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Semantic Management of Business Processes in the Future Internet Presenters • • • Agata Semantic Management of Business Processes in the Future Internet Presenters • • • Agata Filipowska (Poznan University of Economics, Poland) Dumitru Roman (STI Innsbruck, Austria) Alexander Simov (Ontotext lab. , Bulgaria) at I-CENTRIC 2008 Sliema, Malta October 26 th, 2008

Acknowledgement & Copyrights • This material is based upon works supported by the EU Acknowledgement & Copyrights • This material is based upon works supported by the EU under the SUPER project (FP 6 - 026850) • Material Preparation – KMI: John Domingue, Barry Norton – Poznan University: Agata Filipowska – IAAS, University of Stuttgart: Dimka Karastoyanova, Jörg Nitzsche, Tammo van Lessen, Zhilei Ma, Frank Leymann – IDS Scheer: Sebastian Stein – STI Innsbruck: Dumitru Roman, Michael Stollberg – DERI Galway: Maciej Zaremba, Sami Bhiri, Armin Haller – Ontotext: Marin Dimitrov © by the SUPER project consortium © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 2

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 3

Introduction Agata Filipowska, Poznan University of Economics Introduction Agata Filipowska, Poznan University of Economics

Querying the Process Space © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 5 Querying the Process Space © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 5

The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 6

The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 7

What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 8 What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 8

What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 9 What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 9

What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 10 What Are My Services? © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 10

Matching Activities and Port Types Based on Semantics Semantic Web Services © SUPER 18. Matching Activities and Port Types Based on Semantics Semantic Web Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 11

Supporting Business Users Better © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 12 Supporting Business Users Better © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 12

Matching Model Representations & Semantics © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 13 Matching Model Representations & Semantics © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 13

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 14

Business Process Management Introduction Agata Filipowska Business Process Management Introduction Agata Filipowska

BPM’s Parents and Definition Office Automation (since 1980) SOA (since 2000) CSCW / Groupware BPM’s Parents and Definition Office Automation (since 1980) SOA (since 2000) CSCW / Groupware / Workgroup Systems Business Objects (since 2000) Business Process Mngt. (since 2000) Workflow Systems (since 1985) Business Process Management (BPM) Business Process Modelling (since 1990) EAI (since 1990) Business Reengineering (since 1990) Continuous Improvements (since 1990) © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 16

Enterprise Modelling Enterprise Models: “… a computational representation of the structure, activities, processes, information, Enterprise Modelling Enterprise Models: “… a computational representation of the structure, activities, processes, information, resources, people, behavior, goals, and constraints of a business, government, or other enterprises. ” What (Data) Models How (Function) Where (Network) Who (People) When Why e. g. UML Class Diagram, ER Model e. g. Function Modeling e. g. Business Logistics System e. g. Workflow Model e. g. Master Schedule e. g. Business Plan, Strategic Maps © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 17

Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 18 Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 18

Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 19 Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 19

Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 20 Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 20

Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 21 Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 21

Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 22 Enterprise Model © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 22

Enterprise Model too complex © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 23 Enterprise Model too complex © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 23

Enterprise Model • possible abstraction layers are: – – requirements definition design specification implementation Enterprise Model • possible abstraction layers are: – – requirements definition design specification implementation specification execution and run-time models • possible views are: – – – organisational view product view data view (information architecture) function and IT view process view © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 24

Enterprise Model • many different frameworks for enterprise architecture, e. g. : – – Enterprise Model • many different frameworks for enterprise architecture, e. g. : – – – Zachman Framework (very comprehensive) Archi. Mate (simplified version of Zachman) ARIS (promoted by IDS Scheer) TOGAF (strong IT focus) IAF (promoted by Cap Gemini) • currently many discussions around process design & execution, e. g. : – – – – BPMN (notation for (IT oriented) business processes) EPC (notation for business processes) Petrinets (formalism often used for workflow modelling) UML Activity diagrams XPDL (execution language for process definitions) BPEL (execution language for process definitions) XLANG (execution language promoted by Microsoft). . . © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 25

Process Lifecycle • • • enterprise model evolves lifecycle based on general Deming cycle Process Lifecycle • • • enterprise model evolves lifecycle based on general Deming cycle for continuous process improvements sometimes also named Shewhart cycle 1. 2. 3. 4. Plan Do Check Act © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 26

