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SEMANTICS LI 2013 NATHALIE F. MARTIN SEMANTICS LI 2013 NATHALIE F. MARTIN

Table of Content 1. CONCEPT, REFERENT AND FORM 2. SEMANTICS 3. SEMANTIC RELATIONS AMONG Table of Content 1. CONCEPT, REFERENT AND FORM 2. SEMANTICS 3. SEMANTIC RELATIONS AMONG WORDS 1. THE –NYMS 4. AMBIGUITY (REVIEW OF TEXT - STAGEBERG) 5. MEANING 6. MEANING OF WORDS THROUGH TIME

References: A Concise Introduction to Linguistics (Rowe & Levine, 2009; 153 -173) Contemporary Linguistic References: A Concise Introduction to Linguistics (Rowe & Levine, 2009; 153 -173) Contemporary Linguistic Analysis (O’Grady & Archibald, 2009, p. 190 -207) Ambiguity in College Writing (Stageberb, Norman C. , in Linguistics at Work: A Reader of Application, by Dallin D. Oaks, 1998)

Semantics Semantics

Definition: Semantics is the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions, such as morphemes, Definition: Semantics is the study of the meaning of linguistic expressions, such as morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

What is the Meaning of This? Cold Behind Old Accent Fine Nobody Cool This What is the Meaning of This? Cold Behind Old Accent Fine Nobody Cool This Fly Getting in touch

CONTEXT is Key ! – Certain aspects of meaning change with the ___________ Nobody CONTEXT is Key ! – Certain aspects of meaning change with the ___________ Nobody bought milk (store owner vs. room mates) X is old: “old” means different things depending on what X is (person, food, currency, place, friend…) Ø Context is therefore very important!! Can you think of words or expressions that have more than one definition depending on the context?

Semantics Two types of semantics: 1. _______: meaning of words 2. _______: meaning of Semantics Two types of semantics: 1. _______: meaning of words 2. _______: meaning of utterances larger than words

Semantic Relations Among Words THE –NYMS: 1. HYPONYM, HYPERNYM AND 2. 3. 4. 5. Semantic Relations Among Words THE –NYMS: 1. HYPONYM, HYPERNYM AND 2. 3. 4. 5. COHYPONYM SYNONYM AND PARASYNONYMS ANTONYMS POLYSEMY HOMONYM 1. 2. 3. Homonyms Homophone Homographs

1. Hyponyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Hyponyms and hypernyms Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are 1. Hyponyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Hyponyms and hypernyms Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are _____ instances of a more general word, e. g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Hyponyms and cohyponyms

1. Hyponyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Let’s organize these words: Dance (verb) Salsa Exercice 1. Hyponyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Let’s organize these words: Dance (verb) Salsa Exercice Tango

2. Synonyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Synonymy: words that have the ____ meanings, e. 2. Synonyms (Semantic Relations among Words) Synonymy: words that have the ____ meanings, e. g. start & begin.

Synonyms or Parasynonyms? Do they really have the same meanings? Are they interchangable? o Synonyms or Parasynonyms? Do they really have the same meanings? Are they interchangable? o Vacation = holidays o Youth = adolescent o Remember = recall o Purchase = buy o Big = large

Synonyms & Parasynonyms Pride and Prejudice, a screenplay by Deborah Moggach The danger of Synonyms & Parasynonyms Pride and Prejudice, a screenplay by Deborah Moggach The danger of parasynonyms and over- extension Chapter 3 : 20 minutes into the movie http: //dictionary. reference. com/

Notice the Words with Many Meanings Notice the Words with Many Meanings

An Accomplished Woman An Accomplished Woman

Synonyms & Parasynonyms The danger of parasynonyms and over-extension Chapter 3 : 20 minutes Synonyms & Parasynonyms The danger of parasynonyms and over-extension Chapter 3 : 20 minutes into the movie Odious: deserving or causing hatred; hateful; detestable. Long: to have an earnest or strong desire or craving; yearn Dote one her: to bestow or express excessive love or fondness habitually In raptures: ecstatic joy or delight; joyful ecstasy. Accomplished having all the social graces, manners, and other attainments of polite society. http: //dictionary. reference. com/

3. Antonyms A. GRADABLE VS UNGRADABLE B. RELAQTIONAL: • • Converse Reversives 3. Antonyms A. GRADABLE VS UNGRADABLE B. RELAQTIONAL: • • Converse Reversives

