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Selective Service & GI Bill • 5 million volunteered • 10 million drafted through Selective Service & GI Bill • 5 million volunteered • 10 million drafted through Selective Service • Soldiers known as GI’s (Government Issue) • GI Bill passed in 1944 to ease transition of GI’s back into civilian life; gave funding for college education and loan guarantees to veterans buying homes or farms

Discrimination in the Military • One million African Americans – segregated units, noncombat roles Discrimination in the Military • One million African Americans – segregated units, noncombat roles until 1943 (Tuskegee Airmen) • 300, 000 Mexican Americans • 13, 000 Chinese Americans • 33, 000 Japanese Americans (442 nd Regiment) • 25, 000 Native Americans (Navajo Code Talkers) • Truman desegregated 1948 after war

WAAC/WAC • Women’s (Auxiliary) Army Corp • Non-combat positions: nurses, drivers, electricians, pilots, office WAAC/WAC • Women’s (Auxiliary) Army Corp • Non-combat positions: nurses, drivers, electricians, pilots, office workers, radio operators, etc.

Wartime Production • War Production Board (WPB) decided which companies would convert from peacetime Wartime Production • War Production Board (WPB) decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production • Automobile plants => tanks, planes, boats, and command vehicles • Mechanical pencils => bomb parts • Bedspreads => mosquito netting • Bottling soft drinks => filling shells with explosives

Wartime Labor: Women • 18 million workers in wartime industries • Unemployment fell to Wartime Labor: Women • 18 million workers in wartime industries • Unemployment fell to 1. 2% in 1944 • 6 million were women, made up 35% of total workforce but only made 60% of men’s salaries • “Rosie the Riveter”

Wartime Labor: Minorities • 2 million (of 18 million) were minorities • Faced segregation Wartime Labor: Minorities • 2 million (of 18 million) were minorities • Faced segregation & discrimination • A. Philip Randolph • CORE: Congress of Racial Equality founded by students in Chicago, staged sit-ins at segregated businesses • FDR issued exec order calling on employers not to discriminate under pressure of a march on Washington organized by Randolph • % of African Americans working in skilled jobs rose from 16 to 30% between 1940 -1944

Bracero Program • Demand for manual labor, especially agricultural & railroad workers • Series Bracero Program • Demand for manual labor, especially agricultural & railroad workers • Series of laws & agreements starting in 1942 to allow for temporary workers from Mexico during the war • 160, 000 during the war; 4. 5 million Mexican workers by 1964 when program ended

Racial Tension • Detroit Riots of 1943: 9 whites, 25 blacks killed in violence Racial Tension • Detroit Riots of 1943: 9 whites, 25 blacks killed in violence that started with false rumors and a racially-motivated fight at a beach • Zoot Suit Riots of 1943: 11 white sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit wearing youths; mobs beat up hundreds of Mexican. American and blacks in Los Angeles

Wartime for Consumers • Office of Price Administration (OPA) froze prices and set up Wartime for Consumers • Office of Price Administration (OPA) froze prices and set up rationing system of stamp books for meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, gasoline • Black market emerges to buy hard-to-get items (especially those that are rationed)

War Production Board (WPB) organizes drives to collect iron, tin, rubber, paper, rags, cooking War Production Board (WPB) organizes drives to collect iron, tin, rubber, paper, rags, cooking fat, etc.

Consumers encouraged to buy war bonds Consumers encouraged to buy war bonds