Summary • BPM definition depends on your focus • Enterprise Model describes all relevant Summary • BPM definition depends on your focus • Enterprise Model describes all relevant aspects of your enterprise • different stakeholders will have different views and information needs • lifecycle for the different parts of the Enterprise Model • BPM is done for many different purposes, but SUPER focus on: – business process design – business process execution – monitoring and analysis of execution © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 27

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 28

Business Process Management Processes and Process Execution Alexander Simov Business Process Management Processes and Process Execution Alexander Simov

BPM Applications Business Experts’ Perspective: Processes Querying the Process Space Manual Labor Process Implementation BPM Applications Business Experts’ Perspective: Processes Querying the Process Space Manual Labor Process Implementation IT Implementation Perspective © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 30

What is BPEL? • BPM language/model • Language to specify behaviour of business processes What is BPEL? • BPM language/model • Language to specify behaviour of business processes • Executable and Abstract processes – – Executable processes – Executed within a compliant environment (portability) Abstract processes – Specify constraints of message exchange – Provide “views” on internal processes • Combination of graph-based language (IBM WSFL) and calculus-based language (Microsoft XLANG) © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 31

BPEL Web Service composition • BPEL process composes (uses) Web services © SUPER 18. BPEL Web Service composition • BPEL process composes (uses) Web services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 32

Business Processes as Web services • BPEL Process is also a Web service – Business Processes as Web services • BPEL Process is also a Web service – functionality in terms of WSDL port types and operations © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 33

Process Lifecycle within the Engine Instantiation Process Definition Deployment Process Instance. . . Execution Process Lifecycle within the Engine Instantiation Process Definition Deployment Process Instance. . . Execution via the Navigator BPEL Document Invocation and Management Framework Receive* Reply BPEL Engine * Receive may cause an Instantiation of a Process © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 34

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 35

Semantic Web Services Dumitru Roman Semantic Web Services Dumitru Roman

Semantics for the WWW Dynamic Static © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Semantics for the WWW Dynamic Static © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 UDDI, WSDL, SOAP Semantic Web Services WWW Semantic Web URI, HTML, HTTP RDF, RDF(S), OWL Web Services I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 37

The Semantic Web • next generation of the Internet (augmentation of the WWW) • The Semantic Web • next generation of the Internet (augmentation of the WWW) • information has machine-processable and machineunderstandable semantics • ontologies as base technology for semantic interoperability semantic bridges ontology RDF © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 OWL ontology Web Appl. XML DB I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 38

Ontology Definition conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) unambiguous terminology definitions formal, explicit Ontology Definition conceptual model of a domain (ontological theory) unambiguous terminology definitions formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization machine-readability with computational semantics © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 commonly accepted understanding I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 39

Ontology Example name Concept conceptual entity of the domain Property attribute describing a concept Ontology Example name Concept conceptual entity of the domain Property attribute describing a concept email Person student ID Student is. A – hierarchy (taxonomy) Professor attends Relation research field holds Lecture relationship between concepts or properties lecture no. Axiom topic coherency description between Concepts / Properties / Relations via logical expressions holds(Professor, Lecture) => Lecture. topic = Professor. research. Field Instance Ann member. Of student name = Ann Lee student. ID = 12345 individual in the domain © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 40

Web Services & SOA • Web Service = program accessible over the Web • Web Services & SOA • Web Service = program accessible over the Web • Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): – use Web services as basic building blocks – dynamically find & invoke those Web services that allow to solve a particular request • Web Service Technologies: 1. WSDL 2. SOAP 3. UDDI Web Service Description Language XML data exchange protocol for the Web registry for Web Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 43

The Web Service Usage Process points to Repository describes find usable Web Service Consumer The Web Service Usage Process points to Repository describes find usable Web Service Consumer WSDL SOAP Web Service WS usage via message exchange © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 44

Deficiencies of WS Technology • current technologies allow usage of Web Services • but: Deficiencies of WS Technology • current technologies allow usage of Web Services • but: – only syntactical information descriptions – syntactic support for discovery, composition and execution => Web Service usability, usage, and integration needs to be inspected manually – no semantically marked up content / services – no support for the Semantic Web => initial Web Service Technology Stack failed to realize the SOA Vision © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 45

