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Section 3 Transformation into SLMs
Developing a House Style • • • The terminology The number of units in a block The length of a unit The numbering system The components of a unit and their sequence • The layout and design including typeface, font size, spacing, size of a paper, etc.
Terminologies Adopted by IGNOU • Example 1 INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY Programme: It is the curriculum. It is a combination of courses. Course: Consists of a few printed blocks, audio, video, assignments, practice sessions (if required) and counselling sessions, project work (in a few courses), library work etc. Block: Is a booklet of 60 to 80 A-4 size printed pages covering one unified theme. Four to five Blocks comprise a Course. Unit: Is a Lesson/Chapter of 5, 000 to 6, 000 words or 20 -25 printed pages. Study input required to complete a block is 30 study hours.
Terminologies Adopted by Open University Malaysia • Example 2 Open University Malaysia Programme: Comprises a few courses. Course: Consists of printed modules, CD-ROMs and Web-based resources (for selected courses), tutorial sessions, online discussions, assignments, reviews, library work etc. Module: Is of a complete course of around 350 printed A-4 size pages consisting of 5 Units. Unit: Is a block comprising 2 -3 chapters covering a unified theme. Chapter: Is of 30 pages. Study input required to complete a block or unit is 40 study hours.
Terminologies Adopted by Fern Universitat • Example 3 Fern Universitat, Germany Programme: Comprises a few courses. Course: Generally comprises booklets known as course units covering a unified theme, prescribed textbooks, readers (collection of selected papers), interactive CD-ROMs, DVDs, tutorials, assignments, library work etc. Course Unit: Comprises 25 to 30 A-4 size printed pages covering a theme.
Preparing the Credit Page Credit page should include the following: • Course team members/ project leaders/ Expert Committee members • Course writers/ contributors • Editors • Instructional designers • Programme Co-ordinators and Course Co-ordinators • Production team members • Publishers • Copyright • Year of publication • ISBN number • Edition of the Course
Introduction to the Course Materials. The introduction of the block/ module (or course unit as in the case of Fern Universitat) should include the following: • An overview of the unified theme of the course and how it has been covered in the various units • Objectives of the course should be clearly stated • A brief synopsis of the contents each unit covered in the block • A description of the design of the units • An explanation about the access devices used • An explanation about the type of activities and the purpose of doing them • Guidance about the study inputs required by a learner and the evaluation scheme etc.
Contents Page • • Block/Module Number Unit Numbers Unit Titles Page Numbers
Unitisation of Syllabus The syllabus for the programme is already pre-determined according to which the printed course materials are prepared. • All themes should be broken down into units of equal size. • All the sub themes should be covered under the main theme of a unit.
Section 4 Transformation of a Lesson/Chapter into an SLM Unit
The Three Parts of a Unit are: OPENING SECTION Title Unit Structure Objectives Introduction & Study Guidance MAIN BODY Thematic Content Illustrations/ Photos Diagrams/Tables Graphics/Charts Activities References ENDING SECTION Summary Possible Answers List of References Bibliography Glossary Further Readings Model Questions
Format of a Unit RATIONALE FOR EACH COMPONENT: 1. STRUCTURE - to make the content easily locatable - to show important teaching points - to provide graded steps - to facilitate clarity in presentation 2. OBJECTIVES - to show learners exactly what they are to do - to show learners what they would achieve after studying the unit - to allow the end product of the unit to be measured 3. INTRODUCTION - to link past learning - to give an overview of the unit - to place the unit within the context of the course - to provide study guidance
4. SECTIONS AND SUB-SECTIONS - to break the matter into easily understandable chunks - to facilitate graded learning process from simple to complex 5. ACTIVITIES - to show learners what they have/haven't mastered - to show learners what is important - to give learners practice at responding - to help them measure their progress 6. ILLUSTRATIONS, TABLES, ETC. - to break the monotony and keep the interest of the learner active - to enliven the unit and thereby the sustain the motivation of the learner - to make the matter easily graspable 7. SUMMARY AND GLOSSARY - to help recapitulate important learning points - to reinforce learning - to refresh and clarify learner’s comprehension
8. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY - to enable the learner to know the sources used - to acknowledge the materials used in preparation of the unit - to suggest other resources to the learner 9. POSSIBLE ANSWERS - to provide feedback to the learner on his/her performance - to provide hints to the learner to keep him/her on track 10. ASSIGNMENT/MODEL QUESTIONS - to help the learner in his/her preparation for summative evaluation (term end exams) - to help learners achieve the desired learning outcomes
Opening Section Title Unit Structure Objectives Introduction & Study Guidance
Title • • Title should be precise and clear It should communicate the gist of the unit It should not be more than a few words Phrases, Idioms and Jargons should not be used in the title
Examples of Titles v Ancient world v Historical Development of International Marketing: Basic Concepts v Science in the Psychiatric Nursing v Reduction Formulas
