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Security Sector and Human Rights Defenders from a 1325 perspective Eva Zillen, Kvinna till Security Sector and Human Rights Defenders from a 1325 perspective Eva Zillen, Kvinna till Kvinna Maj Linda Johansson, Swedish Armed Forces

SWEDISH ARMED FORCES INTERNATIONAL CENTRE – SWEDINT & NCGM WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE/SWEDINT Security Sector SWEDISH ARMED FORCES INTERNATIONAL CENTRE – SWEDINT & NCGM WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE/SWEDINT Security Sector and Human Rights Defenders from a 1325 perspective Major Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Centre for Gender in Military Operations 2010 -2011 Gender Advisor to COM RC N Afghanistan 2008 -2009 Gender Field Advisor to COM PRT MES Afghanistan linda. 1. [email protected] se

SWEDISH ARMED FORCES INTERNATIONAL CENTRE – SWEDINT WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE/SWEDINT Nordic Centre for Gender SWEDISH ARMED FORCES INTERNATIONAL CENTRE – SWEDINT WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE/SWEDINT Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations Concept • Products – – – • A hub of Recognized courses Seminars Lessons learned SMEs METT (2013) – – • Partners Knowledge Experience Cooperation & Support Information – – – NORDEFCO NATO UN OSCE EU, (AU)

Swedish Armed Forces Service branches Swedish Army Swedish Air Force Swedish Navy The Swedish Swedish Armed Forces Service branches Swedish Army Swedish Air Force Swedish Navy The Swedish Armed Forces’ most important resource is its personnel. The Swedish Armed Forces’ payroll includes women, officers, civilians, contract soldiers and national service people. In total 20, 000 persons serves currently in the Swedish Armed Forces.

International units/deployments Currently, Sweden has deployed military forces in Afghanistan and in Kosovo as International units/deployments Currently, Sweden has deployed military forces in Afghanistan and in Kosovo as well as a naval force deployed to the gulf of Aden as a part of Operation Atalanta. Military observers from Sweden have been sent to a large number of countries, including Georgia, North Korea, Lebanon, Israel and Sri Lanka and Sweden also participates with staff officers to missions in Sudan, Syria, Uganda and Mali.

Women in the Swedish Armed Forces – a brief history 1980 The first women Women in the Swedish Armed Forces – a brief history 1980 The first women volunteers undergo basic training in the Swedish Air Force 1983 Areas including the following become open to women: – – Artillery, Air Defence, Engineering, Signals and Army Service units Coast Artillery sea front gunnery, radar and communications service units Defence Medical Service (jointly with the Swedish Navy) Naval command control, communications and maintenance services 1989 Women have access to all branches of the armed services 1994 Women are able to do national service without envisaging further training to officer level

Traditional Gender Constructions Men • • • Soldier Defend, fight Protector Public sphere do Traditional Gender Constructions Men • • • Soldier Defend, fight Protector Public sphere do the necessary ‘evil’ Women • • • Mother, Wife, Doughter Care, nurture, nurse Protected Private sphere the good and beautiful Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defense – Annika Kronsell (2012)

 • Focus on that Gender perspective is essential for the operational effects • • Focus on that Gender perspective is essential for the operational effects • Education, training and understanding • Leadership

The Swedish Government Plan of Action to carry out UNSCR 1325 The Swedish Government Plan of Action to carry out UNSCR 1325 "Women can both influence and be affected by armed conflicts". "The implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 is both a goal in itself and a way of reaching the objectives for security, development, defence and gender equality policies. " "Swedish personnel who take part in peace support and humanitarian operations must have undergone training /…/ that covers Resolution 1325, conditions specific to the operation, the applicable legislation and ethical issues. "

Operational and tactical implementation Swedish Armed Forces • • The project ”Genderforce” 2004 -2007 Operational and tactical implementation Swedish Armed Forces • • The project ”Genderforce” 2004 -2007 National Actions Plans – 2006 - 2009 – 2009 - 2012 EUFOR DR Congo 2006 EUFOR Tchad/RCA 2008/2009 ISAF Afghanistan 2008 – 2013 GA to Director of Operations 2007 – Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations established at Swedint, inaugurated Jan 2012

Gender perspective as an operational tool To have a gender perspective is to be Gender perspective as an operational tool To have a gender perspective is to be able to detect if and when men and women are being affected differently by a situation/operation due to their gender. Operational effects of the different situation for men and women in the AOR

In what ways are women specifically affected by conflicts? Before the conflict During the In what ways are women specifically affected by conflicts? Before the conflict During the conflict After the conflict

In what way can local women be involved in the work to promote peace? In what way can local women be involved in the work to promote peace? Before the conflict "Early warnings" During the conflict Identify and support women's formal and informal peace initiatives After the conflict Engage women's organisations in DDR-work (Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration)

