- Количество слайдов: 18
Selective Service & GI Bill • 5 million volunteered • 10 million drafted through Selective Service • Soldiers known as GI’s (Government Issue) • GI Bill passed in 1944 to ease transition of GI’s back into civilian life; gave funding for college education and loan guarantees to veterans buying homes or farms
Discrimination in the Military • One million African Americans – segregated units, noncombat roles until 1943 (Tuskegee Airmen) • 300, 000 Mexican Americans • 13, 000 Chinese Americans • 33, 000 Japanese Americans (442 nd Regiment) • 25, 000 Native Americans (Navajo Code Talkers) • Truman desegregated 1948 after war
WAAC/WAC • Women’s (Auxiliary) Army Corp • Non-combat positions: nurses, drivers, electricians, pilots, office workers, radio operators, etc.
Wartime Production • War Production Board (WPB) decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production • Automobile plants => tanks, planes, boats, and command vehicles • Mechanical pencils => bomb parts • Bedspreads => mosquito netting • Bottling soft drinks => filling shells with explosives
Wartime Labor: Women • 18 million workers in wartime industries • Unemployment fell to 1. 2% in 1944 • 6 million were women, made up 35% of total workforce but only made 60% of men’s salaries • “Rosie the Riveter”
Wartime Labor: Minorities • 2 million (of 18 million) were minorities • Faced segregation & discrimination • A. Philip Randolph • CORE: Congress of Racial Equality founded by students in Chicago, staged sit-ins at segregated businesses • FDR issued exec order calling on employers not to discriminate under pressure of a march on Washington organized by Randolph • % of African Americans working in skilled jobs rose from 16 to 30% between 1940 -1944
Bracero Program • Demand for manual labor, especially agricultural & railroad workers • Series of laws & agreements starting in 1942 to allow for temporary workers from Mexico during the war • 160, 000 during the war; 4. 5 million Mexican workers by 1964 when program ended
Racial Tension • Detroit Riots of 1943: 9 whites, 25 blacks killed in violence that started with false rumors and a racially-motivated fight at a beach • Zoot Suit Riots of 1943: 11 white sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit wearing youths; mobs beat up hundreds of Mexican. American and blacks in Los Angeles
Wartime for Consumers • Office of Price Administration (OPA) froze prices and set up rationing system of stamp books for meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, gasoline • Black market emerges to buy hard-to-get items (especially those that are rationed)
War Production Board (WPB) organizes drives to collect iron, tin, rubber, paper, rags, cooking fat, etc.
Consumers encouraged to buy war bonds