specification • Definitional (Structural) Business Rules (use alethic logic operators) – Specify what the organization takes things to be – Cannot be broken (are “true by definition”) • “It is necessary that …” – e. g. local area is in exactly one operating country • “It is possible that …” (and its negation, “It is impossible that …”) – Optional – not required to create SBVR Vocabularies (aka terminologies) – About what the concepts mean: • Characteristics of noun concepts • Constraints on verb concepts • Operative (Behavioural) Business Rules (use deontic logic operators) – Govern what the organization does – what actions it takes • “It is obligatory that …” – e. g. Each rental car that is assigned to a rental must be at the pick-up branch of the rental. • “It is permitted that …” (and its negation, “It is forbidden that …”) – Intended for people: • Actionable, but not necessarily automatable • Can be broken; i. e. violated by people, so need an enforcement regime © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 42

Enforcement • Operative business rules can be broken, and need to be enforced. This Enforcement • Operative business rules can be broken, and need to be enforced. This requires a regime: – To detect violations – To take remedial action, if required – To impose penalties, if required • Enforcement action is outside SBVR’s scope. It will be resolved in integration with other OMG business modelling specifications • SBVR does include enforcement level – how strictly the rule will be enforced. This is quite independent of what the enforcement action is. Examples are: – Strictly enforced: no escape from the consequences – Pre-authorized exceptions permitted – Consequences if exceptions are not logged and justified © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 43

What does SBVR do? SBVR realizes the ‘Business Rules Mantra’: “Rules are built on What does SBVR do? SBVR realizes the ‘Business Rules Mantra’: “Rules are built on Facts are built on Terms. ” Base Business Definitions & Rules on Verb Concepts Define Noun Concepts (Fact Types) Noun Concepts Vocabulary Associate Concepts to define Verb Concepts Definitions & Rules Develop Vocabularies and Rules Sets to represent them (starting with terms for the concepts) … to describe the business language of the activities of organizations … in a way that is easily understandable by business people © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 44

Defining a Business Rule Underlying verb concept (in SBVR’s Vocabulary for Business Rules): element Defining a Business Rule Underlying verb concept (in SBVR’s Vocabulary for Business Rules): element of guidance is based on verb concept We know that (also in SBVR’s Vocabulary for Business Rules): element of guidance introduces an obligation or necessity business rule is a category of element of guidance So, in the SBVR Business Vocabulary+Rules for a specific business (e. g. EU-Fly) • Start with a verb concept, e. g. passenger checks in for flight [operations] • Apply an obligation or necessity to it, e. g. it is obligatory that passenger checks in for flight (operations). • Add qualifications, quantifications and conditions, if necessary e. g. it is obligatory that each passenger who is booked on a flight [operations] and who has hold baggage checks in for flight [operations] at least 60 minutes before departure time of the flight [operations] . © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 45

Meaning Structured and Interpreted within a Formal Logic Theory Community defines Business Meaning Concepts, Meaning Structured and Interpreted within a Formal Logic Theory Community defines Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins uses expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Structure of Meaning Clause 9 Formal Interpretation Clause 10 © Model Systems / Business Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 46

Formal Logic Basis of SBVR • Underpins Body of Shared Meanings and Semantic Formulation Formal Logic Basis of SBVR • Underpins Body of Shared Meanings and Semantic Formulation • Required: – To ensure formal basis for automated processing in repositories and for interchange – For alignment with other OMG specifications • Based on Object Role Modeling (ORM) language & methodology – originally focused on conceptual modeling for the database domain – used in practice for business rule modeling – See http: //www. orm. net/ for more on ORM • Grounding the logic subset in ISO 24707 Common Logic – mandated by OMG Architecture Board • Mapping to OWL will also be provided • Collaborative effort on grounding includes OMG Ontology PSIG members, Pat Hayes (co-author of CL), other OMG members with logic, ontology background are assisting with mapping © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 47

