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SEM 2 2014/2015 QUALITY ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION SEM 2 2014/2015 QUALITY ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Hubungan dengan industri, termasuklah reka bentuk dan Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Hubungan dengan industri, termasuklah reka bentuk dan penyampaian kurikulum, penyelidikan dan pembangunan

Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Kualiti graduan, contohnya kemahiran komunikasi dan kecekapan Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Kualiti graduan, contohnya kemahiran komunikasi dan kecekapan dalam Bahasa Inggeris

Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Keupayaan untuk menjayakan pelaksanaan strategi dan inisiatif Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Keupayaan untuk menjayakan pelaksanaan strategi dan inisiatif yang dibangunkan

Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Kemampanan kewangan dan autonomi bagi institusi pengajian Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Kemampanan kewangan dan autonomi bagi institusi pengajian tinggi dan juga kemudahan kewangan untuk pelajar

Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Keupayaan untuk menjayakan pelaksanaan strategi dan inisiatif Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia (Pendidikan Tinggi) • Keupayaan untuk menjayakan pelaksanaan strategi dan inisiatif yang dibangunkan

 • Malaysia di kedudukan 28 daripada 50 negara dalam laporan sistem pendidikan tinggi • Malaysia di kedudukan 28 daripada 50 negara dalam laporan sistem pendidikan tinggi Universitas 21

LEARNING OUTCOMES • Discuss issues in quality management • Explain factors affecting quality management LEARNING OUTCOMES • Discuss issues in quality management • Explain factors affecting quality management • Discuss past, present and future of quality management in higher education

Isu-isu kualiti KKM dan Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Kualiti graduan q Pertambahan bilangan pelajar Isu-isu kualiti KKM dan Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Kualiti graduan q Pertambahan bilangan pelajar universiti q Pertambahan bilangan universiti q Syarat kemasukan Pengajaran dan pembelajaran q Kemudahan P & P q Mode of delivery q Pengajaran atau penyelidikan Prestasi pelajar q Pencapaian CGPA q Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi prestasi pelajar

Isu-isu kualiti Issues Quality of graduates q Increase in student numbers q Increase in Isu-isu kualiti Issues Quality of graduates q Increase in student numbers q Increase in universities q Entrance requirements Teaching and learning q Facilities of teaching & learning q Mode of delivery q Teaching or research Student performance q CGPA q Factors affecting students’achievement

Isu-isu kualiti Malaysian Qualifications Framework Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia / Malaysian Qualifications Framework q. Prinsip Isu-isu kualiti Malaysian Qualifications Framework Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia / Malaysian Qualifications Framework q. Prinsip umum q. Tahap kelayakan q. Hasil Pembelajaran / Learning outcomes q. Laluan pendidikan bagi kemajuan individu

Isu-isu kualiti Malaysian Qualifications Framework q. General principles q. Levels of qualifications q. Learning Isu-isu kualiti Malaysian Qualifications Framework q. General principles q. Levels of qualifications q. Learning outcomes q. Education pathways for individual development

Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia / Malaysian Qualifications Framework Isu-isu kualiti q Kelayakan adalah sijil, diploma Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia / Malaysian Qualifications Framework Isu-isu kualiti q Kelayakan adalah sijil, diploma atau ijazah yang dianugerahkan oleh pihak berkuasa yang kompeten yang mengesahkan seseorang telah berjaya melengkapkan pengajian pada standard yang ditentukan dan telah memuaskan satu tahap pencapaian dapat melaksanakan sesuatu peranan, tugas atau kerja. Kelayakan menandakan pencapaian hasil pembelajaran secara positif, bukan sebagai kompensasi kerana kegagalan atau secara kebetulan.

Isu-isu kualiti Definitions of qualifications q Qualifications are certificates, diplomas or degrees that are Isu-isu kualiti Definitions of qualifications q Qualifications are certificates, diplomas or degrees that are awarded by any competent authority, having affirmed that one has been successful in completing the study at the determined standard, and has satisfied the determined level of achievement and is able to take on a role, duty or work. Qualifications indicate positive achievement of learning outcomes, not as compensation as a result of failure or coincidence.

Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q q i. iii. iv. v. Tahap kelayakan menunjukkan Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q q i. iii. iv. v. Tahap kelayakan menunjukkan tahap keupayaan. KKM mempunyai lapan tahap, iaitu Sijil Tahap 1 -3, Diploma Lanjutan, Ijazah Sarjana Muda, Ijazah Sarjana, dan Ijazah Kedoktoran. Kelayakan pada setiap tahap mengandungi ciri-ciri generik yang menggambarkan keupayaan yang dijangkakan daripada pelajar dari segi: Kedalaman dan kompleksiti ilmu serta pemahamannya; Aplikasi pengetahuan dan kemahiran; Darjah autonomi dan kreativiti dalam membuat keputusan; Kemahiran berkomunikasi; dan Keluasan dan kecanggihan amalan.

Isu-isu kualiti MQF q q i. iii. iv. v. Levels of qualifications has eight Isu-isu kualiti MQF q q i. iii. iv. v. Levels of qualifications has eight levels, namely Certificate levels 1 -3, Diploma, Advanced Diploma, Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral. The typical qualifications at each level are described with generic features, which signify the expected capabilities from students in terms of: The depth, complexity and comprehension of knowledge; The application of knowledge and skills; The degree of autonomy and creativity in decision making; The communication skills; and The breadth and sophistication of practices.

Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q i. iii. Kelayakan Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat adalah laluan Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q i. iii. Kelayakan Pendidikan Sepanjang Hayat adalah laluan bagi individu memajukan diri dalam konteks pembelajaran sepanjang hayat. Tiga kelayakan yang diwujudkan adalah: Diploma Lanjutan; Sijil Siswazah dan Diploma Siswazah; dan Sijil Pascasiswazah dan Diploma Pascasiswazah.

Isu-isu kualiti MQF q i. iii. Qualifications that support lifelong educatin pathways for individuals Isu-isu kualiti MQF q i. iii. Qualifications that support lifelong educatin pathways for individuals to progress in the context of lifelong learning. Three qualifications are created: Advanced Diploma; Graduate Certificate and Graduate Diploma; and Postgraduate Certificate and Postgraduate Diploma.

Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q q i. iii. Hasil pembelajaran adalah pernyataan yang Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q q i. iii. Hasil pembelajaran adalah pernyataan yang menjelaskan apa yang pelajar harus tahu, faham dan boleh lakukan setelah selesai suatu tempoh pengajian. Hasil pembelajaran merupakan rujukan bagi standard dan kualiti serta pembangunan kurikulum dari segi pengajranpembelajaran, penetapan kredit dan penilaian pelajar. Tiga kategori LO: Tahap kelayakan Bidang pengajian Program.

Isu-isu kualiti MQF q q i. iii. Learning Outcomes are statements that explain what Isu-isu kualiti MQF q q i. iii. Learning Outcomes are statements that explain what students should know, understand can do upon the completion of a period of study. Learning outcomes are references for standard and quality as well as for the development of curriculum in terms of teaching and learning, the determination of credits and the assessments of students. Three categories of LO: Levels of qualification; Fields of study; and Program.

Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q i. iii. iv. v. Lapan domain hasil pembelajaran: Isu-isu kualiti Kerangka Kelayakan Malaysia q i. iii. iv. v. Lapan domain hasil pembelajaran: Pengetahuan; Kemahiran praktikal; Kemahiran dan tanggungjawab sosial; Nilai, sikap dan profesionalisme; Kemahiran komunikasi, kepimpinan dan kerja berpasukan; vi. Kemahiran penyelesaian masalah dan kemahiran saintifik; vii. Kemahiran pengurusan maklumat dan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat; dan viii. Kemahiran mengurus dan keusahawanan.

Isu-isu kualiti MQF q i. iii. iv. v. vii. Eight domains of learning outcomes: Isu-isu kualiti MQF q i. iii. iv. v. vii. Eight domains of learning outcomes: Knowledge; Practical skills; Social skills and responsibilities; Values, attitudes and professionalism; Communication, leadership and team skills; Problem solving and scientific skills; Kemahiran pengurusan maklumat dan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat; dan viii. Kemahiran mengurus dan keusahawanan.

Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Public regulation on higher education q. Quality standard Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Public regulation on higher education q. Quality standard – excellence, value for money, fitness for purpose, transformation q. Systems of quality management Accountability -No institution … should be beyond review of its integrity, and the efficiency and effectiveness with which it uses public resources (Minister of Education, New Zealand 1990).

Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti University Responses to Public Regulation of Higher Education Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti University Responses to Public Regulation of Higher Education Qualities: q. Systems of quality management q. Means of resistant and avoidance – so long as funded by government, HEIs have to abide. q. Are the costs of addressing quality far greater than the benefits?

Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Academic quality and academic standard: • From a Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Academic quality and academic standard: • From a public policy perspective academic quality is equivalent to academic standards –the level of academic achievement attained by higher education graduates because of the human capital that graduates provide to society (Dill, 2007). • Human capital includes not only the contributions that educated graduates make to the economy, but also the non-monetary benefits they contribute to society through improved parenting, healthier lifestyles, greater civic participation, and increased social cohesion (Haveman, Bershadker, and Schwabish 2003).

Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Market Competition: • In the USA the baccalaureate Isu-isu kualiti Isu-isu dalam pengurusan kualiti Market Competition: • In the USA the baccalaureate degree market has become significantly more competitive as it has been transformed from a series of local monopolies to a nationally and regionally integrated market in which each colleges face many potential competitors for inputs and consumers.

Internationalization Vs. Globalization in Higher Education q Globalization is the flow of technology, economy, Internationalization Vs. Globalization in Higher Education q Globalization is the flow of technology, economy, knowledge, people, values, ideas across borders. Globalization affects each country in a different way due to a nation’s individual history, traditions, culture and priorities. q Internationalization of higher education is one of the ways a country responds to the impact of globalization yet, at the same time respects the individuality of the nation. (Knight, 1997) q Internationalization of higher education is the process of integrating international dimension into the teaching, research, and public service function of the institution q Internationalization of higher education is no longer merely desirable; it is a necessity.

Quality and Internationalization Two major issues: q How the international dimension contributes to the Quality and Internationalization Two major issues: q How the international dimension contributes to the improved quality of higher education? Internationalization is almost synonymous with westernization. It relates to standardization. Economics is driving the current interest in internationalization. Therefore, the quality of higher education might be in jeopardy.

Quality and Internationalization q How one assesses and maintains the quality of internationalization initiatives? Quality and Internationalization q How one assesses and maintains the quality of internationalization initiatives? q Different approaches and instruments used to address the issue of quality assessment and enhancement.

Ranking Systems q Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings Ranking Systems q Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings Rujukan laman web: http: //www. topuniversities. com/ q RAE – Research Assessment Exercise (UK) – was introduced in 1986 assessment process of the quality of research. Was reviewed in 2001. Latest was RAE in 2008. Rujukan: http: //www. rae. ac. uk/ q Shanghai Jiao Tong University Rankings Rujukan: http: //www. arwu. org/rank 2008/ARWU 2008_A(EN). htm

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Six indicators Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Six indicators of ranking: q Academic Peer Review – 40 percent q Employer Review – 10 percent q Faculty Student Ratio – 20 percent q Citations Per Faculty – 20 percent q International Faculty – 5 percent q International Students – 5 percent q This ranking has gained an increasing acceptance on the importance of the list by the international higher education community and those that employ graduates.

Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Rankings Six indicators of ranking: q Quality of Education Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Rankings Six indicators of ranking: q Quality of Education - Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals – 10% q Quality of Faculty – staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals – 20% q Quality of Faculty – Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories – 20% q Research output – articles published in Nature and Science – 20% q Research output – articles indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded, and Social Science Citation Index – 20% q Per Capita Performance – per capita academic performance of an institution – 10%

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Academic Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Academic Peer Review: composite score drawn from peer review survey (divided into five subject areas). 6, 354 responses in 2008. q It is based on an online survey distributed to academic worldwide. q Results are compiled based on three years worth of responses totaling 6, 354 in 2008. q Respondents are not permitted to submit their own institution or to respond more than once. q Weightings are applied both geographically and by discipline to ensure as fair a representative spread.

