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Section 1 The Market Revolution Technological changes create greater interaction and more economic diversity Section 1 The Market Revolution Technological changes create greater interaction and more economic diversity among the regions of the nation.

U. S. Markets Expand Ø Changing Economic Activities Ø Early 1800 s- Farm families U. S. Markets Expand Ø Changing Economic Activities Ø Early 1800 s- Farm families were self- sufficient Ø Only bought what they couldn’t make Ø Mid 1800 s - Farmers began specialization - Raised 1 or 2 cash crops

U. S. Markets Expand Market revolution - People bought and sold goods rather than U. S. Markets Expand Market revolution - People bought and sold goods rather than make them Ø U. S. economic growth depended on Capitalism - Private control of means of production, used for profit - Business capital (money, property, machines) fueled growing economy Ø Entrepreneurs invested own money in new industries - Great loss or profit Ø

New Inventions Entrepreneurs developed new products Ø 1839 - Charles Goodyear created vulcanized rubber New Inventions Entrepreneurs developed new products Ø 1839 - Charles Goodyear created vulcanized rubber - Didn’t freeze or melt in cold and hot weather Ø

New Inventions 1846 - Elias Howe patented sewing machine Ø 1 st used in New Inventions 1846 - Elias Howe patented sewing machine Ø 1 st used in shoe factories Ø

New Inventions Ø I. M. Singer added foot treadle - Enabled homemakers to make New Inventions Ø I. M. Singer added foot treadle - Enabled homemakers to make garments faster - Enabled Factories to mass produce clothing (prices dropped by over 75%)

Impact on Household Economy Ø Farmers began using mechanized farm equipment - boosted industry Impact on Household Economy Ø Farmers began using mechanized farm equipment - boosted industry output Ø Technology lowered cost of factory items Ø Workers became consumers - Clock prices dropped from $50 in 1800 to 50 cents by 1850

Impact on Communication Ø 1837 - Samuel F. B. Morse developed electromagnetic telegraph: - Impact on Communication Ø 1837 - Samuel F. B. Morse developed electromagnetic telegraph: - Messages tapped in code & carried by copper wire - Businesses & railroads transmitted information

Impact on Transportation Ø 1807 - Robert Fulton’s steamboat traveled 150 miles up Hudson Impact on Transportation Ø 1807 - Robert Fulton’s steamboat traveled 150 miles up Hudson in 32 hours (Clermont) - By 1830 - steamboats on western rivers cut freight costs & speeded travel - Water transport was key for moving heavy machinery & raw materials

Impact on Transportation Ø Erie Canal lowered cost of shipping - Dozens of canals Impact on Transportation Ø Erie Canal lowered cost of shipping - Dozens of canals follow - Canals connected Midwest farmers to Northeast and world markets

Emergence of Railroads 1840 s- shipping by railroad was much costlier than by canal Emergence of Railroads 1840 s- shipping by railroad was much costlier than by canal Ø Railroads offered advantages - Faster (Could pull freight more than 4 times faster (10 mph) than boats in a canal - Operated in winter - Could go inland Ø Early train travel uncomfortable for passengers Ø By 1850 s - railroads expanded, cost drops, & safety increased Ø

New Markets Link Regions Ø Improved transportation, communication made regions interdependent Ø By 1838 New Markets Link Regions Ø Improved transportation, communication made regions interdependent Ø By 1838 - National Road extended from Cumberland, MD to Springfield, IL Ø Growing links led to development of regional specialties

Southern Agriculture Ø Southern agricultural relied on cotton, tobacco & rice Ø South lacked Southern Agriculture Ø Southern agricultural relied on cotton, tobacco & rice Ø South lacked capital for factories; money tied up in land & slaves

Northeast Shipping & Manufacturing Ø Canals & railroads turned Northeast into center of American Northeast Shipping & Manufacturing Ø Canals & railroads turned Northeast into center of American commerce Ø New York City became central link between U. S. farms and European markets after the Erie Canal was opened in 1834 Ø Great rise in manufacturing created more, better, & less expensive goods

Midwest Farming Ø People began moving to the Midwest as the Northeast industrialized Ø Midwest Farming Ø People began moving to the Midwest as the Northeast industrialized Ø Had to clear land to make it arable Ø Two inventions enabled farmers to cultivate the land efficiently and cheaply (Farming profitable)

Midwest Farming Ø John Deere invented steel plow that took less power to pull Midwest Farming Ø John Deere invented steel plow that took less power to pull - Farmers replaced oxen with horses