Unit Structure includes: • List of all headings and sub-headings in the same sequence as given in the unit • Suggested readings, references, model questions, glossary etc. should also be included • The headings and sub-headings included which could be numbered
Example 1: Unit Structure Adopted by IGNOU Unit 1……. . 1. 0 Objectives 1. 1 Introduction 1. 2…… 1. 2. 1……………. . Check your progress 1. 2. 2……………. . Check your progress 1. 3…. . 1. 3. 1 Check your progress 1. 3. 2……………… 1. 3. 3……………… Check your progress 1. 4…. . 1. 4. 1 Check your progress 1. 4. 2……………… Check your progress 1. 5 Let Us Sum Up 1. 6 Glossary 1. 7 Suggested Readings Possible answers References/ Bibliography
Example 2: Unit Structure Adopted by Open University Malaysia Chapter 1…………. 1. 1…. . 1. 1. 1……. 1. 1. 2……. Exercise-1 1. 2……. 1. 2. 1……. 1. 2. 2……. Exercise-2 1. 3……. 1. 3. 1 Exercise-3 Conclusion Tutorial Questions Answer key
Example 3: Unit Structure Adopted by Fern Universitat, Germany Unit-1…… Subtheme-……. . Subtheme-……… Exercise-1 Subtheme-………. Exercise-2 Subtheme-………. Exercise-3 Comments on the exercises References Assignment for submission (separate)
Objectives • Objectives refer to what the learner is expected to do • Objectives should be written in simple and straightforward language • Objectives should be written in the form of performance verbs • Objectives should be given in the same sequence as the content of the unit
Objectives Why? • Learner knows what to achieve (objectives) • Helps in deciding assessment techniques • Helps course writers to plan instruction
Components of Objectives • Conditions (Situation) • Performance (Action) • Standards (Level)
Three Distinguishing Characteristics • Condition under which the behaviour will occur • Behaviour is described in observable and measurable terms (by using a verb) • Expected level or standard for successful performance
Conditions • • • Given a list of examples… Given a list of terms… While in the laboratory… Using a soil sample kit… After observing a videotape…
Performance • The learner will be able to define… • The learner will be able to identify the components… • The learner will be able to determine the kind of nutrients…
Standards • …accurate • • to the nearest tenth …according to the steps listed in the manual …within 20 minutes …at the rate of 100 per hour …without any errors
Objectives in Cognitive Domain • Knowledge: Retrieving of previous knowledge • Comprehension: Translating knowledge into one’s own words • Application: Ability to use learning material into new situations
• Analysis: Ability to break a concept down into its basic parts and show their relations • Synthesis: Putting elements together in a unique and creative manner • Evaluation: Ability to judge value for specific purpose
Examples of Transforming Objectives from Instructional Terms into Behavioural Terms Objectives in Instructional Objectives in Behavioural Terms Know Defines, describes, identifies, labels, outlines, reproduces, selects, states, lists. recalls, recognises, names Understand/ Comprehend Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalises, illustrates, infers, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarises, classifies, identifies, indicates, formulates, represents Learn/ Apply Changes, computer, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses, assess, performs, constructs, shows, finds, chooses Analyses Breaks down, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, subdivides, categorises Synthesises Combines, compiles, composes, explains, generates, modifies, organises, rearranges, revises, rewrites, summarises, writes, restates, organises, relates, argues, derives Judges/ Evaluates Appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticises, describes, discriminates, explains, justifies, interprets, relates, evaluates, defends, attacks, avoids, chooses
Verbs for Feeling and Attitudes accept acclaim adhere advocate agree applaud approve argue ask assist attempt attend augment avoid balance believe challenge change choose combine commend compare complete comply conform control cooperate criticise debate decide defend develop devote differentiate discuss discriminate display dispute evaluate examine favour follow formulate give help influence invite investigate initiate join judge justify listen modify obey object observe organise participate persist practice praise prefer promote propose protest pursue question read realise receive recommend reject relinquish request resist resolve respond revise respond select share specify subscribe suggest support test theorise try verify visit volunteer weigh
Verbs for Physical Action and Motor Skills adjust administer agitate approach assemble bandage bend blend boil brew build burn bury can castrate calibrate centre change clean guide handle hang harrow harvest heat impound irrigate knead lacerate lubricate maintain mash measure milk mince mix moisten mold move mulch operate perform pin place plant plough collect collimate connect construct control cook cool coordinate cover cut debark debunk define defoliate dehorn dehydrate demonstrate develop dilute position pump pour prepare prune puncture process produced raise record reduce remove repair report reset revise revive shear spray sprinkle strain start stock stop store straighten streak dip dismantle dispose dissect distinguish drain draw dry duplicate fasten feed fill filter fit fix formulate fumigate germinate grease stretch strike switch tally taste thresh tighten till tilt touch transfer transplant transport trim turn twist type use vaccinate wash wean weigh winnow wipe wrap write