Semantic Web Services • automate Web Service technologies by 1. 2. • automated detection Semantic Web Services • automate Web Service technologies by 1. 2. • automated detection and execution of Web services integration with the Semantic Web – – • rich, formal annotation of Web Services ontologies as data model Web Services as integral part of the WWW inference-based techniques for automated discovery, composition, mediation, execution of Web Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 46

Semantic Web Services a) Web Service Description Structure b) Semantic Web Service Description Structure Semantic Web Services a) Web Service Description Structure b) Semantic Web Service Description Structure Non-functional Interface Functionality Web Service Implementation WS (not of interest in Web Service Description) WS WS Aggregation Interface XML Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 Ontology 47

Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) • Comprehensive Framework for SESA Semantically Enabled Service-Oriented Architecture Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) • Comprehensive Framework for SESA Semantically Enabled Service-Oriented Architecture – top level notions = SESA core elements – conceptual model + axiomatization – ontology & rule language • International Consortium (mostly European) – started in 2004 – 78 members from 20 organizations – W 3 C member submission in April 2005 www. wsmo. org © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 48

WSMO Framework & Working Groups Conceptual Model & Axiomatization for SWS Formal Language for WSMO Framework & Working Groups Conceptual Model & Axiomatization for SWS Formal Language for WSMO Ontology & Rule Language for the Semantic Web © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 www. wsmo. org Execution Environment for WSMO 49

WSMO Top-level Elements (http: //www. wsmo. org) Objectives that a client may have when WSMO Top-level Elements (http: //www. wsmo. org) Objectives that a client may have when consulting a Web Service Provide the formally specified terminology of the information used by all other components Semantic description of Web Services: - Capability (functional) - Interfaces (usage) Connectors between components with mediation facilities for handling heterogeneities © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 50

WSMO Ontologies • Ontologies are the ‘data model’ throughout WSMO – all WSMO element WSMO Ontologies • Ontologies are the ‘data model’ throughout WSMO – all WSMO element descriptions rely on ontologies – all data interchanged in Web Service usage are ontologies – Semantic information processing & ontology reasoning • WSMO Ontology Language WSML – conceptual syntax for describing WSMO elements – logical language for axiomatic expressions (WSML Layering) • WSMO Ontology Design – Modularization: – De-Coupling: © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 import / re-using ontologies, modular approach for ontology design heterogeneity handled by OO Mediators I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 51

Ontology Specification • • Non functional properties Imported Ontologies • Used mediators author, date, Ontology Specification • • Non functional properties Imported Ontologies • Used mediators author, date, ID, etc. importing existing ontologies where no heterogeneities arise OO Mediators (ontology import with terminology mismatch handling) Ontology Elements: Concepts Attributes Relations Functions Instances set of entities that exists in the world / domain set of attributes that belong to a concept define interrelations between several concepts special type of relation (unary range = return value) set of instances that belong to the represented ontology Axioms axiomatic expressions in ontology (logical statement) © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 52

The Web Service Modelling Language (WSML) • – – • WSML Core: efficiency and The Web Service Modelling Language (WSML) • – – • WSML Core: efficiency and compatibility WSML DL: decidability, open world semantics WSML Rule: efficient existing rule engines WSML Full: unifying language, theorem proving Static Aspects Dynamic Aspects Languages for dynamics – • WSML Ontology / Rule Languages Mapping languages – – WSML Full Transaction Logic over ASMs WSML Rule for dynamics (process mediation) for data (data mediation) WSML DL WSML Core RDF (S) XML Unicode © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 URI 53

WSMO/WSML – Some Modelling Examples ■ Concept example concept phone. Number non. Functional. Properties WSMO/WSML – Some Modelling Examples ■ Concept example concept phone. Number non. Functional. Properties dc#description has. Value "concept of a phone number" end. Non. Functional. Properties country. Code of. Type _string area. Code of. Type _string number of. Type _string ■ Sub-concept example concept mobile. Phone. Number sub. Concept. Of phone. Number non. Functional. Properties dc#description has. Value "concept of a mobile phone number" end. Non. Functional. Properties mobile. Provider of. Type Provider © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 • Relation example relation has. Route(of. Type route. Description, of. Type route) non. Functional. Properties dc#description has. Value "Relation that holds between a route description and a route" end. Non. Functional. Properties ■ Instance example instance my. Phone. Number member. Of phone. Number country. Code has. Value “ 43“ area. Code has. Value “ 664“ number has. Value “ 49322607“ ■ Axiom example axiom Valid. Information. Quality defined. By forall {? x} ( ? x member. Of information. Quality. Type implies ? x[value has. Value “low“] or ? x[value has. Value “high“]). I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 54