Midwest Farming Cyrus Mc. Cormick invented mechanical reaper - Enabled 1 farmer to the Midwest Farming Cyrus Mc. Cormick invented mechanical reaper - Enabled 1 farmer to the work of 5 Ø Farmers shifted from subsistence farming to growing cash crops Ø

Section 2 Manifest Destiny Americans move west, energized by their belief in the rightful Section 2 Manifest Destiny Americans move west, energized by their belief in the rightful expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Across a Continent 1823 – Mountain Man Jedediah Smith led a party of hunters Across a Continent 1823 – Mountain Man Jedediah Smith led a party of hunters to through South Pass (South of the Teton Mountains) - Learned about it from the Crow Indians Ø Wagons could get through the South Pass Ø

Across a Continent Explored California and the Oregon Country - 1818 – U. S. Across a Continent Explored California and the Oregon Country - 1818 – U. S. and Great Britain agreed to occupy the region together - Region had rich wheat crop, fruit trees and fat livestock Ø Smith wrote a letter to the Secretary of War telling him that the British were taking over the Oregon Country even though Americans could legally settle it - Also said that it was possible for Americans to reach the Oregon Trail by wagon Ø

The Oregon Trail 1836 - settlers go to Oregon, prove wagons can go into The Oregon Trail 1836 - settlers go to Oregon, prove wagons can go into Northwest Ø Methodists missionaries were the 1 st white people to migrate to Oregon - Sent back reports about Oregon’s rich farmland forest Ø Before 1840 - few Americans went to Louisiana Territory Ø

The Oregon Trail 1843 – People began migrating to Organ in larger numbers Ø The Oregon Trail 1843 – People began migrating to Organ in larger numbers Ø Many settlers tried fresh start in West after panic of 1837 Ø Manifest destiny belief that U. S. was destined to expand to Pacific Ocean Ø

The Oregon Trail People traveled along the Oregon Trail - trail from Independence, MO The Oregon Trail People traveled along the Oregon Trail - trail from Independence, MO to Portland, OR - Started at Independence, Missouri crossed the Platte River and continued through the South Past into modernday northeast Utah - Pioneers used Conestoga wagons & pushed handcarts (trip took months) Ø Trail Split in Utah - Branch of the trail went across desert to California - Oregon Trail continued northwest to the Colombia River Ø

Life on the Trail Ø Ø Ø 1845 – The Emigrants Guide was a Life on the Trail Ø Ø Ø 1845 – The Emigrants Guide was a guide book to help settlers cross the trail Wagon and animals to pull it was the biggest expense (Oxen Best) - Also needed spare parts Food for each adult -200 pounds of flour, 150 pounds of Bacon, 10 pounds of Coffee, 20 Pound of Sugar, and 10 pounds of Salt - Some people carried dried beef, rice, beans, fruit, vinegar, and pickles Made journey in Groups - Circled wagons at night (Used as animal pen) Indians helped settlers in the beginning - Traded food for cloth, needles or other goods Indians became more hostile as Settlers increase - Feared losing their lands

Attitudes Toward the Frontier Ø Land for farming, & speculation were important for building Attitudes Toward the Frontier Ø Land for farming, & speculation were important for building prosperity Ø Merchants seeking new markets followed farmers, miners Ø Oregon Territory harbors expanded trade with Asia Ø Served as naval stations for the Pacific fleet

The Mormon Migration Mormons belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints The Mormon Migration Mormons belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints - Founded by Joseph Smith Ø Believed in cooperation not competition - Angry neighbors viewed their cooperation as a monopoly - Neighbors also didn’t like Mormon practice of polygamy Ø 1844 – Mob in Illinois killed Joseph Smith - Brigham Young became Mormon Leader Ø

The Mormon Migration 1847 – Brigham Young led the Mormons in search of a The Mormon Migration 1847 – Brigham Young led the Mormons in search of a new home (Great Migration) - Settled near Salt Lake City - Wanted a place far away from other settlements Ø Succeeded as a result of their sharing policy (water) - Built canals and diverted mountain streams to water fields Ø

Settlers and Native Americans Ø Most Native Americans maintain their own traditions even if Settlers and Native Americans Ø Most Native Americans maintain their own traditions even if forced to move Ø Some assimilate into white culture & a few fought to keep whites out

The Black Hawk War Ø 1830 s - settlers in Illinois, Iowa pressured natives The Black Hawk War Ø 1830 s - settlers in Illinois, Iowa pressured natives to go west Ø Chief Black Hawk led rebellion in Illinois & Wisconsin Territory Ø Illinois militia slaughtered more tan 200 Sauk and Fox people Ø Sauk & Fox tribes were defeated & forcibly moved west of the Mississippi

