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Section 1 Cultures Clash on the Prairie The cattle industry booms in the late Section 1 Cultures Clash on the Prairie The cattle industry booms in the late 1800 s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declines

Geography of the Great Plains ►Great Plains- grassland extending through the west-central portion of Geography of the Great Plains ►Great Plains- grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US ►Areas where settlers and Indians lived ►By 1900 Indians forced off their lands - Transcontinental Railroad opened up the west for settlement carrying materials and people

THE HORSE AND THE BUFFALO USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER & CLOTHING The introduction of THE HORSE AND THE BUFFALO USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER & CLOTHING The introduction of horses by the Spanish (1598) and later guns, meant natives were able to travel and hunt While the horse provided speed and mobility, it was the buffalo that provided for basic needs

NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH 1834 – Government set aside all of the Great Plains NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH 1834 – Government set aside all of the Great Plains as “Indian lands” 1850 s- Government shifts policy, giving natives much smaller lands reservations -special areas used by a specific group Indians agreed to live on reservations based on promise that the land would be theirs forever! promised food, money and other help Conflict ensues

Indians way of life destroyed ►Whites killed buffalo ►Indians depended on buffalo ►Indians were Indians way of life destroyed ►Whites killed buffalo ►Indians depended on buffalo ►Indians were unable to survive without the buffalo ►Many Indians turned to the Ghost Dance Religion (Spiritual dance) - It taught that the spirits of the dead Indians would return to help the Indians reclaim their land ►Many whites were fearful of this movement

BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =AQDkef. N 5 -bk December BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =AQDkef. N 5 -bk December 29, 1890, the 7 th Cavalry rounded up 350 Sioux & took them to Wounded Knee, S. D. and tried disarm them A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Natives This event brought the “Indian Wars”– and an entire era to a bitter end

Assimilation ►Conditions grew worse more Indians forced on to reservations ►Reformers calling for changes Assimilation ►Conditions grew worse more Indians forced on to reservations ►Reformers calling for changes ►Many whites thought only solution was to make the Indians become more like the whites - Assimilation – plan in which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture

Dawes Act 1887 Dawes Act (1887) – “Americanize” the Native Americans -160 acres head Dawes Act 1887 Dawes Act (1887) – “Americanize” the Native Americans -160 acres head of house/80 acres each unmarried adult ►Dawes Act Failed!!!!!! - Many western Indians didn't want to become farmers - Lacked tools/training - Many sold their plots to white settlers cheaply

Long drives ►Long Drives- the moving of cattle over trails to a shipping center. Long drives ►Long Drives- the moving of cattle over trails to a shipping center. ►During cowboys made sure that cattle had plenty of grass to eat along the way ►Typical dived 1 cowboy for every 250 -300 cattle ►Drives were tough - Had to keep cattle together - Watch for thieves

New Trade Routes Moving cattle was destroying land Cattle dealers decide to create a New Trade Routes Moving cattle was destroying land Cattle dealers decide to create a trail specifically for moving cattle Called the Chisolm Trail, went from San Antonio TX, to KS

End of the Open Range Ranching ends because of: Overgrazing of land Extended bad End of the Open Range Ranching ends because of: Overgrazing of land Extended bad weather Invention of barbed wire

Section 2 Settling on the Great Plains Settlers on the Great Plains transform the Section 2 Settling on the Great Plains Settlers on the Great Plains transform the land despite great hardships.

Farming the Plain ►Gov. encouraged western settlement ►(1862) Homestead Act - Gov. offered 160 Farming the Plain ►Gov. encouraged western settlement ►(1862) Homestead Act - Gov. offered 160 acres to head of family over age 21 in return for living on the land 5 years and improving it - 1862 to 1900 – 6000, 000 families settled in the west

Railroads Open out West 1850 -1871 the government expanded the RR 170 acres Transcontinental Railroads Open out West 1850 -1871 the government expanded the RR 170 acres Transcontinental Rx. R created Union Pacific+ Central Pacific, Promontory Point Utah

Settling Out West Homestead Act: offers 160 acres of land free to anyone About Settling Out West Homestead Act: offers 160 acres of land free to anyone About 600, 000 families take advantage of this Many who took advantage of this were exodusters (African Americans who moved away from the Reconstruction South) Businessmen and government were also taking advantage of gaining land

Challenges on the Plains Settlers faced droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust, plagues, and raids Challenges on the Plains Settlers faced droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust, plagues, and raids NO trees, so settlers dug houses out of hills, known as a sod home (soddy) Women worked with the men in the fields, sheared sheep, hauled water

New Farming Inventions The Reaper is created by Cyrus Mc. Cormick John Deere creates New Farming Inventions The Reaper is created by Cyrus Mc. Cormick John Deere creates the steel plow Inventions made grain available on a wider market Morrill Act of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to create agricultural colleges

Farmers in Debt ►Railroads, investors created bonanza farms (huge, single-crop spreads) ► 1885 to Farmers in Debt ►Railroads, investors created bonanza farms (huge, single-crop spreads) ► 1885 to 1890 - droughts bankrupted singlecrop operations ►Rising cost of shipping grain pushed farmers into debt

Closing the Frontier Land is decreasing Yellowstone National Park created in 1872 to protect Closing the Frontier Land is decreasing Yellowstone National Park created in 1872 to protect land The Frontier was disappearing, the U. S. was no longer unique

Section 3 Farmers and the Populist Movement Farmers unite to address their economic problems, Section 3 Farmers and the Populist Movement Farmers unite to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.