Antonyms vs Synonyms Antonymy: words that are ____ in meanings, e. g. hot & Antonyms vs Synonyms Antonymy: words that are ____ in meanings, e. g. hot & cold. Synonymy or Antonymy n Flourish – thrive n Intelligent – stupid n Casual – informal n Flog – whip n Drunk – sober a. b. c. d. e. synonym antonym

a. Gradable/ungradable antonyms Grading involves _______. When we compare two or more objects. Do a. Gradable/ungradable antonyms Grading involves _______. When we compare two or more objects. Do the objects have the property to the same _____or not: … cold cool warm + hot … Gradable: “cold” and “colder” The weather is much colder this week than last week. Ungradable: “male” ٭ John is as much male as Peter. ٭ John is more male than Peter.

a. Gradable/ungradable antonyms (continued) Exception: Normal language behavior: ungradable antonyms can sometimes be graded a. Gradable/ungradable antonyms (continued) Exception: Normal language behavior: ungradable antonyms can sometimes be graded in speech. Example John is more of a bachelor than Daniel (i. e. more determined never to get married, partying, had never had a stable girlfriend, etc. ) I am more alive now than ever (i. e. feeling more energetic, satisfied with my life, etc).

b. Relational: Conversives There is a _______between both. Without one you don’t have the b. Relational: Conversives There is a _______between both. Without one you don’t have the other. Ø Examples: o Husband – wife o Doctor – patient o Master – mistress o Before - after o Above – below, etc. Often used to speak of _______social roles, _______and _______relations.

c. Relational: Reversives Another term: ______________. Examples: o Up - down o Come - c. Relational: Reversives Another term: ______________. Examples: o Up - down o Come - go o Arrive – depart o Marry – divorce Ø You can reverse one by doing the other. Ø Common feature: implication of_____in one of the two opposite directions ________.

Mind Mapping http: //www. visualthesaurus. com/ Mind Mapping http: //www. visualthesaurus. com/

Antonyms (review) q Gradable vs Ungradable? (too, more, less, etc. ) q Relational: Conversive? Antonyms (review) q Gradable vs Ungradable? (too, more, less, etc. ) q Relational: Conversive? (different points of view) q Relational: Reversives? (one can reverse the other)

4. Polysemy Semantic Relations among Words Polysemy: A word which has ____ or more 4. Polysemy Semantic Relations among Words Polysemy: A word which has ____ or more ____meanings e. g. bright: ‘bright light’ ; ‘bright colors’ Ø A words' ______is helpful in determining polysemy Ø Ø http: //dictionary. reference. com/browse/polysemy http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/polysemy? show=0&t=1290530170

5. Homonymy Semantic Relations among Words Homonymy: A word which has __ or more 5. Homonymy Semantic Relations among Words Homonymy: A word which has __ or more _______ meanings Ex: Club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’.

Identifying Homonyms in Jokes 1. Time flies ____ an arrow Fruit flies ____ a Identifying Homonyms in Jokes 1. Time flies ____ an arrow Fruit flies ____ a banana 2. Policeman: Why have you parked your car here? Motorist: Because the sign says “______for Parking”. 3. Customer: Have you got half-inch ______? Ironmonger: Yes, sir. Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/like

Polysemy & Homonymy ? http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/accent Polysemy & Homonymy ? http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/accent

Homonyms, Homophony & Homography Homophony: Different words _______but _______, ex. two and too. Homography: Homonyms, Homophony & Homography Homophony: Different words _______but _______, ex. two and too. Homography: Different words _______but _______, e. g. minute and minute. , ØHomonyms are words that are _____ homophones _____ and homographs.

Sam Identifying homophones Pronu e ncia / Di tion ffer Spe ent lling 1. Sam Identifying homophones Pronu e ncia / Di tion ffer Spe ent lling 1. [steər] 1. Stair, stare 2. [weist] 2. waste, waist 3. [si: l. Iη] 3. sealing, ceiling 4. [kju: ] 4. cue, queue 5. [sent] 5. sent, cent, scent

Sam Identifying Homographs Spe e / Di lling Pron fferent unc 1. Read iatio Sam Identifying Homographs Spe e / Di lling Pron fferent unc 1. Read iatio n 2. Wind 3. Live 4. Tear 5. Invalid 6. Bow 7. Dove

Polysemy or Homonymy*? GRASS: herbage used for grazing animals; marijuana LEECH: a bloodsucking worm; Polysemy or Homonymy*? GRASS: herbage used for grazing animals; marijuana LEECH: a bloodsucking worm; a hanger-on who seeks advantage RANGE: A cooking stove; a series of mountains KEY: An instrument used to apply to a lock; an answer sheet for tests or assignments STEAL/STEEL: rob ; a type of metal RACE: the act of running competitively; people belonging to the same genetic grouping FLOWER/FLOUR: a type of plant; finely ground wheat

Homonymy or Polysemy ? PASS ? Homonymy or Polysemy ? PASS ?