Middle Ground Ø Ø Ø Ø Good relations existed when settlers needed Native American Middle Ground Ø Ø Ø Ø Good relations existed when settlers needed Native American trading partners in the Middle Ground Middle ground is area not dominated by Native Americans or settlers Middle ground was west of Mississippi as a result of 1830 Indian Removal Act Small numbers of displaced natives fought settlers moving west 1851 - Treaty of Fort Laramie between U. S. government & native. American nations - Native Americans gained control of Central Plains - Promised not to attack settlers - U. S. pledged to honor boundaries Settlers increased & depleted buffalo & elk U. S. violated treaty

Resolving Territorial Disputes Parts of Northern border of the United States were disputed by Resolving Territorial Disputes Parts of Northern border of the United States were disputed by the U. S. and Great Britain Ø Early 1840 s – Britain still claimed parts of modern day Maine and Minnesota - 1842 - Webster. Ashburton Treaty settled border disputes in East & Midwest Ø Continued to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory Ø

Resolving Territorial Disputes Election of 1844 – Democrat James K. Polk presidential platform called Resolving Territorial Disputes Election of 1844 – Democrat James K. Polk presidential platform called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Territory - “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” slogan calls for annexation of Oregon Ø 1846 - U. S & Britain agreed to extend boundary west along 49 th parallel - Britain’s interest in area waned as fur trade declined - Polk’s advisors deemed the land north of the 49 th parallel unsuitable for agriculture Ø

Section 3 Expansion in Texas Mexico offers land grants to American settlers, but conflict Section 3 Expansion in Texas Mexico offers land grants to American settlers, but conflict develops over religion and other cultural differences, and the issue of slavery

Changes in the Spanish Borderlands June 30, 1821 – Mexico gained its independence from Changes in the Spanish Borderlands June 30, 1821 – Mexico gained its independence from Spain Ø Agustin de Iturbide became emperor Ø Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led a revolt against Iturbide’s harsh rule - Santa Anna would rule off and on for 30 years Ø

Opening up the Border Mexico opened up its border to trade with the U. Opening up the Border Mexico opened up its border to trade with the U. S. A. - Spain hadn’t allowed foreigners or foreign trade within it border provinces Ø Mexican Government set two conditions - Settlers had to covert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens Ø American traders saw an opportunity for profit in the Santa Fe in the province of New Mexico Ø

Opening up the Border Ø William Becknell of Missouri led a caravan of traders Opening up the Border Ø William Becknell of Missouri led a caravan of traders to Santa Fe - Hardware, cloth, needles, and China - Becknell became known as the father of the Santa Fe Trail

Opening up the Border Ø Santa Fe Trail- busy trade route; Independence, MO to Opening up the Border Ø Santa Fe Trail- busy trade route; Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM - First 150 miles wagons go alone, then band together for protection

Opening up the Border 1824 – Becknell became the 1 st western trader to Opening up the Border 1824 – Becknell became the 1 st western trader to carry his goods in a Conestoga Wagon - Called Prairie schooners in the West - Carried about 5, 000 pounds of goods - Pulled by three pares of oxen, mules, or horses Ø Many Americans who crossed into New Mexico’s Rio Grande Valley decided to stay - Built mills and brick kilns - Blacksmiths, tinsmiths, and gunsmith skills brought prosperity to New Mexico Ø

Changing California 1833 - Mexico’s government ordered that missionaries turn over half of their Changing California 1833 - Mexico’s government ordered that missionaries turn over half of their lands to the Indians Ø Land ended up in the hands of Rancheros – landowners who lived on large ranchos or large land grants awarded by the government Ø Ranchos were like feudal states - Indians worked for food, clothing and shelter Ø Began trading with the U. S. A. Ø

Texas Borderland 1821 – Texas had about 4000 Tejanos (Mexicans living in Texas) Ø Texas Borderland 1821 – Texas had about 4000 Tejanos (Mexicans living in Texas) Ø Rancheros grew rich rounding up wild Longhorn cattle and killing them for their hides - Wore wide brimmed hats, leather straps, and heeled boots Ø Longhorns were a tough breed - Could travel for miles without water, run fast, and survive extreme hot or cold Ø

Anglo-Americans in Texas 1821 – Moses Austin received a land grant from the Spanish Anglo-Americans in Texas 1821 – Moses Austin received a land grant from the Spanish government to settle in Texas (Before Mexican independence) - Spain hoped they would protect territory from illegal American settlers and Comanche Indians Ø Moses Austin Died and his son Stephen Austin led the settlers into Texas Ø grow as a result of illegal immigrants Ø