Examples of Objectives P. G. Diploma in Distance Education ES-313 Learner Support Services Block-1 Unit 1: Learner Support Services: What, why and how? Example 1: In this unit, we have discussed what learner support services are, why they are needed and how they are being provided. After working through this unit, you should be able to: - define learner support services - list the types of support services - state the need for learner support services - distinguish between distance learners and conventional learners - discuss the factors affecting the provision of support services - categorise the different models of learner support ____________________________________
Examples of Objectives M. Sc. in Dietetics & Food Service Management MFN – 004 Advance Nutrition Unit 10: Minerals (Micro Minerals): Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Chromium, Manganese, Iodine and Fluorine Example 2: After studying this unit, you will be able to: - differentiate between macro and micro minerals - list important food sources of micro minerals - describe the absorption and metabolic fate of each mineral - explain the nutritional and biochemical role of various micro minerals and relate them to physiological functions and symptoms of inadequate intakes - select appropriate methods for assessing status _______________________________
Examples of Objectives B. Tech. System Methods ET -301 (Part – A) ET -534 (Part – B) Block-2 Optimization Techniques -1 Unit 5: Linear Programming – Graphical Method Example 3: After studying this unit, you should be able to: - formulate a management problem as a linear programming problem in suitable cases - identify the characteristics of a linear programming problem - make a graphical analysis of the problem - solve the problem graphically - identify various types of solutions - explain various applications of linear programming in business engineering and industry _______________________________
Introduction Structural part • Backward and forward linkages Thematic part • What to study? Main concept/theme of the unit Guidance part • Study guide • How to achieve the objectives? • Time to be devoted • Motivation role – How is it going to benefit?
Guidance • What the learner is supposed to do before reading the unit • Any special activity/practical/watching a video etc. • Visit to a place/equipment or material needed/time to complete the unit
Examples of Introductions M. A. History MHI – 08 History of Ecology and Environment: India Block 4 Appropriation of Environment- Other Forms Unit 11: Energy Resources Example 1: As we have explained in the introductory passages given at the beginning of this Block, several fresh possibilities of appropriating environmental resources emerged as sedimentary societies based on agriculture began to settle. The foremost among these related to energy resources. New forms of energy resources were discovered by the societies and energy consumption on an ever increasing scale became a uniform practice. The appropriation of energy resources depended on the availability of different forms of energy as also on the accessibility of the sources of these forms. It was also directly related with the pattern of consumption of energy by different societies which obviously showed diversity adapted to the stratified social structure. The historical information on energy resources for pre-industrial societies is thin and so is the case with the patterns of energy consumption. Yet we have attempted to weave a narrative based on this evidence that describes the forms of energy resources and the pattern of energy consumption as it evolved historically. In addition, details on the imperative of conservation have also been included. You will find the Unit interesting since it opens before you a relatively less explored and discussed subject. We recommend that you pay attention to the relationship that specific environmental conditions obtaining in India had with the appropriation of energy resources. It will help you understand better the next Block (5), on Indian Philosophy and Environment and help you place colonial policy with regard to environmental resources (discussed in Block 6) in the correct perspective. ___________________________________
Examples of Introductions B. A. /B. Com. /B. Sc. MTE - 01 Calculus Block 3 Integral Calculus Unit 10: Definite Integral Example. 2: We have seen in the Unit 3 of Block 1 that one of the problems which motivated the concept of a derivative was a geometrical one – that of finding a tangent to a curve at a point. The concept of integration was also similarly motivated by a geometrical problem – that of finding the areas of plane regions enclosed by curves. Some recently discovered Egyptian manuscripts reveal that the formulas for finding the areas of triangles and rectangles were unknown even in 1800 B. C. Using these one could also find the area of any figure bounded by curves had evolved till much later. In the third century B. C. Archimedes was successful in rigorously proving the formula for the area of a circle. His solution contained the seeds of the present day integral calculus. But it was only later, in the seventeenth century, that Newton and Leibniz were able to generalise Archimedes’ method and also to establish the link between differential and integral calculus. The definition of the definite integral of a function, which we shall give in the unit, was first given by Riemann in 1854. In Unit 11, we will acquaint you with various methods of integration. You have probably studied integration before. But in this unit we shall adopt a new approach towards integration. When you have finished the unit, you should be able to tie in our treatment with your previous knowledge.