Formal Logic Underpinning • Typed predicate logic (with identity, and numeric quantifiers) – Mixfix Formal Logic Underpinning • Typed predicate logic (with identity, and numeric quantifiers) – Mixfix predicates – Natural reference schemes using definite descriptions – Functions mapped internally to predicates • Arithmetic • Set and bag comprehension (grounded in ur-elements) • Basic use of modal logic – Alethic: It is necessary that; It is possible that • It is impossible that: ~ – Deontic: O It is obligatory that; P It is permissible that • It is forbidden that: ~P O~ • Basic first order formalization • Restricted higher order formalization (Henkin semantics) – e. g. categorization types (avoids problems with power types) • Hooks for interrogatives using and bag-comprehension © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 48

Propositional Content + Performative • Propositional Content: – a mental picture of a possible Propositional Content + Performative • Propositional Content: – a mental picture of a possible state of the world that is expressed in some communication (for example, expressible by arranging certain words: car at location) – is INDEPENDENT of how you use it! • • • Statement: Command: Question: Stipulation: aircraft at airport – The aircraft is at the airport. aircraft at airport – Let the aircraft be at the airport ! aircraft at airport – Is the aircraft at the airport ? aircraft at airport – The aircraft must be at the airport. Example SBVR Propositional Content: – customer wants class of travel • SBVR supports these kinds of Performatives – Assertion (Statement) • (It is taken to be true that) customer wants class of travel NOTE: The ‘it is taken to be true that’ is implied from the formal logic grounding of SBVR – Stipulation (Rule) • It is obligatory that customer wants class of travel if the customer makes a reservation – Question • What class of travel the customer wants ? … from within the rule: – An agent must ask each new customer what class of travel the customer wants. © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 49

Modality SBVR needs two kinds of modality in order to create business rules: • Modality SBVR needs two kinds of modality in order to create business rules: • Alethic, for Definitional Business Rules with two operators: – – “It is necessary that …” “It is possible that …” (and its negation, “It is impossible that …”) They are used in the sense of ‘logically necessary’ and ‘logically possible/impossible’ Alethic operators, when added as performatives to verb concepts, define “Definitional” Business Rules. Definitional business rules are always true -- by definition. • Deontic, for Operative Business Rules with two operators: – – “It is obligatory that …” “It is permitted that …” (and its negation, “It is prohibited that …”) Deontic operators, when added as performatives to verb concepts, define “Operative” Business Rules, Operative business rules govern the activity of the organization. These operators are the only elements of modal logic included in SBVR Full (and possibly controversial) modal logics are not necessary © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 50

Meaning Formulated within a Formal Logic Theory Community defines Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Meaning Formulated within a Formal Logic Theory Community defines Business Meaning Concepts, Facts & Rules (Unique, Discrete Meaning) formulated as Business Community with sub-communities that may use different natural languages and specialized vocabularies Forms of Meaning Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules (different ways of saying the same thing) underpins uses expressed as Business Expression of Forms of Concepts, Facts & Rules in a Business Language underpins Formal Logic Structure of Meaning Clause 9 Formal Interpretation Clause 10 © Model Systems / Business Semantic Formulations + Formal Logic Grounding Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 51

Business Rule It is obligatory that the drop-off date of a rental precedes the Business Rule It is obligatory that the drop-off date of a rental precedes the expiration date on the driver's license of the customer responsible for the rental. It is obligatory that precedes the expiration date on the driver's license of the customer responsible for the drop-off date of a rental © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 52

Logical Formulation of Semantics • Provides a vocabulary to describe the formal semantic structures Logical Formulation of Semantics • Provides a vocabulary to describe the formal semantic structures of business discourse. – Not for discussing business – For discussing the semantic structures underlying business communications of concepts, facts and rules. • A typical business person: – does not talk about quantifications – but expresses quantifications in almost every statement he makes – doesn’t talk about conjuncts, disjuncts, negands, antecedents and consequents - but these are all part of the formulation of his thinking. • Logical formulation of Semantics is about explicitly using these conceptual devices (that people use subconsciously all the time) to capture the semantics of their discourse. This is new – one of the unique features of SBVR © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 53