Anglo-Americans in Texas Ø Ø Ø Other people received land grants to carry settlers Anglo-Americans in Texas Ø Ø Ø Other people received land grants to carry settlers to Texas (Texas Boomed) 1830 – Population had grown to about 30, 000 - Anglo- Americans outnumbered Tejanos - Both Free African settlers and slaves (90% were slaves) U. S. wanted to buy lands south to Rio Grande but Mexico refused to sell Texas Anglo-Americans had agreed to become Mexican citizens - Still thought like Americans - Held onto strong ideas about freedoms - Angered when Mexico ended slavery 1830 – Mexico closed Texas to Anglo-American settlers - Placed high tariffs on American goods - Anglo- American population in Texas continued to

The Texas Revolution 1832 – Sam Houston moved to Austin Texas Ø Tension between The Texas Revolution 1832 – Sam Houston moved to Austin Texas Ø Tension between Mexican Government and Texas settlers - Settlers were angry that Texas wasn’t a separate state within Mexico - Objected to being forced to covert to Catholicism - Hated laws that banned American immigration and placed high tariffs on American goods Ø

The Texas Revolution New immigrants wanted to break from Mexico - Hoped U. S. The Texas Revolution New immigrants wanted to break from Mexico - Hoped U. S. government would help Ø Stephen Austin didn’t want to break his promise to the Mexican government Ø Austin persuaded Santa Anna to lift restrictions on immigration Ø Local Legislature allowed the settlers to practice their own religion and approved the use of English in public documents Ø

War Breaks Out in Texas Ø Ø Ø 1834 - Santa Anna became dictator War Breaks Out in Texas Ø Ø Ø 1834 - Santa Anna became dictator - Ruled without any regard to laws or people’s rights Wanted to strengthen his control over Texas - Sent more troops and tax collectors Army and settlers fought over cannon used for protection against the Indians - Texans hung a white flag over it that said “come and take it” December 1843 – Texans drove army from the Alamo Santa Anna led 6000 troops to Texas

Battle of the Alamo 150 men held the Alamo Force included William Travis, Davy Battle of the Alamo 150 men held the Alamo Force included William Travis, Davy Crockett, and Jim Bowie Ø February 23, 1836 – Santa Anna attacked San Antonio - Flew a red flag (No mercy would be shown, no prisoners taken) - Texans responded by firing a cannon Ø Ø

Battle of the Alamo Ø February 24, 1836 – Siege of the Alamo began Battle of the Alamo Ø February 24, 1836 – Siege of the Alamo began - Settlers held the army off for 12 days - 13 th day – Santa Anna ordered his troops to go over the wall - Settlers ran out of ammunition - Fought hand-to-handcombat

Battle of the Alamo Ø 183 Settlers were killed Ø Women and Children were Battle of the Alamo Ø 183 Settlers were killed Ø Women and Children were spared Ø Susan Dickenson was sent to Sam Houston with a message that said any other revolt would be put down just as harshly

The Defeat of Santa Anna Ø After Alamo Mexican forces attacked Texas forces led The Defeat of Santa Anna Ø After Alamo Mexican forces attacked Texas forces led by James Fannin at Goliad - Texans surrendered Ø Santa Anna had all of the prisoners killed - Thought it would destroy Mexican resistance

The Defeat of Santa Anna went after last remaining force led by Sam Houston The Defeat of Santa Anna went after last remaining force led by Sam Houston Ø April 21, 1836 – Houston's forces surprised attacked and defeated Santa Anna in the afternoon - “Remember the Alamo” Ø Battle of San Jacinto – Texas won its independence Ø

The Lone Star Republic September 1836 – Texas raised a flag with a single The Lone Star Republic September 1836 – Texas raised a flag with a single star - Lone Star Republic Ø 1836 – Texas asked Congress to be annexed Ø United States refused Texas request - Northern Sates opposed another slave state (Balance in Congress) - Some government leaders feared that annexing Texas would mean war with Mexico Ø

Section 4 The War with Mexico Tensions over the U. S. annexation of Texas Section 4 The War with Mexico Tensions over the U. S. annexation of Texas leads to war with Mexico, resulting in huge territorial gains for the United States.