Examples of Introductions Bachelor in Library & Information Science BLIS - 01 Library and Society Block 5 Library Associations, promotional Agencies and Systems Unit 15: Role of Professional Associations Example 3: In the earlier units, you have obtained a fairly good insight into the historical perspectives of libraries, library development in modern society, types of libraries and their functions, categories of users and their information needs, etc. In all these sectors you would have discovered that there is an underlying unity of purpose, i. e. provide a good library and information service. This basic approach has unified all persons working in libraries and information/ documentation centres to come together to form associations to focus attention on their common objectives. Library associations are learned societies. They promote development of the library movement in a country. They strive for better provision of library and information services. In this process, library associations also strive for advancement of the profession and the professionals. Professional associations are made up of, by and for the professionals in the fields concerned e. g. librarians, staff members, library science teachers, users of libraries and library. All these sectors are eligible for membership of library association. An association is what its members make of it by their active collaboration and participation in its programmes and activities. As a fresh entrant to the profession, it is worthwhile for you to know how you can participate in the activities of the professional associations to serve their ultimate cause.
Main Body Thematic Content Illustrations/ Photos Diagrams/Tables Graphics/Charts Activities References
Content Presentation • Content Analysis • Content Sequencing • Activities
Content Presentation Issues • • Small steps Logical Arrangement Ordering the content Personalised style Language Illustrations, Graphics, Tables etc Self-Assessment/Check Exercises
Content Analysis • Knowledge about the learner to pitch the content at appropriate level • Decide level Select Content Relevance • Sources Identify various works related; Good piece - adopt rather than rewrite • Analysis of the Content
Sequencing of Content Concept Analysis ØIdentification of concepts ØDefining them ØSupplement with examples ØSocial and cultural contextual situations Diagramming Spray Concept Map Matrix
Sequencing of Content • • Topic wise Chronologically Chain of cause and effect relationship Logical structure
Ordering of Content • • • Known Simple Concrete Particular Actual Unknown Complex Abstract General Representative
Language • • • Simple and Short sentences Simple vocabulary One idea in one paragraph Conversational and friendly language Personal Pronouns (We, you) Humour
Example of Personalised Style of Writing Example … Before we go any further with our discussion on study skills, we should better try to come to a consensus regarding what ‘study’ means. Consider the following statements: The term ‘study’ refers to: Following a course of lectures and taking notes; being acquainted with and being taught all that is necessary to know about a subject; cramming chunks out of, or the whole of subject matter; the diligent and systematic pursuit of understanding; and dedicating one’s thoughts and energies to learning. Given an opportunity to define ‘study’ some of you would have chosen any one of these statements and some others a combination of them. A few of you would prefer to have a combination of all the statements. Still, there will be some who do not agree with any of these statements. On many occasions you may have heard learners making the following statements. Or many times yourself as a learner would have uttered them.
Illustrations, Graphics, etc. • • • Tables Figures Charts Pictures Diagrams Patterned Text
Illustrations, Graphics, etc. Should be used to: • Explain difficult concepts • Convey an emotion or stimulate feelings about the content • Present data (quantification of data) etc.
Illustrations, Graphics, etc. The non-textual component should be: • Clearly titled and labelled • Self explanatory • Referred to in the running text • Properly reproduced • Source should be acknowledged • Copyright permission should be taken.