A Few Other Relations PARTS OF A WHOLE Meronym: Part of a whole Holonym: A Few Other Relations PARTS OF A WHOLE Meronym: Part of a whole Holonym: The whole to which parts belong Metonym: is a figure of speech where a thing is called by the name of something closely associated to it. Ex: "ear" means "attention” (lending an ear) Ex: Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power.

http: //www. visualthesaurus. com/ http: //www. visualthesaurus. com/

Application: Bible Translation A case study of a polysemous word : I do not Application: Bible Translation A case study of a polysemous word : I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. 1 Timothy 2: 12 (English Standard Version) Context: I allow no woman to teach or to have authority over men; she is to remain in quietness and keep silence [in religious assemblies]. 1 Timothy 2: 12 (Amplified Bible) Polysemy and Cooccurance: “Woman” or “Wife” ? But I suffer not a woman to teach, neither to have lordship on the husband [neither for to have lordship on the man], but to be in silence. 1 Timothy 2: 12 (Wycliffe New Testament) Key word Bible:

Ambiguity Review of the text: Ambiguity in College Writing (Stageberb, Norman C. , in Ambiguity Review of the text: Ambiguity in College Writing (Stageberb, Norman C. , in Linguistics at Work: A Reader of Application, by Dallin D. Oaks, 1998)

Multiple Meanings LEXICAL (OR POLYSEMANTIC) AMBIGUITY E. g. For many purposes they used obsidian Multiple Meanings LEXICAL (OR POLYSEMANTIC) AMBIGUITY E. g. For many purposes they used obsidian or volcanic rock. SYNTACTIC (OR STRUCTURAL) AMBIGUITY E. g. a fat lady’s man CLASS AMBIGUITY: E. g. Many hands make light work. (in given example) SCRIPT AMBIGUITY: E. g. I am an outdoor lover. “lover of the Out-of-doors” … or … ? Ambiguity in College Writing (Stageberb)

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical (or polysemantic) ambiguity? q Syntactic (structural) ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity? A small business man.

What Ambiguity? q Lexical ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity? What Ambiguity? q Lexical ambiguity? q Syntactic ambiguity? q Class ambiguity? q Script ambiguity?

Concept, Referent and Form PRELIMINARY THEORY TO SEMANTICS Concept, Referent and Form PRELIMINARY THEORY TO SEMANTICS

The Abstract Side of Language Don’t think of a pink elephant! The Abstract Side of Language Don’t think of a pink elephant!

Referent: the actual thing REFERENT (the actual thing) Referent: the actual thing REFERENT (the actual thing)

Referent, Concept and Symbol SYMBOL (word) [bərd] CONCEPT (abstract, in our heads) Qu’est-ce que Referent, Concept and Symbol SYMBOL (word) [bərd] CONCEPT (abstract, in our heads) Qu’est-ce que le langage? (Leclerc)

Referent, Concept and Symbol SYMBOL (word) [bərd] CONCEPT (abstract, in our heads) REFERENT (the Referent, Concept and Symbol SYMBOL (word) [bərd] CONCEPT (abstract, in our heads) REFERENT (the actual thing) Ferdinand de Saussure Qu’est-ce que le langage? (Leclerc)

Referent, Concept and Symbol The _____ refers to the linguistic elements (word, sentence, etc. Referent, Concept and Symbol The _____ refers to the linguistic elements (word, sentence, etc. ), the ______ refers to the object in the world of experience, and THOUGHT or REFERENCE refers to _____. Ø The symbol or a word signifies “things” by virtue of the “concept” associated with the form of the word in the minds of the speaker of the language, and the concept looked at from this point of view is the meaning of the word. e. g. The dog over there looks friendly. The word “dog” is directly associated with a certain concept in our mind, i. e. what a “dog” is like, but it is not directly linked to the referent (the particular dog) in this particular case.