Election 1844 Ø Ø Annexing Texas was a major issue Henry Clay opposed annexing Election 1844 Ø Ø Annexing Texas was a major issue Henry Clay opposed annexing it - Didn’t want a war with Mexico James Polk supported the annexation of Texas - Also supported the reoccupation of the northern territory to gain northern support (Fifty. Four Forty or Fight)

Election 1844 Many Americans felt it was our the nation’s destiny to stretch from Election 1844 Many Americans felt it was our the nation’s destiny to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific (Manifest Destiny) - Meant taking Oregon, California and Texas Ø 1844 – Polk became President and Manifest Destiny became government policy Ø 1846 – U. S. and Britain and agree to divide the Oregon country at the 49 th parallel - Already reached from Great Lakes to Rocky Mountains Ø

Trouble with Texas December 1845 –Texas entered the Union after being annexed Ø U. Trouble with Texas December 1845 –Texas entered the Union after being annexed Ø U. S. and Mexico disputed the southern border of Texas - U. S. claimed Rio Grande River - Mexico claimed Nueces River Ø President Polk sent John Slidell to buy Southwest & negotiate Texas border l Santa Anna had been ousted & Mexican government was unstable l ignored Slidell Ø January 1846 – New Mexican government claimed the border was father north - Sabine River Ø

Trouble with Texas Ø General Zachary Taylor led American forces into disputed territory l Trouble with Texas Ø General Zachary Taylor led American forces into disputed territory l Attacked by Mexican forces - 9 Americans killed - Polk sent war message to Congress & withholds facts - Congress approved war& stifles opposition

Trouble with Texas Ø Ø Ø May 1846 – U. S. declares War (Mexican Trouble with Texas Ø Ø Ø May 1846 – U. S. declares War (Mexican War) South and West supported war - Northeast opposed it (called it a war of conquest) - Henry David Thoreau – Went to jail for refusing to pay taxes to support Mexican war (His practice of passive resistance later influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. ) Polk’s war plan was to seize New Mexico and California Stephen Kearney led forces into Santa Fe - Took New Mexico without firing a shot - Headed for California

Bear Flag Revolt John C. Fremont led a rebellion against Mexican authority in California Bear Flag Revolt John C. Fremont led a rebellion against Mexican authority in California Ø Seized the Mexican leader Mariano Vallejo and threw him in jail - Made a flag with a grizzly bear and a single star and declared California the Bear Flag Republic or Republic of California Ø 1846 – Kearney’s troops joined the Americans rebelling Ø 1847 – Americans controlled California Ø

Defeating Mexico U. S. Forces invaded Mexico Ø Zachary Taylor led forces South from Defeating Mexico U. S. Forces invaded Mexico Ø Zachary Taylor led forces South from Texas - Defeated Santa Anna’s troops Ø Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz and moved inland toward Mexico City - Killed 1, 000 Mexican soldiers and 100 cadets at Chapultepec - 1847 – conquered Mexico City Ø

Defeating Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war - Mexico accepted Rio Grande Defeating Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war - Mexico accepted Rio Grande as its northern border - Mexico gave up a vast stretch of land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean that included present day states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona (Mexican Cession)

Defeating Mexico Ø Gadsden Purchase (1853) – U. S. purchased strip of land across Defeating Mexico Ø Gadsden Purchase (1853) – U. S. purchased strip of land across southern New Mexico and Arizona for $10 million - Completed the presentday southwestern boundary of the United States

Election of 1848 Democrats divided over extension of slavery Ø Nominated Lewis Cass and Election of 1848 Democrats divided over extension of slavery Ø Nominated Lewis Cass and hesitated about the extension of slavery into the territory Ø Small group of antislavery Democrats nominated Martin Van Buren to lead then Free Soil Party - He won 10% of the vote Ø Whig nominee Zachary Taylor easily won the election - He was a war hero Ø

The California Gold Rush January 1848 – James Marshall discovered gold at John Sutter’s The California Gold Rush January 1848 – James Marshall discovered gold at John Sutter’s Mill Ø 1849 – California Gold Rush - People who rushed to California looking for gold were called Forty-niners - Most Forty-niners were men looking to get rich quick and return home - Some women earned money cooking, washing and running boarding houses Ø

The California Gold Rush Ø Mining Camps developed along stream and rivers of the The California Gold Rush Ø Mining Camps developed along stream and rivers of the Sierra Nevada foothills - Populations rose and disappeared quickly in Boomtowns

The California Gold Rush Ø People from all over the went to California (especially The California Gold Rush Ø People from all over the went to California (especially Chinese) - Chinese came as indentured servants - Faced prejudice and were forced out of the mining camps - Many found jobs cooking and washing clothes

Effects of the Gold Rush Ø Ø Ø 1849 – 1852 – ¼ of Effects of the Gold Rush Ø Ø Ø 1849 – 1852 – ¼ of a million people migrated to California San Francisco became a major banking, manufacturing, and trading center Anglo-American culture replaced Mexican culture Indian population dropped - Many were hunted down and killed (Progress) 1850 – California applied for statehood as a free state - 1850 s – Issue of slavery begins to tear the nation apart