Examples of Illustrations, Graphics Unit 13: Forest Resources Example 1: 1. Forest in History M. A. History MHI- 08 History of Ecology and Environment: India Block 04 Appropriation of Environment- Other Forms The earliest signs of human settlement in India can be traced back to two million years ago ……… Forest Produce as recorded in Atlas of the Mughal Empire States Products 1. Punjab Sal timber, Spikenard (aromatic plant used in an ointment). Gum lac, Turpentine, Indian Jalap (tuberous roots used in a purgative drug), Chebulic Myrobalns (astringent fruit), Costus root. 2. Gujarat Teak timber, Gum lac, Aloe wood, Honey, Chebulic Myrobalans. 3. Uttar Pradesh Sal timber, Ebony, Bamboo. 4. Central India Sandalwood 5. Bihar Bamboo, Long-pepper, sun lac, Musk. 6. Bengal Timber for masts and boats, Aloe wood, China-root (Smilax gabra, not Smilax China), Gun lac, Beeswax. 7. Orissa Timber, Gum lac, Beeswax. 8. Assam Aloe wood, Gum lac, Musk. 9. Deccan (West) Teak timber, Sandalwood, Gum lac. 10. Deccan (East) Timber for ship-building, Gum lac, Bezoar Stone, Beeswax. 11. South India Teak timber, Timber (Anjeli wood), Sandalwood, Bamboo, Cinnamon, Cassia Fistula (Senna leaves), Nux Vomia (herb), Myoobalams, Lac, Beeswax. ______________________
Examples of Illustrations, Graphics Unit 01: International Marketing: Basic Concepts P. G. Diploma in International Business Operations IBO -02 International Marketing Management Block 01 Introduction to International Marketing Example 2: 1. 2. 3 Difference between Selling and Marketing Many people use the terms marketing and selling as synonyms. In fact, these two terms have different meanings in marketing management. An understanding of the differences between them is necessary for you to be a successful marketing manager. Selling • Emphasis is on the product Company first makes the product and then figures out how to sell it Management is sales-volume oriented Planning is short-run oriented, in terms of today’s products and market Stresses needs of seller Marketing Emphasis is on customers wants Company first determines customers wants and then figures out how to make and deliver a product to satisfy these wants Management is profit oriented Planning is long-run oriented in terms of new products and market Stresses wants of buyers
Examples of Illustrations, Graphics B. Sc. PHE-01 Elementary Mechanics Block 1 Concepts in Mechanics Unit 1: Motion Example 4: 1. 3. 1 Vectors We are familiar with the meaning of the word vector. Our basic motivation for using vectors is that it enables us to express physical concepts in compact and simple forms… Example 1: A ship travels a distance of 8 km from a point O along a direction 30˚ East of North up to A then moves along the East for 4 km up to B. Let OA=P, AB=Q. Draw the resultant displacement vector d of the ship and find: i) the components of vectors P and Q. Express P and Q in terms of unit vectors. ii) the components magnitude and direction of d. iii) R in terms of the unit vectors where R=2 P-1/2 Q and draw R. Let us draw x- and y- axes to represent the direction of East and North, respectively (fig. 1. 5). Then P is a vector of magnitude 8 Km at an angle Ө =30˚ from the Y-axis. Q is a vector of magnitude 4 km parallel to the x-axis. OB is the resultant displacement d. i) The components of P: Along Y-axis = OA sin 60˚ = 8 km x 3/2=43 km Thus, P = OA = 4 Components of Q: Along x-axis = 4 km x cos 0˚ = 4 km x 1 = 4 km, and Along y-axis = 4 km x sin 0˚ = 4 km x 0 = 0 km
Activities • Thinking: Through in-text questions that would make the learner pause and think or reflect upon the topic through a thinking activity • Writing: Through “self-assessment questions” (SAQs)/ exercises and leaving space for the learner to work on them. These could be in the form of: Restating the content covered or reflecting on experience • Doing: Inserting an assignment (for skill development) at the end of the unit under Model Questions/Assignment
Examples of Thinking Activities B. Ed. EDUT 4015 Teaching of Reading Skills Chapter 1: Introducing Reading Example 1: Think What are the faulty reading practices that a person can develop?
Examples of Thinking Activities B. Ed. EDUT 4025 Teaching of Reading Skills Chapter 4: Designing the Reading Course Example 2: Your Idea If bottom up models proposed that comprehension begins from the interpretation to text, can you guess what top down models suggest?
Examples of Thinking Activities M. A. in Distance Education Course Unit 3 Essentials of Distance Education Developing Distance Education Courses Example 3: In-text questions Advance organisers are examples of attempts to help students structure the learning material. Research as to the effectiveness of advance organisers seems to be less unenquired than Ausubel’s presentation implies. I believe they can be very useful, however. Do you have any experience in this?
