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Security and Systems Security and Systems

Three tenets of security l Confidentiality l Integrity l Availability Three tenets of security l Confidentiality l Integrity l Availability

e-Security –the problem is real l 90% of companies surveyed by the FBI have e-Security –the problem is real l 90% of companies surveyed by the FBI have detected cyber attacks recently l Disgruntled employees, industrial espionage, and data theft are responsible for 70 -80% of security breaches l Increase in external threats from hackers, ex-employees, competitors and cyber terrorists l The rise of “Script Kiddies” - Hackers who do not target specific organizations, but run scripts scanning the net for ANY vulnerable network

Security Myths l Nobody would want our data. l Who knows us? We are Security Myths l Nobody would want our data. l Who knows us? We are anonymous l There is no danger to my network at all. l I am not on the Internet, I am safe. l I don’t need any security devices. I have a Firewall l I have an antivirus on my server. I am safe l All our employees are very committed & reliable!

Know your IT law l Cyber crimes – l Interception by Government – l Know your IT law l Cyber crimes – l Interception by Government – l Hacking , damage to computer source code, publishing lascivious information in an electronic form, breach of privacy / confidentiality, publishing digital signature, etc. intercept any information transmitted through any computer resource if the same is necessary in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of India, Digital Signatures legally valid and enforceable.

Know your IT law l Authentication of electronic records in India shall be effected Know your IT law l Authentication of electronic records in India shall be effected by the use of asymmetric crypto system and hash function l If someone uses your network to attack an external network and the attacked complains, you are liable to be penalized l Companies must have a detailed I T Security Policy in tune with the mandatory specific provisions of the IT Act and IT Rules.

Threats to data Threats to data

Protectable Data assets l l Business Information – contracts, SLAs, financial data, customer details, Protectable Data assets l l Business Information – contracts, SLAs, financial data, customer details, etc Intellectual property – source codes, inventions, research papers, etc National secrets E-commerce

Threats to data l l l l Accessed by External hackers Divulged by ignorant Threats to data l l l l Accessed by External hackers Divulged by ignorant employees Corrupted by virus attacks Hardware failures Inadequate access controls Badly designed applications Clear transmission over public internet Last but not the least system administrators !!

Types of External Attacks l l l l Malicious code attacks Corporate espionage Web Types of External Attacks l l l l Malicious code attacks Corporate espionage Web graffiti Denial-of-service Database hacks Installing Back doors Identity Theft

Typical Network Attack attack other hosts gain user access locate system to attack Cover Typical Network Attack attack other hosts gain user access locate system to attack Cover tracks gain privilege access Install backdoors take or alter Information engage in other unauthorized activity

Methods adopted in attacks l l l l l Pinging Sniffing Probing Flooding Hacking Methods adopted in attacks l l l l l Pinging Sniffing Probing Flooding Hacking Cracking Scripting Buffer Overflow Reverse engineering

Gain user access l l l Identity theft Masquerading Eavesdropping Spoofing Piggy backing Social Gain user access l l l Identity theft Masquerading Eavesdropping Spoofing Piggy backing Social Engineering

Alter or steal information l l Sniffing Man-in-the middle attacks Cookies Sabotage by employees Alter or steal information l l Sniffing Man-in-the middle attacks Cookies Sabotage by employees

Common Reasons l l l Flawed design or implementation of network infrastructure Rapidly changing Common Reasons l l l Flawed design or implementation of network infrastructure Rapidly changing technologies Lack of management understanding New & mutating attacks Inherent product weaknesses

Internal Threats l l l Unrestricted access to internal systems Bad security practices Ignorant Internal Threats l l l Unrestricted access to internal systems Bad security practices Ignorant users Lack of management understanding New & mutating attacks Inherent product weaknesses

Protection mechanisms Protection mechanisms

Data Lifecycle – – Creation Storage Movement Destruction Data Lifecycle – – Creation Storage Movement Destruction

Key security elements – – – Security Policy Identity management Robust Perimeter Security Storage Key security elements – – – Security Policy Identity management Robust Perimeter Security Storage Security Secure Transmission of data Good Security Practices

Identity l l Accurate and positive identification of network users, hosts, applications, services, and Identity l l Accurate and positive identification of network users, hosts, applications, services, and resources. Standard technologies – – l Kerberos one-time password Technologies used – – – digital certificates smart cards directory services (e. g. LDAP, ADS)

Perimeter Security l l Deals with controlling data that is passed between LAN and Perimeter Security l l Deals with controlling data that is passed between LAN and public internet Perimeter is controlled by – – – Routers and switches Firewalls IDS / IPS Antivirus URL Filters Network Traffic Analyzers

Secure transmission l l The ability to provide authenticated, confidential communication between systems Data Secure transmission l l The ability to provide authenticated, confidential communication between systems Data privacy is achieved by – – Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L 2 TP) IPsec Data Encryption PGP

Layered Security 23 Layered Security 23

Security Standards / Laws l l l BS 7799 / IS 17799 Data Protection Security Standards / Laws l l l BS 7799 / IS 17799 Data Protection Act HIPAA SOX IT Act (Indian cyberlaws)

BS 7799, ISO 9000 & BS 15000 BS 7799 ISO 9001 (QMS) Standard Process BS 7799, ISO 9000 & BS 15000 BS 7799 ISO 9001 (QMS) Standard Process Approach [P-D-C-A] q BS 7799 -certified companies are automatically Compliant with security section of BS 15000 q BS 15000 & BS 7799 adopt the P-D-C-A Process Approach of ISO 9001: 2000 QMS Standard

Policy Management l l l Defining a clear security objective Articulating clear policy Implemented Policy Management l l l Defining a clear security objective Articulating clear policy Implemented by suitable procedures Audited regularly to ensure compliance Training users Improvising the procedures

Good Security Practices Good Security Practices

Proactive measures Proactive measures

Testing methods – Vulnerability assessment – Penetration testing – Detection measures – Response measures Testing methods – Vulnerability assessment – Penetration testing – Detection measures – Response measures

Best Practices l l l Understanding of the business needs A security mission statement Best Practices l l l Understanding of the business needs A security mission statement Identification & Risk Analysis on Data A strong commitment from upper management to allocate necessary resources Clearly defined implemented and documented security policies and procedures

Best Practices l l l A suite of host and network based security auditing Best Practices l l l A suite of host and network based security auditing and improvement tools A security awareness program that reaches everyone in the organization A dedicated team of trained security professionals and consultants to make it all happen

To conclude l l l No technology used to protect your organization is 100% To conclude l l l No technology used to protect your organization is 100% hackerproof Good policies drive good implementation Best policies without necessary awareness among personnel is in vain Security is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Security of organization assets is everyone’s responsibility.

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