WSMO Web Service Description - complete item description - quality aspects - Web Service WSMO Web Service Description - complete item description - quality aspects - Web Service Management - Advertising of Web Service - Support for WS Discovery Non-functional Properties Capability DC + Qo. S + Version + financial functional description client-service interaction interface for consuming WS - external visible behavior - communication structure - ‘grounding’ Web Service Implementation (not of interest in Web Service Description) WS WS Interface © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 WS I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 realization of functionality by aggregation - functional decomposition - WS composition Orchestration 55

Web Service Description - Example web. Service _ Web Service Description - Example web. Service _"https: //asg-platform. org/Attraction. Booking/Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service" nfp dc#title has. Value "Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service" dc#publisher has. Value "Mobtel“ d. O#inform. Quality. Type has. Value "high" endnfp imports. Ontology _"https: //asg-platform. org/Attraction. Booking/domain. Ontology. wsml" capability Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service. Capability shared. Variables {? P} precondition defined. By ? P member. Of d. O#phone. Number. postcondition defined. By ? L member. Of d. O#location and d. O#has. Location(? P, ? L). interface Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service. Interface choreography Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service. Choreography state. Signature in d. O#phone. Number with. Grounding ss. WSDL#wsdl. interface. Message. Reference(Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service. Port. Type/do. It/In) out d. O#location with. Grounding ss. WSDL#wsdl. interface. Message. Reference(Mobtel. Phone. Location. Service. Port. Type/do. It/Out) transition. Rules for. All{? P} with (? P member. Of d. O#phone. Number) do add(? L member. Of d. O#location and d. O#has. Location(? P, ? L)) end. Forall © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 56

WSMO Goals – Purpose Abstraction Layer for Problem-oriented WS usage Dynamic WS usage Client WSMO Goals – Purpose Abstraction Layer for Problem-oriented WS usage Dynamic WS usage Client objective / problem to be solved client-system interaction Goals formal objective description discovery, composition, mediation Semantics / SWS Ontology SWS description Mediator execution Web Services & Resources Internet WS © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 57

Goal Templates and Goal Instances Service-Side Client-Side Goal Template generic objective description service detection Goal Templates and Goal Instances Service-Side Client-Side Goal Template generic objective description service detection defines Goal Instance concrete input Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 Ontology service usage Domain Knowledge I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 behavioral instantiates Client functional (Web) Service Implementation (not of interest here) Ontology 58

Automated Web Service Usage Goal buy train ticket in Germany - origion: o, destination: Automated Web Service Usage Goal buy train ticket in Germany - origion: o, destination: d - date-time: dt Mediator client interface design time instantiates goal instance with inputs: o = Munich, d = Berlin dt = 20070319 -1030 defines DB Ticketin g runtime executes Client © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 59

SWS Techniques • Discovery find candidate WS to solve a Goal • Selection & SWS Techniques • Discovery find candidate WS to solve a Goal • Selection & Ranking select best candidate / determine a priority list • Composition combine several WS to solve a Goal • Behavioral Compatibility ensure that interaction can take place • Mediation resolve & handle possibly occurring heterogeneities • Execution automatically invoke & consume WS to solve a Goal © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 60

Automated Goal Solving with SWS GOAL if: successful else: not solvable submission else: try Automated Goal Solving with SWS GOAL if: successful else: not solvable submission else: try other WS uses Data Mediator Process Mediator matchmaking R with all WS Discoverer if: composition possible if: usable Selection & Ranking uses Behavioral Conformance uses Composer composition (executable) Service Repository if: compatible information lookup for particular service Executor if: execution error © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 61

WSMO Reference Implementation WSMX - The Web Service Execution Environment • A Service Oriented WSMO Reference Implementation WSMX - The Web Service Execution Environment • A Service Oriented Architecture • Reference implementation of SESA and WSMO • open source (LGPL): http: //sourceforge. net/projects/wsmx/ © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 62

WSMX Design & Properties • Middleware for Semantic Web Services – Allow service providers WSMX Design & Properties • Middleware for Semantic Web Services – Allow service providers focus on their business • Environment for goal-based Web service usage – Run-time binding of service requester and provider • Flexible Service Oriented Architecture – Add, update, remove components at run-time as needed • Open-source to encourage participation – Developers are free to use in their own code • Formal execution semantics – Unambiguous model of system behaviour © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 63