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Employer Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Employer Review: score based on responses to employer survey. 2, 339 responses in 2008. q This is based on a global online survey distributed to employers. q Results are based on three years worth of latest response. q Geographical weightings are applied to ensure fair representation from the regions.

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Citations Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q Citations Per Faculty: it is used as conventional measure of research strength. q A citation is a reference to one academic publication in the text of another. The more citations a publication receives, the better it is perceived to be. q The more highly cited papers a university publishes, the stronger it can be considered to be. q The source use is Scopus, the world’s largest abstract and citation database of research literature. q The latest five complete years of data are used. q The total citation count is factored against the number of faculty in order to take into accounts the size of the institution.

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q International Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 q International factors: in today’s increasingly globalized world, the most successful universities have to attract the world’s best students and faculty. Simple evaluations of the proportion of international students and international faculty serve as indicators of an institution’s international attractiveness.

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2006 Top 10 Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2006 Top 10 universities in ranking: 1. Harvard University – USA 2. University of Cambridge – UK 3. University of Oxford – UK 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA Yale University – USA 6. Stanford University – USA 7. California Institute of Technology – USA 8. University of California, Berkeley – USA 9. Imperial College London – UK 10. Princeton University – USA Peking University – China at 14

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2007 Top 10 Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2007 Top 10 universities in ranking: 1. Harvard University – USA 2. University of Cambridge – UK 3. University of Oxford – UK 4. Yale University – USA 5. Imperial College London – UK 6. Princeton University – USA 7. California Institute of Technology – USA University of Chicago – USA 9. University College London – UK 10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology - USA Australian National University – Australia at 16

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Top 10 Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Top 10 universities in ranking: 1. Harvard University – USA 2. Yale University – USA 3. University of Cambridge – UK 4. University of Oxford – UK 5. California Institute of Technology – USA 6. Imperial College London – UK 7. University College London – UK 8. University of Chicago – USA 9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA 10. Columbia University - USA Australian National University – Australia at 16

Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Rankings 2008 Top 10 universities in ranking: 1. Harvard Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Rankings 2008 Top 10 universities in ranking: 1. Harvard University – USA 2. Stanford University – USA 3. University of California Berkeley - USA 4. University of Cambridge – UK 5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA 6. California Institute of Technology – USA 7. Columbia University - USA 8. Princeton University – USA 9. University of Chicago – USA 10. University of Oxford - UK Tokyo University – Japan at 19

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Asian universities Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Asian universities in ranking: q Australian National University – Australia at 16 q University of Tokyo – Japan at 19 q Kyoto University – Japan at 25 q University of Hong Kong – at 26 q National University of Singapore – at 30 q The University of Sydney – at 37 q The University of Melbourne – at 38 q Hong Kong University of Science and Technology – at 39 q The Chinese University of Hong Kong – at 42 q University of Queensland – at 43 q Osaka University – at 44 q University of New South Wales – at 45

Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Malaysian universities Times Higher Education (THE) – Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings 2008 Malaysian universities in 2008 ranking: q University of Malaya 230 (from 246 previously) q Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 250 (from 309 previous year) q Universiti Putra Malaysia 320 (from 364 previous year) q Universiti Sains Malaysia 313 (from 307 previous year) q Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 356 (from 401 -500)

Arguments Several arguments: q Ranking is just a ranking and it is not everything. Arguments Several arguments: q Ranking is just a ranking and it is not everything. q Create another ranking system which can be regarded as more “indigenous and contextualized” – Asian, ASEAN, OIC university ranking. q Have to follow internationalization and globalization. q The “goal posts” are constantly changing. q We have to play the game because of internationalization in line with government policy on internationalization. q Malaysian university must go back to basics and understand the philosophy and mission of university as an institution. q The supremacy of American and British universities remain because of their creation, maintenance and advancement of learning and the applications to humanity.

Impacts q Universities intent on improving their research position. q Universities in UK, keen Impacts q Universities intent on improving their research position. q Universities in UK, keen on improving the university’s RAE scores and by attracting more high-achieving applicants as measured by A level scores. • Universities in UK adding new vocational subjects, increasing the vocational content of modules – even in the humanities – and ‘repackaging’ modules into courses with clearer relevance to student careers.

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