What is Semantic Formulation? • What it’s NOT: – – – • A language What is Semantic Formulation? • What it’s NOT: – – – • A language for stating business rules A language for stating constraints About software design Intended for use by business people in general Intended to parse free-form natural language What it is – Language for talking about meanings of concepts and rules • regardless of the languages or notations used to state them – A way of structuring the meaning of: • Definitions • Rules that govern the operation of an organization • Questions (Queries) – Optimized for people and natural language – not for machine processing – Interpretable in formal logics: first order and restricted higher order – Recursive • Scope: Whatever business people mean by the vocabularies they use and the rules they make © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 54

Logical Formulation It is prohibited that a barred driver is a driver of a Logical Formulation It is prohibited that a barred driver is a driver of a rental. obligation claim It is prohibited that is a driver of a barred driver a rental . embeds a logical formulation that is a logical negation . . has a negand that is an existential quantification . . . introduces a variable . . has the type barred driver . . . scopes over an existential quantification . . introduces a variable . . . has the type rental . . scopes over an atomic formulation . . . is based on the verb concept: 'rental has driver' . . . has a role binding . . . is of the fact type role that is 'rental' of 'rental has driver' . . . binds to the variable that has the type rental . . . has a role binding . . . is of a fact type role that is 'driver' of 'rental has driver' . . . binds to the variable that has the type barred driver © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 55

Generic Vocabularies & Integration by Vocabulary Adoption Clause 11 Generic Vocabularies & Integration by Vocabulary Adoption Clause 11

Shared SBVR Vocabularies Collaboration in a Shared Interest Group This is where an enterprise’s Shared SBVR Vocabularies Collaboration in a Shared Interest Group This is where an enterprise’s competitive edge is Enterprise Differentiation What an organization does that distinguishes it from its competitors An enterprise will define its own business vocabulary Consensus Definition All enterprises in the sector do most of this What an organization in a given business typically does Neutral Definition All enterprises in the sector do this © Model Systems / Business Semantics What an organization needs to do to be in a given business A shared interest group can provide partial business vocabulary Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 57

Owned & Adopted Concepts • Adoption is important: – Reduces work in maintaining business Owned & Adopted Concepts • Adoption is important: – Reduces work in maintaining business vocabulary – Supports communication with organizations that have interests in common – Creates consistency across vocabularies • Vocabulary adoption is about adopting ‘symbols’ (signifiers associated with meanings) • Concepts are adopted two ways: – By reference – via an adopted vocabulary, e. g. rental, rental car (from ‘Car Rental Industry Standard Glossary’) – By name – Individual concept, e. g. Switzerland • When an “owner” vocabulary is revised, – all the “users” of the vocabulary have to be considered – • this is a good thing! SBVR provides strong support for adoption © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 58

Vocabulary Adoption • EU-Rent English Vocabulary - built using SBVR contains: – The symbols Vocabulary Adoption • EU-Rent English Vocabulary - built using SBVR contains: – The symbols EU-Rent has assigned as term and fact symbols, and has assumed responsibility for maintaining; e. g. • bad experience: damage to car or moving traffic offence or unauthorized late return or car not returned to EU-Rent or … • barred driver: driver who has at least three bad experiences on rentals – Adopted vocabularies: • Car Rental Industry Standard Glossary [fictitious] – Note: the EU-Rent German speech community has adopted equivalent “Glossar für Autovermietunggeschäft” [also fictitious] – consistency issue to be managed • ISO Dictionary of International Symbols – adopted across all languages [does not exist yet] • Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary – default vocabulary for English © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 59