Other WSMO Tools www. wsmo. org/tools • WSML (Specification Language) www. wsmo. org/wsml – Other WSMO Tools www. wsmo. org/tools • WSML (Specification Language) www. wsmo. org/wsml – conceptual language for WSMO – ontology language with several variants • WSMO Editors: – WSML editors + validation – WSMO Studio – WSMO Visualizer • Ontology Technology: – WSML Reasoner (for DL and LP) – Ontology Management Suite – Data Mediator (incl. Abstract Mapping Language) all: Eclipse plugins & open source (LGPL licence) © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 64

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 65

Integration - SUPER Approach Alexander Simov Integration - SUPER Approach Alexander Simov

The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 The Critical IT / Process Divide © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 67

SUPER Main Approach © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 68 SUPER Main Approach © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 68

Semantic BPM Lifecycle ■ Modelling – add semantic (ontological) annotations to business processes ■ Semantic BPM Lifecycle ■ Modelling – add semantic (ontological) annotations to business processes ■ Configuration – map from the business model to an executable process specification ■ Execution – process execution with discovery & composition of SWS ■ Analysis – monitor, analyse & improve processes © SUPER 18/03/2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008

Modelling Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 70 Modelling Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 70

SBP Modelling © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 71 SBP Modelling © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 71

SBP Configuration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 72 SBP Configuration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 72

SBP Execution © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 73 SBP Execution © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 73

SBP Analysis © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 74 SBP Analysis © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 74

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 75 75

Integration - SUPER Approach SUPER Ontology Stack Agata Filipowska Integration - SUPER Approach SUPER Ontology Stack Agata Filipowska

Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 77 Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 77

Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 78 Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 78

UPO © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 79 UPO © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 79

Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 80 Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 80

BPMO © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 81 BPMO © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 81

Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 82 Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 82

s. BPEL © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 83 s. BPEL © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 83

Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 84 Current Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 84

s. RBE Analysis Process RBE Ontology I am interested in an as-is analysis of s. RBE Analysis Process RBE Ontology I am interested in an as-is analysis of the supply chain management Scenario Ontology Business Function Ontology Business Question Repository © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 85

Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 86 Ontology Stack © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 86

Organisational Cloud E. g. YATOSP Framework © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 Organisational Cloud E. g. YATOSP Framework © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 D. 1. 2 and D. 1. 6 Organisational Ontologies 87

Organisational Cloud © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 88 Organisational Cloud © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 88

Organisational Structure Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 89 Organisational Structure Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 89

Business Roles Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 90 Business Roles Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 90

Organisational Units Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 91 Organisational Units Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 91

Business Resources Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 92 Business Resources Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 92

Business Policies and Rules Ontology – work in progress © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 Business Policies and Rules Ontology – work in progress © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 93

BFO Purpose • Business Functions Ontology (BFO) – Provides domain-independent vocabulary. – Introduces a BFO Purpose • Business Functions Ontology (BFO) – Provides domain-independent vocabulary. – Introduces a robust taxonomy of organization-related functions. • BFO aims at the precise categorization of functions and activities taking place in an organization in order to enable and facilitate the enterprise description on the process level. • A Business Function is any functional area of / or related to an enterprise e. g. Human Resources, Sales Management, etc. • An Activity is unit of work identified with given business process e. g. Block Sales Order, Change Sales Order, etc. © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 94

BFO Facts & numbers • BFO is conceptually based on the SAP Business Maps BFO Facts & numbers • BFO is conceptually based on the SAP Business Maps Ontology: – More than 23000 instances. – – 2807 names for functions and activities were filtered out, in the second step 1578 were chosen. More than 580 candidates were found irrelevant or in close synonymy to concepts already included. • The final version of BFO consists of 32 axioms and 960 concepts divided into 14 functional areas and their peer activity substructures: ► ► ► ► Asset. Management Business. Opportunity. Management, Customer. Management Finance. Management Global. Trade. Management Human. Resources. Management Marketing. Management ► ► ► ► Master. Data. Management Production. Management Project. Management Risk. Management, Supply. Management Sales. And. Distribution. ■ The maximum depth of the taxonomical hierarchy is 5. © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 95