Examples of Writing Activities B. Sc. LSE - 12 Plant Diversity – 1 Block 1 B Algae Unit 3: Comparative Morphology and Cell Structure in Algae Example 1: A) List the types of inclusions present in the cytoplasm of cyanobacteria and describe them briefly. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… B) From the following statements choose the alternative correct word given in parentheses. i) The heterocysts of cyanobacteria fix (CO 2/N 2). ii) Cyanobacteria contain (circular DNA/DNA filaments) in the nucleoplasm. iii) A gelatinous sheath outside the cell wall is (present/absent) in cyanobacteria. iv) The ribosomes in blue-green algae are (70 s/80 s) type.
Examples of Writing Activities B. Tech. ET-301 (Part – A) ET-534 (Part – B) Systems Methods Block 1 Systems and Control Unit 1: System Concepts Example 2: Think of a brick wall as a system. What are its components and how are they put together? You can even think of a window or a door as a system. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------____________________________
Examples of Writing Activities M. Sc. MFN-004 Advance Nutrition Unit 2: Human Energy Requirements Example 3: 1) What does the factorial estimation of energy expenditure involve? Rani is a female, 25 years of age, with a moderately active lifestyle and a mean body weight of 50 Kg. Calculate her energy requirements using the factorial approach. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………… 2) Give the energy requirement as recommended by ICMR and FAO/WHO/UNU 2004 for the following: Lactating Mothers: …………………………………………………………………………… Adults: ………………………………………………
Examples of Doing Activities B. A. /B. Com. /B. Sc. FST-1 Foundation Course in Science & Technology Block 5 Agriculture, Nutrition and Health Unit 22: Health and Disease Example 1: Make a survey in your locality and find out which of the infectious diseases were prevalent during last six months. Tell us if the environmental factors were contributing to the spread of these diseases.
Examples of Doing Activities B. Sc. Nursing BNS-108 Mental Health Nursing Block 01 Basic concepts of Mental Health And Psychiatric Nursing Unit 2: Concepts of Normal and Abnormal Behaviour and Classification of Mental Illness Example 2: Observe the behaviours of children living in your neighbourhood. Identify the children with disorders and make a list of the neurotic behaviours.
Examples of Doing Activities M. A. in Distance Education Course Unit 4 Essentials of Distance Education How Economical is Distance Education Example 3: If you work in a distance education organisation or otherwise have access to information about input and output, cost and income in a distance education institution, try to make 1) a comparison of a study programme or course with a corresponding face-to-face programme, 2) calculate what the course fee would be if it were to finance its part of the whole operation.
Why Use Activities? To help learners: • Think for themselves • Draw inferences • Relate own ideas and experiences to topics To provide opportunities for the learner to: • Practice important objectives • Monitor progress • Check their understanding/mastery of concepts/skills • Actively use materials
Planning of Activities • • Areas learners are familiar with Areas that need more explanation Areas that need more practice Areas that are difficult Type & Range of Activity Aims of the Programme Learning Objectives Abilities of Learners
Activities • • • In-text questions Self-assessment questions Exercises Things to do Depicting experiences
Types of SAQs Frequency? • • • True-false Matching Fill in the blanks Multiple choice Sequencing Short-answer type
Ending Section Summary Possible Answers References Bibliography Glossary Further Readings Model Questions
Summary A summary should: • Appropriately summarise the content covered in the unit • Be written in a clear and lucid manner, reviewing the entire unit • Cover all the expected learning outcomes
Examples of Summaries B. Sc. Nursing BNS- 108 Mental Health Nursing Block 01 Basic concepts of Mental Health And Psychiatric Nursing Unit 2: Concepts of Normal and Abnormal Behaviour and Classification of Mental Illness Example 1: Let us sum up We have discussed the meaning of behaviour and its components and characteristics of mentally healthy individuals. We have also discussed the misconceptions about mental illness, concept of abnormal behaviour through medical, statistical and socio-cultural models. Further we have discussed the causes of abnormal behaviour, these are either predisposing factors with which an individual is born, and/or based on the past life events. Precipitating factors are considered to be the life stress factors or the crises wherein an individual fails in his/her coping abilities and may develop the abnormal behaviour. These factors could be organic or biological, psychosocial and socio cultural in origin. In mental illness, there are behaviour changes and changes in the functions of the body and mind. The patient’s individual and social activities are disturbed. These illnesses are classified in different ways. Generally classification of abnormal behaviour is based on similarities of different kinds, like similarity of behaviour, similarities of aetiology or causes, and similarity of prognosis or outcome. The first systematic classification of mental illness was made by Kraepelin. On the basis of this, each country attempted its own classification.