Business Benefits of Using SBVR Business Benefits of Using SBVR

Business Activities Benefiting from SBVR Vocabulary and/or Behavioral Guidance • Business Integration and Performance Business Activities Benefiting from SBVR Vocabulary and/or Behavioral Guidance • Business Integration and Performance Improvement • Risk, Governance, and Compliance • Globalization/Localization and Translation • Communication and Documentation • Document and Content Index Creation • Training • Business Language–centered Requirements for Information Systems (for more information see: http: //www. brcommunity. com/a 2007/b 407. html) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 61

IT Activities & Applications Benefiting from Use of SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance to IT Activities & Applications Benefiting from Use of SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance to Design/Manage Them • Document Browse and Search and Text Analytics • Business Intelligence and Data Analytics • Data Architecture, Management and Quality • Message-Based Middleware Architecture • Business Process Management Systems • Advanced Intelligence Capabilities • Rule-based Application Software Development, Generation and Configuration • Software Localization • Reverse Engineering Software to Business Requirements (for more information see: http: //www. brcommunity. com/a 2007/b 407. html) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 62

Summary SBVR • Supports specification of business definitions and business rules: – From the Summary SBVR • Supports specification of business definitions and business rules: – From the organization’s perspective – In the vocabulary of the business – Regardless of whether rules will be automated, while providing an excellent basis for automation • Is part of a wider program for Business Modelling in the OMG’s Business Modeling and Integration Domain Task Force • Provides a basis for enterprise wide concepts and vocabulary • Has not yet been: – Integrated with other aspects of Business Modelling – Mapped to Platform Independent Model within the OMG’s Model Driven Architecture (MDA) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 63

Appendices A. How SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance should be Managed B. SBVR: Where Appendices A. How SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance should be Managed B. SBVR: Where it Fits with Other Standards C. SBVR Methods / Best Practice D. FUTURES: Where is SBVR Going? E. SBVR Resources F. Terminology for Presentation © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 64

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Appendices Appendices

Appendix A. How SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance should be Managed Appendix A. How SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance should be Managed

Distributed Management Approach based on Semantic Communities • Semantic Community: – A community that Distributed Management Approach based on Semantic Communities • Semantic Community: – A community that shares an understanding of the concepts and meanings in an SBVR Business Vocabulary used in their collaboration or practice specialty • Two kinds: – Collaborative Community • e. g. A department, cross-function programme team, a internal service – Community of Practice • e. g. project managers, operational excellence champions, departmental budget managers • Two scopes • Internal to an organization • Among parts of different organizations © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 68

Community Management of SBVR Business Vocabulary • A set of criteria for new concepts, Community Management of SBVR Business Vocabulary • A set of criteria for new concepts, facts or rules • Any community member can recommend a new concept, fact or rule that they need • A simple, largely automated “gaining shared understanding and agreement” process • One community member having the role of Vocabulary+Rules Champion – Supports the community in good practice and know-how – Provides integrity and quality services to the community © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 69

Central Support for SBVR Business Vocabularies • SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance Expression and Central Support for SBVR Business Vocabularies • SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance Expression and Management Software – including support for its use • Methodology and good practices • e. Learning & Training • Mentoring SBVR Vocabulary & Behavioral Guidance Champions • Integration facilitation • Quality assurance • Assistance with major new SBVR Business Vocabularies in new subject areas • Work with IT to maximize value gained from SBVR Business Vocabulary © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 70

Appendix B. SBVR: Where it Fits with Other Standards (Read SBVR Annex K for Appendix B. SBVR: Where it Fits with Other Standards (Read SBVR Annex K for the Specifics)

SBVR Alignment with Ontology <<metamodel>> UML OMG’s Ontology Definition Metamodel - ODM <<metamodel>> SBVR SBVR Alignment with Ontology <> UML OMG’s Ontology Definition Metamodel - ODM <> SBVR <> Common Logic (ISO 24707 ) <> Mappings completed planned RDF Schema <> Description Logic Entity-Relationship <> OWL Topic Maps © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 72