BFO Structure • BFO consists of 2 parallel structures: – – Function structure - BFO Structure • BFO consists of 2 parallel structures: – – Function structure - reflects main functional areas of the company. Activity. Or. Step structure – reflects activities, steps or sub-phases that are conducted within the functions. • Activity. Or. Step is connected with proper Function via is. Sub. Phase. Of attribute. © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 96

Business Function Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 97 Business Function Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 97

Business Strategy Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 98 Business Strategy Ontology © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 98

Business Goals Ontology • Business Goals Ontology provides a standard set of properties and Business Goals Ontology • Business Goals Ontology provides a standard set of properties and relations used in modelling a hierarchy of organisational business goals and enables formal verification of goal specifications • Business goal - state of the enterprise that an action, or a given set of actions, is intended to achieve © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 99

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 100

Integration - SUPER Approach SUPER Architecture Alexander Simov Integration - SUPER Approach SUPER Architecture Alexander Simov

Architecture: Structural Overview SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Architecture: Structural Overview SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 102

Architecture: Tools SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring Architecture: Tools SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 103

Architecture: Execution Environment SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Architecture: Execution Environment SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 104

Architecture: Platform Services SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Architecture: Platform Services SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 105

Architecture: Repositories SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring Architecture: Repositories SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 106

Architecture: Semantic Service Bus SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Architecture: Semantic Service Bus SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine SUPER Tooling Semantic Execution Environment Monitoring & Management Tool Modelling Tool Semantic Service Bus Analysis Tool Deployment Event Sink Protocol Binder SBP Composition SBP Process Mediation Business Process Library SBP Discovery Data Mediation SBP Reasoner Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History Transformation SUPER Repositories SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 107

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Deployment BPEL 4 SWS WSDL Semantic Process Artefacts Bundle (SPAB) Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Deployment BPEL 4 SWS WSDL Semantic Process Artefacts Bundle (SPAB) WSMO WSDL WSMO Mediators WSMO Goals Deployment descriptor © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 108

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Deployment SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Semantic Execution Environment Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Deployment SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Semantic Execution Environment Modelling SPAB Tool Semantic Service Bus BPEL 4 SWS Deployment WSDL WSMO Goals WSMO Mediators Business Process Library Semantic Web Services Repository Deployment Descriptor Execution History SUPER Repositories © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 109

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 1 Execute Task Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 1 Execute Task Semantic Execution Environment Web Service Event Sink Protocol Binder Business Process Library Data Mediation Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 110

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 1 Execute Task Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 1 Execute Task Semantic Execution Environment Web Service Event Sink 2 Discover and Select Service Business Process Library Data Mediation Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 111

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Semantic Execution Environment Web Service Event Sink 2 Discover and Select Service 3 Mediate Data Business Process Library Data Mediation Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 112

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Semantic Execution Environment Web Service 2 Discover and Select Service 4 Invoke Service 3 Mediate Data Business Process Library Data Mediation Event Sink Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 113

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Semantic Execution Environment Web Service 2 Discover and Select Service 4 Invoke Service 3/5 Mediate Data Business Process Library Data Mediation Event Sink Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 114

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 6 Semantic Execution Environment Web Service Return Result 2 Discover and Select Service 4 Invoke Service 3/5 Mediate Data Business Process Library Data Mediation Event Sink Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 115

Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine Architecture Behavioural Perspective: SBP Execution 1 Execute Task SUPER Execution Semantic BPEL Execution Engine 6 Semantic Execution Environment Generate Events Web Service Return Result 2 Discover and Select Service 4 Invoke Service 3/5 Mediate Data Business Process Library Data Mediation Event Sink Protocol Binder Semantic Web Services Repository Execution History SUPER Repositories SBP Reasoner SUPER Platform Services © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 116

Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Agenda 1. Introduction: The Need of Semantics in BPM 2. Business Process Management ■ Introduction ■ Process Execution with BPEL 3. Semantic Web Services ■ Introduction ■ SWS Technologies 4. Integration: The SUPER Approach ■ SUPER Ontology Stack ■ SUPER Architecture 5. SUPER Demonstration © SUPER 18. 03. 2018 I-CENTRIC, Malta 2008 117

SUPER Demonstration Alexander Simov SUPER Demonstration Alexander Simov

More information • http: //www. ip-super. org • Contact person: – Agata Filipowska – More information • http: //www. ip-super. org • Contact person: – Agata Filipowska – a. [email protected] ae. poznan. pl