Examples of Summaries B. A. /B. Com. /B. Sc. FST - 1 Foundation Course in Science & Technology Block 2 Emergence of Modern Science Unit 7: Science in Colonial and Modern India Example 2: In this unit, we have dealt with the developments in science in colonial and post-independence India. The newly industrialised countries had, in their search for raw materials and markets for finished products, colonised many Asian and African countries. India came under the British colonial yoke. This influenced the subsequent scientific developments in India. Let us now summarise the main features of this unit: - The colonies were interested only in exploiting India’s natural resources. Thus, developments took place in a few areas like botany, geology, geography etc. However, the long-standing Indian tradition of science was destroyed. All creative thought was sought to be stifled by the colonial masters to keep the Indians backward. - The local populace responded by setting up institutions of their own that worked for the popularisation of science. The freedom movement gave further impetus to this cause. Several Indian scientists received international recognition for their work. But, above all, there emerged a conscious thinking about using science and technology for the benefit of all our people. - This was reflected in the policies adopted by our country after gaining independence. Several steps were taken to effectively use science. Yet, there are still several aspects which need careful attention. Notable among these is applying western ideas and approaches to our problems regardless of our social milieu. We have also to fight against the tactics of the developed countries to dominate us by withholding scientific or technological information, embroiling us in the arms race etc. We have yet to go a long way in attaining the standards of the developed countries.
Examples of Summaries M. Sc. MFN-004 Advance Nutrition Unit 07: Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E and K Example 3: This unit focused on the fat-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are vital to health. They can be obtained from inexpensive, readily available plant foods and sunlight. A summary of the important functions and sources of fat-soluble vitamins is presented herewith. We learnt that the deficiency of vitamin A is a nutritional disorder of public health significance in India. The summary of Fat Soluble Vitamins is as follows: Vitamins Sources Functions Vitamin Retinol: liver, egg yolk, cream, butter, ghee, milk B-carotene: Yellow and orange vegetables, green leafy vegetables Action of sunlight on the skin Animal foods like eggs, butter, fish liver oil Vegetable oils, whole grains, deep green leafy vegetables, pulses, nuts and oilseeds Dark green leafy vegetables, egg yolk, liver Bacterial synthesis Maintenance of health of epithelial tissues Vision in dim light Growth of skeletal and soft tissues Resistance of infections Absorption of calcium and phosphorous Deposition of calcium and phosphorous in bones Protection of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A and C from destruction in the body/food Clotting of blood A D E K
Possible Answers Should include: • Correct answers OR • Hints or the main points to be written in the answer (if there is no definite answer)
References should be complete in all respects i. e. they should include: • The complete name and initials of the author/s • The title of the publication • The year of publication • Page numbers • If it is a paper/chapter the source where it has been published should be given • The same style of referencing should be followed throughout the SLMs
Examples of Referencing style v. Book Bates, A. W. (Ed. ) (1984) The Role of Technology in Distance Education, London: Croom Helm v. Book chapter Srivastava, Manjulika and Ramegowda, N. S. (2006) Profile of Distance Learners, in Suresh Garg etal (Eds) Four Decades of Distance Education in India: Reflections on Policy & Practice, New Delhi: Viva Books Pvt. Ltd. v. Journal article Taplin, Magaret (2000) Problems experienced by female distance education students at IGNOU: Why do some consider dropping out while others decide to stay? Indian Journal of Open Learning 9 (2), 167 -175 v. Conference paper Joshi, M. M. (1998) Higher Education in India: Vision and action. Country paper presented at UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education in the Twenty First Century, Paris, October, 5 -9 v. Web reference Naidu, Som (2001) Scaffolding Learning in Open, Distance and Flexible Learning Environments. Global E-Journal of Open, Flexible & Distance Education, 1 (1), 84 -91, Retrieved November 19, 2002, from: http: //www. ignou. ac. in/ejournal/contents/somnaidu. htm
Glossary • • Explain difficult words Provide the meaning of technical words Clarify doubts Eliminate ambiguity
Example of a Glossary IBO-02 International Marketing Management Block 03 International Product And Pricing Decisions Unit 08: International Branding, Packaging and Other Decisions Example of a Glossary Brand: A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of others. Brand Name: That part of the brand which can be vocalized-the utterable. Family Brand: Also called Umbrella brand-Brand used in the entire family of products of a firm. Global Brand: A brand with commonly understood set of characteristics, benefit and appeal, and used worldwide. Guarantee: An assurance that the product can be returned if its performance is unsatisfactory. Individual Brand: Separate brand for each one of a member of products from the same firm. Service Mark: A trade mark registered for a service. Trade Mark: That part of the brand that is given legal protection for exclusive use by a seller. Warranty: An assurance that the buyer will be compensated if the product does not perform up to reasonable expectations.