Business Modelling Business Motivation BMM references BPDM Operative Business Rules SBVR Business Processes OSM Business Modelling Business Motivation BMM references BPDM Operative Business Rules SBVR Business Processes OSM Organization Role supports Shared Vocabulary (Body of Shared Concepts + Structural Business Rules + at least one set of terminology to express them) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 73

Appendix C. SBVR Methods / Best Practice Appendix C. SBVR Methods / Best Practice

SBVR Methods / Best Practice • Vocabulary/Terminology Content – ISO 704 Concept System Design SBVR Methods / Best Practice • Vocabulary/Terminology Content – ISO 704 Concept System Design (How to create definitions) – Pavel Terminology Tutorial (http: //www. termiumplus. gc. ca/didacticiel_tutorial/english/lesson 1/index_e. html) – Object Role Model (ORM) Methodology (includes structural rules) • Halpin, Terry A. Information Modeling and Relational Databases. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 2001. – SBVR Case Study (SBVR Annex E) – Various SBVR tutorials • Policy & Rules Content – SBVR Structured English (SBVR Annex C & D) – Informal SBVR UML Profile (SBVR Annex H) – Rule. Speak™ Notation (SBVR Annex F) and Methodology (commercial) – ORM Notation (SBVR Annex I) and Methodology (see book above) – Cog. NIAM Notation and Methodology (see Annex L) – Various rule discovery and documentation methodologies NOTE: Vocabulary/Terminology & Rules Management out of scope for SBVR © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 75

Appendix D. FUTURES: Where is SBVR Going? Appendix D. FUTURES: Where is SBVR Going?

Where is SBVR Going? • First SBVR RTF (June 2008) – primary objective: finish Where is SBVR Going? • First SBVR RTF (June 2008) – primary objective: finish mapping to ISO Common Logic and OWL • ISO TC 37 adoption process for SBVR has begun • Other harmonization / transform definition activities: – Terminology Science vs. Information Science (modeling, metadata and data) – TC 37 terminology standards + SBVR to ISO 11179 Metadata Registry standard – ISO TC 215 WG 3 – Healthcare Semantics • Generic Vocabularies – Time, Weights & Measures, Geographic, Math • Vertical Industry Vocabularies (OMG Domain Task Forces) • Standard Notation(s) for SBVR • Terminology Content Availability in Online Databases & Registries – ISO Standards as Databases – Terminology online and free – Euro Term Bank – Terminology/Vocabulary Services for Vocabulary Adoption © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 77

OMG SBVR-related activity • Business Motivation Model: – Accepted September 2005 for consideration as OMG SBVR-related activity • Business Motivation Model: – Accepted September 2005 for consideration as existing standard to be adopted – Accepted December 2007 for publication as an OMG Specification • Completion of related OMG specifications: BPDM, OSM, PRR: • Alignment across OMG business-oriented specs: – Interfaces – Common vocabulary – Business Architecture emerges • Transforms to MDA CIM and PIM • Submission of RFP responses using SVBR? (Has been done in one submission for OSM) • Interest from Regulatory Compliance DSIG © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 78

Reusing “Business Vocabulary” • Take SBVR specification, excluding “Business Vocabulary for Business Rules” • Reusing “Business Vocabulary” • Take SBVR specification, excluding “Business Vocabulary for Business Rules” • Use it to define vocabularies for other aspects of business modelling, e. g. – “Business Vocabulary for Business Process” – “Business Vocabulary for Organization Structure” (already done in on OMS RFP submission) These are examples of SBVR’s self-extensibility • Then will have consistency for vocabulary definition – and for MOF/XMI-compliant interchange • When creating a business model for a specific business, use the same vocabulary for all aspects © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 79