Referent, Concept and Symbol Concept Refers to Referent evokes Symbol There is not a Referent, Concept and Symbol Concept Refers to Referent evokes Symbol There is not a direct link between the sound of the word dog (Symbol) and the object it refers to. What is called the signified is not actually what we have been shown but an abstract concept formed in our mind. Stands for no direct relationship Semantic Triangle Ogden & Richards

Romeo and Juliette (Shakespeare) Juliet: 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy; Thou Romeo and Juliette (Shakespeare) Juliet: 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy; Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! WHAT'S IN A NAME? THAT WHICH WE CALL A ROSE BY ANY OTHER NAME WOULD SMELL AS SWEET; So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd, Retain that dear perfection which he owes Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name, And for that name which is no part of thee

Review: The Psychic Side of Things SYMBOL CONCEPT Sounds bərd] Concept -Mental representation of Review: The Psychic Side of Things SYMBOL CONCEPT Sounds bərd] Concept -Mental representation of the sound (mental representation of reality) - « acoustic image » -Psychic (sound pattern) -Mental image of the referent -A string of phonemes (sounds) -Psychic imprint - Ex: covered in feathers, has a beak, - We refer to this mental imprint to etc. understand when someone speaks -Common to speakers of that language (therefore conventional) Ferdinand de Saussure

Concepts Across Languages « WIN » (Eng) « GAGNER » (Fr) « DEVANCER » Concepts Across Languages « WIN » (Eng) « GAGNER » (Fr) « DEVANCER » ( fr) BEAT / « BEATER » (to be ahead) (Acadian French)

Meaning SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connotation Denotation Extension Meaning SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connotation Denotation Extension and intention Componential Analysis Subcategorization of verbs Actantial Approach

What is “word meaning”? § What does it mean when you say you know What is “word meaning”? § What does it mean when you say you know the meaning of a word? § What does it mean when you say you know a word, such as “bird” “blue”, or “happy” ? § How do we _____ of a word meaning?

Approaches to Word Meaning Here a few ways to look at meaning: Connotation 2. Approaches to Word Meaning Here a few ways to look at meaning: Connotation 2. Denotation 3. Extension and intention 4. Componential Analysis 5. Subcategorization of verbs 6. Actantial Approach 1.

1. Connotation « Set of associations that a word’s use can _______ » _______ 1. Connotation « Set of associations that a word’s use can _______ » _______ e. g. winter Ø Let’s do some word mapping around the word winter ! Ø This is not enough to define the meaning …

2. Denotation According to _________ … To equate meaning to a word or phrase 2. Denotation According to _________ … To equate meaning to a word or phrase with actual entities to which it refers e. g. an animal that can bark = dog Prime Minister of Canada = Paul Martin * But what about imaginary things that have no referents !!!

Denotation And what about words/expressions that have ____referents for one thing, for the same Denotation And what about words/expressions that have ____referents for one thing, for the same ____ thing e. g. Stephen Harper the Prime Minister of Canada ‡ the leader of Conservative Party

3. Extension versus intention A word’s corresponds to the ______ that it _____ in 3. Extension versus intention A word’s corresponds to the ______ that it _____ in the world (_____ ) A word’s corresponds to its _________ or the _____ that _____. * The distinction stipulates the relation between referents and meanings

4. Componential Analysis Used to represents the word’s INTENTION ALSO CALLED: COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS OR 4. Componential Analysis Used to represents the word’s INTENTION ALSO CALLED: COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS OR SEMANTIC DECOMPOSITION

Componential Analysis Contemporary Linguistics Analysis: p. 196 Semantic properties: The _____ of meaning of Componential Analysis Contemporary Linguistics Analysis: p. 196 Semantic properties: The _____ of meaning of a word. Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the _____ or _____ of semantic properties by “+” and “-”. Ø Example of componential analysis: “baby” is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].

Componential Analysis 1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, Componential Analysis 1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet [ human] The (a) and (b) words are The (a) words are [ female] The (b) words are [ male] 2. (a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief (b) bull, rooster, drake, ram The (a) and (b) words are [ male] The (a) words are [ human] The (b) words are [ animal]

Componential Analysis 3. (a) table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship (b) milk, alcohol, rice, Componential Analysis 3. (a) table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship (b) milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mud The (a) words are [ count] The (b) words are [ count] 4. (a) pine, elm, sycamore (b) dandelion, aster, daisy The (a) and (b) words are [ plant] The (a) words are [ tree] The (b) words are [ flower]

Componential Analysis SWINE Definition: an adult female swine; also : the adult female of Componential Analysis SWINE Definition: an adult female swine; also : the adult female of various other animals (as a bear) Ø http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ Semantic Analysis:

Componential Analysis CAR Definition: A vehicle moving on wheels Ø http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ Componential Analysis CAR Definition: A vehicle moving on wheels Ø http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ Semantic Analysis: How would we know that it is not a truck?