RC N Gender Advisor An organizational structure of gender monitoring and reporting is to RC N Gender Advisor An organizational structure of gender monitoring and reporting is to be established, in order to mainstream gender perspective in RC N. • RC N Gender Advisor (GENAD): supports the commander and RC Ns units in the implementation of: – – Security related gender perspective in the military tasks of RC N Gender perspective according to ISAF mandate, SOPs, FRAGOs, Directives etc UNSCR 1325(2000), UNSCR 1820(2008) Female KLE Engagement Teams (MET, FET, PET, CST, FTT) ET is one of several tools for the BSO, but Female Engagement is to be mainstreamed in all functions and units of RC N. Activities characterized by: – Face-to-face engagements, female Shuras, CERP funding, engaging Provincial/District Councils – Support GIRo. A efforts to increase females roles in ANA/ANP

Why do ISAF work with women? To strengthen women's role in issues relating to Why do ISAF work with women? To strengthen women's role in issues relating to conflict prevention, conflict resolution and operations to establish peace. In order to succeed along ISAF three lines of operations (security, governance and development), we must enable women to have a role in each of these key areas.

Whose security? Men Women Boys Girls • Robbery • Domestic violence • Gang violence Whose security? Men Women Boys Girls • Robbery • Domestic violence • Gang violence • Infanticide • Assault • Sexual assault • Child abuse, rape • Homicide • Dowry death • Bullying • Human trafficking • Gang violence • Sexual harassment • Abduction • Human trafficking • Child marriage • Buying/selling for prostitution • Forced to rape their own family members • Rape and sexual torture • Human trafficking • Domestic violence • Rape • 'Honour' killings • Stalking • Forced sterilisation • Human trafficking

Key Leader Engagement Identify – Involve - Protect – GO, NGO, IO, Security Sector Key Leader Engagement Identify – Involve - Protect – GO, NGO, IO, Security Sector

Women, Peace and Security Way Ahead: • • Improve the involvement of women at Women, Peace and Security Way Ahead: • • Improve the involvement of women at all levels in the peace process and ensure women’s participation in the struggle of bringing Peace and Develompent to Afghanistan. Gender Perspectives in Operations should be planned, executed and evaluated in line with the operational objectives. “Looking the other way makes you a part of the problem. Protecting the people not only requires protecting them from physical harm but also corruption and abuse of power” - COMISAF Directive 2009

Questions? Major Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Nordic Centre for Questions? Major Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations

GENDER COACH A concept providing gender coaches for senior officials Enhancing their knowledge in GENDER COACH A concept providing gender coaches for senior officials Enhancing their knowledge in gender equality : To influence structures and behavior Deepen the understanding of gender equality Implementing a gender perspective Handpicked the senior officials Handpicked the gender coaches It was a success!

Questions? Questions?

Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations

PRT Gender Field Advisors Supports the COM in the implementation of the UNSCR 1325/2000 PRT Gender Field Advisors Supports the COM in the implementation of the UNSCR 1325/2000 and 1820/2008, in order to mainstream gender issues at all levels of the PRT work. Organisational structure of gender monitoring and reporting is consist of: – PRT GENAD, support operational planning and the tactical implementation of a gender perspective in the operations. Full-time Gender Advisor to the CO PRT. – PRT Gender Focal Points at respective units in the field are in charge of implementing and reporting measures dealing with gender issues.

Security and Elections How to make sure that information regarding the election is communicated Security and Elections How to make sure that information regarding the election is communicated with both men and women ?

WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE WWW. FORSVARSMAKTEN. SE

Political-Strategic Level Op Commander OHQ GENAD (Gender Advisor) GFA GFP (Gender Focal Points) Force Political-Strategic Level Op Commander OHQ GENAD (Gender Advisor) GFA GFP (Gender Focal Points) Force Commander Operational Level FHQ GFP (Gender Focal Points) Tactical Level (Gender Field. Advisor) LCC (Land) GFP Military-Strategic Level ACC (Air) MCC (Mar) (Gender Focal Points) Units GFP (Gender Focal Points)

Afghan Border Police Women’s Drivers Training supported by Combined Team – North (CT-N) WHO: Afghan Border Police Women’s Drivers Training supported by Combined Team – North (CT-N) WHO: Nine Afghan Border Police Women (ABP) Proud to be in the driver’s seat WHAT: Basic Literacy Training (8 Hours), Basic Drivers Training (36 Hours) and First Aid (2 Hours) WHERE: TSS & Camp Shaheen, RC-N, Afghanistan WHEN: 11 July 2011– 19 July 2011 WHY: Provide basic first aid, language and behind the wheel drivers training in order to encourage professional growth of the ABP Women How: RMTC Drivers Training Course through ANA Instructors assisted by CT-N Engagement Team and Preventative Maintenance Checks and Services Drivers School Mentors. Cone Driving Obstacle Basic First Aid Demonstration to 5 th Zone CDR Convoy training Hill driving Vehicle Egress training with weapons UNCLASSIFIED//REL TO 11 -001 Class NATO/ISAF 35