World Wide Web Consortium • See rules as a major part of Semantic Web World Wide Web Consortium • See rules as a major part of Semantic Web and Web services • Has established Rule Interchange Format (RIF) Working Group – http: //www. w 3. org/2005/rules/wg – Chartered in November 2005 for 2 years; extended by 6 months – Version 1 publication scheduled for June 2008 – SBVR is one of the major inputs: ongoing liaison with OMG (also for ODM and PRR) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 80

Appendix E. SBVR Resources Appendix E. SBVR Resources

SBVR Resources • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules” Specification – http: //www. SBVR Resources • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules” Specification – http: //www. omg. org/cgi-bin/doc? formal/08 -01 -02. pdf • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules” Tutorial – http: //www. Business. Semantics. com/SBVR_Tutorial. pdf • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules” Overview (Annex A) – http: //www. omg. org/cgi-bin/doc? formal/08 -01 -02. pdf • “Semantics of Business Vocabulary & Business Rules” EU Rent Example (Annex E) – http: //www. omg. org/cgi-bin/doc? formal/08 -01 -02. pdf • SBVR Foundation – www. sbvrfoundation. eu © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 82

Vendors of ‘Business Tools for Specifying Vocabulary & Policy/Rules’ • Unisys “Rules Modeler” – Vendors of ‘Business Tools for Specifying Vocabulary & Policy/Rules’ • Unisys “Rules Modeler” – http: //www. unisys. com/products/software/business__process__software/rules__mana gement/index. htm • Rule Arts “Rule. Xpress” – http: //www. rulearts. com/ • DANTERMcentret “i-Term Suite” – http: //www. i-term. dk/ • Know. Gravity 1 “Know. Enterprise™/Business” – http: //www. knowgravity. com/pdf-e/Know. Enterprise-BU%20 E. pdf • Business Semantics Ltd 1 “Smart. Glossary™” – www. Business. Semantics. com • PNA Group Cog. NIAM Studio - • - www. pna-generics. nl Neumont University 2” “NORMA” – https: //sourceforge. net/projects/orm 1 Available only in the context of a consulting engagement; 2 Open Source tool © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 83

Appendix F. Terminology for Presentation Appendix F. Terminology for Presentation

Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 model (generalized from MDA Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 model (generalized from MDA model) set of all the expressions of a single system definition of a set of interrelated concepts that are in the minds of, and shared among, the members of a semantic community, that are conceptualized for a specific purpose of a given subject field system model (syn: MDA model) – More General Concept • – model Delimiting Characteristics • • • the semantic community is the community of developers of the system the given subject field is “developing some concrete or abstract thing of interest as a system” the interrelated concepts are related to the thing by an explicit or implicit isomorphism expression something that manifests a system definition in (a) specified notation(s) and is recorded in a specified medium system definition formulation into an abstract syntax of the meaning of a set of interrelated concepts that are conceptualized for a specific purpose using given language specification; e. g. UML, OWL, ORM, etc. set of interrelated concepts synonyms: concepts system [ISO 1087 -1 (3. 2. 11)] body of shared concepts [SBVR] NOTE: These definitions are based on “The MDA Foundation Model” Section 2. “Models” (HTTP: //www. omg. org/docs/ormsc/07 -06 -03. pdf) © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 85

Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 terminological dictionary – collection Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 terminological dictionary – collection of terminological entries (3. 8. 2) presenting information related to concepts (3. 2. 1) or designations (3. 4. 1) from one or more specific subject fields (3. 1. 2) [ISO 1087 -1 (3. 7. 1)] Equivalent Definition from MDA: (syn: model) set of all the expressions of a single system definition of a set of interrelated concepts that are in the minds of, and shared among, the members of a semantic community, that are conceptualized for a specific purpose of a given subject field – Additional characteristics true of all ISO 407 / 1087 -1, 1087 -2 terminological dictionaries: • always documents the special purpose language for the subject field • designations (3. 4. 1) always talk about (denote) things (objects 3. 1. 1) in the subject world and NOT anything else in the terminological data collection • meaning (concept 3. 2. 1) separated from expression (designation 3. 4. 1) • words comprising terms are in a natural language and chosen to be the best natural language equivalent of the meaning of the concept (see ISO 704: 2000 section 7. 3 “Term Formation”) – Additional characteristics true of all SBVR terminological dictionaries: • always documents the special purpose language of the semantic community • semantic community is identified and unambiguously defined, often identified by reference to a discipline, subject field, or one or more organization units NOTE: all term references taken from ISO 1087 -1: 2000 or ISO 1087 -2: 2000 © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 86

Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 ontology description of a Definitions Based on MDA Foundation Model and ISO 1087 -1 ontology description of a universe of discourse in a language that a computer can process [ISO/IEC 19763 -3 (4. 2. 2)] natural language ontology (syn: formal terminology) – More General Concept • ontology – Delimiting Characteristics • conceptualized in a same way the semantic community thinks & communicates about it • with terms and names formed from natural language Equivalent Definition from ISO 1087 -1: • More General Concept – terminological dictionary • Delimiting Characteristics – defined in a way that gives it an adequate interpretation in formal logic business ontology (syn: business formal terminology) – More General Concept • natural language ontology – Delimiting Characteristics • subject world of the natural language ontology is any aspect of the context, design, management or operation of an organization and its products/services, except for information requirements specification and software development © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 87

Business Requirements for Application Software Terms specification a detailed precise presentation of something or Business Requirements for Application Software Terms specification a detailed precise presentation of something or of a plan or proposal for something [Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary 2 a] requirement – something that is needed for a particular purpose (often used in the plural) [Encarta] business requirements specification for software system – More General Concept • specification • requirement – Delimiting Characteristics • The thing for which requirements are being specified is a software system • the particular purpose for the requirements is the automation of selected information processing and business decision-making by the organization for which the software is a business resource • the content of the requirements specification includes: – Software capability required » » That for which the software should do something What the software should do with that – Software quality required » » How well the software should be materialized How well the software should do what it does © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 88

Business Requirements for Application Software Terms data and rules requirements specification part of a Business Requirements for Application Software Terms data and rules requirements specification part of a business requirements specification for software system that contains only that for which the software should do something, including: – Kinds of Business Facts with Reference Schemes and their requirement context, e. g. bottom level activity for essential business processes • • NEED to KNOW NEED to REMEMBER NEED in OFFICIAL/LEGAL DOCUMENT NEED for AUDIT (intermediate data between system inputs and outputs) – Terminological entries which provide the business semantics for the business facts, including concepts covering events and states – Structural Rules made explicit from intensional definitions and modified for recording requirements – Time for which business facts must be true and timeliness (recording lag from occurrence) – Data integrity points required; e. g. month-end closing, input batches, etc. – Behavioural rules © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 89

Some Key MDA Terms (1) class-of-platform independent model: model that is independent of any Some Key MDA Terms (1) class-of-platform independent model: model that is independent of any particular class of platform e. g. specific to document, relational database, object-oriented database, messaging system, etc. class-of-platform specific model (syn: vendor platform independent model): model that is optimized for with a given class of platform, but independent of any specific vendor platform; e. g. specific to relational database, but independent of Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, etc. vendor platform specific model: model that is optimized for a single vendor’s platform of a given class of platform; e. g. HP Phototsmart 3310 All-in-One; SQL Server; Versant; MQ Series © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 90

Some Key MDA Terms (2) software model – More General Concept • system model Some Key MDA Terms (2) software model – More General Concept • system model that models the class of system: software class-of-platform independent data model – More General Concepts • software model that is a class-of-platform independent model that contains only structures for recording data © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 91

Some Key MDA Terms (3) class-of-platform specific data model software model that is a Some Key MDA Terms (3) class-of-platform specific data model software model that is a class-of-platform specific model and contains only structures for recording data vendor platform specific data model software model that is a vendor platform specific model and contains only structures for recording data © Model Systems / Business Semantics Open Forum 2008: SBVR Tutorial 92