Unrest in Rural America ►The growth of urban America made possible because farmers were Unrest in Rural America ►The growth of urban America made possible because farmers were so productive ►Farmers felt poor compared to city people ►Farm life seemed boring compared to the exciting opportunities of the city

Hard Times for Farmers ► 1867 - Oliver H. Kelley started the Patrons of Hard Times for Farmers ► 1867 - Oliver H. Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) - Hoped to fight the loneliness of farm life & farming methods - Open to both men & women ►Meetings were held at local schools - Both social & educational ►Late 1800's - most farmers weren't self sufficient - Grew cash crops ►Most in debt - Western farmers owed banks money for their land & equipment - Southern farmers had taken on debt to rebuild farms destroyed in the Civil War

Low Prices and High Cost ►Farmer's lives were hard - droughts, floods, insects, and Low Prices and High Cost ►Farmer's lives were hard - droughts, floods, insects, and animal diseases ► 1870's - faced another problem - Low prices for their crops - Sank farther into debt ►Caused by overproduction - More people became farmers - Farming methods improved ►Became more expensive to operate a farm - Tariffs on imported farm equipment - Railroads raised prices

The Granger Movement ►Turned their attention to economic and political issues ►Economic goal - The Granger Movement ►Turned their attention to economic and political issues ►Economic goal - avoid using middlemen - People who made a living storing, transporting and selling product - Cut into farmers’ profits and added to cost for buyer ►Grangers created cooperatives - An organization owned and operated by those who use its services - They shared crops in some places - Allowed them to set their prices ►Politically - they elected legislatures that put limits on railroad and storage prices - Called Granger laws

The Populist Party ► 1880's - Several political parties combined ►Populism - movement of The Populist Party ► 1880's - Several political parties combined ►Populism - movement of the people ► Populist Party wants reforms ►Economic: increase money supply, graduated income tax, & federal loans ►Political: Senate elected by popular vote, secret ballot & 8 -hour day ► 1892 - Populist candidates elected at different levels of government ►Democratic Party eventually adopted platform

Debate Over Money Policy ►Pitted debtors against creditors ►Debtors wanted more money to be Debate Over Money Policy ►Pitted debtors against creditors ►Debtors wanted more money to be put into circulation ►Wanted the government to coin more silver (bimetallism) ►Bimetallism - system using both silver & gold to back currency ►Silverites - would create more money, stimulate economy ►Creditors wanted to limit the amount of money - Favored gold standard ►Gold standard - backing currency with gold only ►Paper money considered worthless if cannot be exchanged for metal ►Gold bugs - gold only would create more stable if expensive currency

Election of 1892 ► 1892 - Populist nominate James B. Weaver for president ►He Election of 1892 ► 1892 - Populist nominate James B. Weaver for president ►He had the following proposals - Gov. to control & operate railroads, telegraph & telephone systems - secret ballot in elections - graduated income tax - U. S. senators to be elected directly by the people rather than state legislatures - Demanded shorter working hours for labor ►Grover Cleveland won 1892 election

The Panic of 1893 ►Railroads expanded faster than markets - Some went bankrupt ►Government’s The Panic of 1893 ►Railroads expanded faster than markets - Some went bankrupt ►Government’s gold supply became depleted - Led to rush on banks - Businesses, banks collapse - Panic became depression

Election of 1896 ►Money was the central issue ►Republicans nominated William Mc. Kinley - Election of 1896 ►Money was the central issue ►Republicans nominated William Mc. Kinley - Supported big business (gold standard) ►Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan - Supported silver ►Populists endorsed Bryan & chose own VP to maintain party identity

Election of 1896 ►Candidates ran different campaigns - Mc. Kinley didn't go out and Election of 1896 ►Candidates ran different campaigns - Mc. Kinley didn't go out and campaign - Accepted visitors at his home Bryan launched something like a modem campaign - Traveled by train made speeches ►Bryan carried the south and west (except California) ►Mc. Kinley carried northeast and California - Won more electoral votes ►Urban America defeated rural America

The End of Populism ► 1896 - Mc. Kinley elected president ► Populism collapsed The End of Populism ► 1896 - Mc. Kinley elected president ► Populism collapsed ►Left legacy: - Showed the powerless could organize & have political impact - Agenda of reforms enacted in 20 th century