Componential Analysis BUTTERFLY Definition: any of numerous slender-bodied diurnal lepidopteran insects including one superfamily Componential Analysis BUTTERFLY Definition: any of numerous slender-bodied diurnal lepidopteran insects including one superfamily (Papilionoidea) with broad often brightly colored wings and usually another superfamily comprising the skippers Ø http: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/ Semantic Analysis: [+ ], [+ ], [- ] …

5. Subcategorization of Verbs 2 COMPLEMENTS: Fax Radio Wire Phone NO COMPLEMENT: Murmur Mumble 5. Subcategorization of Verbs 2 COMPLEMENTS: Fax Radio Wire Phone NO COMPLEMENT: Murmur Mumble Mutter Shriek Emphasis on: - _________ Ø So there’s a link between _____ and _____ !!!

The Word’s Context / Word Combinations THE IMPORTANCE OF WORD COMBINATION: An example: What The Word’s Context / Word Combinations THE IMPORTANCE OF WORD COMBINATION: An example: What is wrong with this sentence: Ø The colorless green ideas sleep furiously.

The Word’s Context / Word Combinations There are many reasons why two words cannot The Word’s Context / Word Combinations There are many reasons why two words cannot be combined: Meaning • Inherent meaning (ex: colorless green*) • Connotation (ex: sleep furiously*) • Semantic limits of words (ex: watched the intelligence*; or green ideas*) Syntax • Complements (ex: he closed the telephone*) • Subject (ex: the door danced*)

6. Actantial Approach In defining a verb we should also describe it’s _____ and 6. Actantial Approach In defining a verb we should also describe it’s _____ and _____ : A 1 tosses A 2 to A 3: A 1 = [+ human] A 2 = [+ concrete], [+ movable], [+ small] A 3 = [± human] or [+ living/moving], [+ with hands/arms] … We can also use this approach with other lexical categories like adjectives, nouns, adverbs, etc. * Again, this is a combination of ______ and _____ ! Jacqueline Picoche

SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING Therefore: The colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Ø Ø “IDEAS” SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING Therefore: The colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Ø Ø “IDEAS” cannot have a color since it is [+ abstract] “FURIOUSLY” has to modify a verbs where one is conscious, amongst other things. “SLEEP” has a “restful” connotation. “FURIOUSLY” doesn’t. Something cannot be “colorless” and “green” at the same time. There is semantic contradiction here.

SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. . Connotation Denotation Extension SIX APPROACHES TO MEANING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. . Connotation Denotation Extension and intention Componential Analysis Subcategorization of verbs Actantial Approach

Meaning of Words Through Time Meaning of Words Through Time

Neologism (or Coinage) Neologism (or Coinage)

Neologism (or Coinage) Using derivation: Neologism (or Coinage) Using derivation:

Evolution of Meaning Language Changes a lot, not just in adding new words here Evolution of Meaning Language Changes a lot, not just in adding new words here and there, but also as the meaning of these words change with time. o o « Cool » used to mean « not warm/cold » . Then the meaning changed. Now, « cool » , is not really that « cool » anymore !

Evolution of Meaning = Polysemy BARRÉ (Acadian French): - Blocked door (with actual bar) Evolution of Meaning = Polysemy BARRÉ (Acadian French): - Blocked door (with actual bar) - Blocked door (locked) - Blocked river - Blocked road Ø This is how you get _____

Evolution of Meaning Evolution of Meaning

Lexicology MEANING AND DICTIONARIES Lexicology MEANING AND DICTIONARIES

Analogy Definition of the French words “PLUME”: 1. A feather 2. A feather used Analogy Definition of the French words “PLUME”: 1. A feather 2. A feather used for writing (“plume-fontaine”) 3. A ball point pen (ou “stylo”) Ø Definitions drawn out of a metaphor (or _____ ). Ø From something concrete to something concrete. Dictionary. com Choi-Jonin & Delhay, 1998

Analogy, Figurative Sense & Metonymy Definition of the words “SWORD” : 1. a weapon Analogy, Figurative Sense & Metonymy Definition of the words “SWORD” : 1. a weapon (…). 2. this weapon as the symbol of military power, punitive justice. authority, etc. Ex: The pen is mightier than the sword. war, combat, slaughter, or violence. 4. The Bible. 3. Ø What meanings are drawn out of a certain metaphor? _____– from concrete to concrete: Ø _____– from concrete to abstract: Ø Ø _____ : pen and sword Dictionary. com Choi-Jonin & Delhay, 1998