Further Readings/ Bibliography • Be suitable for the topic covered in the unit • Match the level of the learner • Be relevant to the expected learning outcomes • Be complete in all respects i. e. name of the author/s, title, year of publication, and name of publisher
Examples of Further Readings v Garrison, D. R. (1989) Understanding Distance Education v London and New York: Routledge v Holmberg, B. (1989) Theory and Practice of Distance Education. v London and New York: Routledge v Keegan, D. (1990) Foundations of Distance Education v London and New York: Routledge v Co and Oxford: Jossey- Bass
Model Questions • Relevant to the content • Appropriate for the learner to achieve the desired learning outcomes • Able to prepare the learner for the exams
Examples of Model Questions/ Assignment MPA – 005 Disaster Response Unit 9: Managing Human Behaviour and Response Example 1 1. Write some common physical and psychological reactions in disaster. 2. What are the factors that affect a survivor’s behaviour? 3. Mention some other techniques to handle survivors which are useful in disaster management.
Examples of Model Questions/ Assignment P. G. Diploma IBO-02 International Marketing Management Block 5 Managing International Marketing Operations Unit 14: International Marketing Planning, Organising and Control Example 2: 1. Differentiate between domestic and international marketing planning. 2. How do entry objectives in a given foreign market affect the planning for that market? Explain with examples. 3. What barriers make controlling international operations more complex than controlling domestic marketing activities? Explain with the help of specific examples. 4. Explain how are contractual arrangements utilised for effecting control of international operations? 5. Comment upon the communication systems that can be established for effective control systems. 6. Discuss briefly the sequence of control process used to control overseas marketing operations.
Examples of Model Questions/ Assignment M. A. History MHI-08 History of Ecology and Environment: India Block 02 Environment and Early Societies Unit 6: Nomadic Pastoralism Example. 3: 1) Discuss the factors giving rise to pastoralism in early history. 2) Write a note explaining the emergence of nomadism among pastoralists. 3) Examine the nature of relationship between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturalists in early history.
Finalisation of Materials • • • Cover design Page size Page layout Arranging sections Placing pictures graphics, tables, etc. Selecting type face Use of capitalisation Use of symbols/signs Use of colour/s
Use of Computer • • WYSIWYG package Editing has become easier Thesaurus function Grammar & spell check Use of various styles & fonts Graphics can be easily combined with text Page layout can be in various styles
Editing of Materials Why Editing? • To ensure quality • To maintain standard • To maintain house style and uniformity
Editing of Materials Types • Content • Format • Language
Content Editing Why should do it? • Subject expert • Experienced teacher What is important for the editor? • Learning by students • Subject matter, not confused
Format Editing House Style • Structure • Objectives • Sections & Sub-sections • SAQs • Summary • Glossary • Further Reading • Answers to SAQs
Language Editing Use • Popular or frequently used forms of words • British spellings as far as possible • Indian words, where equivalents are not available • Simple sentences • Proper punctuation
Language Editing Avoid • Over punctuation • Quotations not very essential to theme • Inconsistent spelling, tenses • Long sentences Use • Popular or frequently used words • Simple sentences • Proper punctuation, spelling
Developmental Testing • • Process of testing Define purpose (Why and What) Identify target group (Who) Decide methods (How)
Developmental Testing • Why developmental testing ? • Who will do the test ? Peer Expert Target Learners • Developmental Testing Methods Direct F 2 F Questionnaire-based survey
Test What ? • • Readability Comprehension Understanding Application and relevance • Acceptability • Retention • Motivation • Readable/Not Readable • Literal Comprehension Good/Bad • Understanding Exists/ Not Exists • Useful/Not Useful Objectives Fulfilled/ Unfulfilled • Retain ability/No retain ability • Stimulated/Not stimulated • Improvisation Final Version
Who Tests ? • • • Group of colleagues Group of potential students Group of distance learners Group of conventional learners Special group of outside experts
How to Test ? 1. Ask students – to work through the unit – at home/f-to-f – to work on assignments – through personal interviews – to fill up the questionnaire 2. External assessment by experts 3. Feedback from tutors
Analysing Results • • • Reap original objectives Consider result for each Note opinions Draw conclusions Discuss Act (Revise)