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SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 1 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 1

SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 목 차 • 계획의 필요성 • 계획 수립 체계도(Planning SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 목 차 • 계획의 필요성 • 계획 수립 체계도(Planning Hierarchy) • 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 시스템 위치 • S&OP 수립 프로세스 • S&OP 수립 시 고려 사항 • S&OP Input 및 Output • S&OP 예제 : MTS, ATO / MTO • S&OP 수립 전략 • 자원계획(Resource Planning) 개요 • 자원계획 처리 프로세스 • 자원명세표 계산 예제 2

SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • 기준생산계획(MPS) 프로세스 • S &OP vs MPS 특성 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • 기준생산계획(MPS) 프로세스 • S &OP vs MPS 특성 비교 • MPS 활용 • MPS Input 및 Output • MPS 프로세스 • 기간 울타리(Time Fence) 정의 • MPS Format • 약속가능 재고/능력(ATP) • ATP 계산 예제 3

계획의 필요성(Needs for Planning) SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 목표 Right Goods Right Quality 계획의 필요성(Needs for Planning) SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 목표 Right Goods Right Quality Right Quantity Right Time Minimum Cost Problem 확률 : 0. 9 X 0. 9 = 0. 729 Lumpy Lack of Integration Reorder Point Visibility Gross Requirement Scheduled Receipts Projected On Hand Planned Order Receipts Planned Order Release 4 Basic Question 무엇을 만들 것인가? 무엇으로 만들 것인가? 무엇을 가지고 있는가? 무엇이 더 필요한가?

제조 환경에 의한 운영 전략 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Cumulative Lead Time 제품설계 제조 환경에 의한 운영 전략 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Cumulative Lead Time 제품설계 자재구매 부품생산 최종조립 운송배달 Engineering To Order Capacity Inventory Make To Order Capacity Inventory Assemble To Order Make To Stock Delivery Lead Time 5

우선순위 및 능력계획 체계 우선순위계획 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 능력계획 총괄생산계획 자원계획 MPS 우선순위 및 능력계획 체계 우선순위계획 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 능력계획 총괄생산계획 자원계획 MPS RCCP MRP CRP 작업배정 투입/산출통제 6

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 시스템 위치 F O R E C A S T 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 시스템 위치 F O R E C A S T I N G & D E M A N D Business Planning Sales & Operations Planning(S&OP) Sales Plan Operations Plan Master Scheduling Detailed Planning & Scheduling 7 Source: Wallace, Tom F. Sales and Operations Planning, A How-To Guide, T. F. Wallace & Co. 1999. SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 C A P A C I T Y P L A N N I N G

계획 수립 원칙 : 수요 vs 공급 밸런싱 Sales Forecasts SCM 개요 – 생산계획 계획 수립 원칙 : 수요 vs 공급 밸런싱 Sales Forecasts SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Production Purchase Orders Actual Orders Supply Demand 8

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 특징 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Is a business 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 특징 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Is a business process – Keeps demand supply in balance – Is performed at the aggregate level – Focuses on product volume, not mix – Occurs on a monthly cycle – Displays information in product units and financial numbers 9

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 수립 프로세스 5 4 3 2 1 Executive S&OP Meeting 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 수립 프로세스 5 4 3 2 1 Executive S&OP Meeting SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Single company-wide game plan Recommendations and Agenda for exec. S&OP Pre S&OP meeting Capacity constraints Second pass spreadsheets Supply planning Management forecasts First pass spreadsheets Demand planning Statistical forecasts Field sales worksheets Run sales forecast reports 10

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 수립 시 고려 사항 – 제품 그룹(Product groups) – 측정 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) 수립 시 고려 사항 – 제품 그룹(Product groups) – 측정 단위(Units of measure) – 계획 구간(Planning horizon) – 데이터 관리자(Data element responsibility) – 계획 수립 프로세스(Planning process) – 참석자 및 준비 정보 – 자원 가용성 및 타당성(Resource validation) – 성과 측정(Performance measurement) – 승인 프로세스(Approval process) 11 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) Input SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • Input Responsibility • 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) Input SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • Input Responsibility • Projected demand Marketing • Market intelligence Marketing • Actual sales Sales • Capacity information Manufacturing • Management targets Management • Financial requirements Finance • New product information R&D • New process information Process engineering • Workforce availability Human resources 12

영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) Output SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • Output • Responsibility 영업 및 생산 계획(S&OP) Output SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • Output • Responsibility • Sales plan • Marketing and sales • Production plan • Manufacturing • Inventory plan • Management • Backlog projection • Management • Purchasing plan • Purchasing • Financial plan • Finance • Engineering plan • Engineering • Workforce plan • Human resources 13

S&OP 예제 : 계획 생산(MTS) Past Product Group A Sales Plan SCM 개요 – S&OP 예제 : 계획 생산(MTS) Past Product Group A Sales Plan SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Present Future D J F M A M J J A S O N D 20 40 60 80 120 190 250 150 80 40 90 120 30 Actual Sales Difference 23 35 47 +3 -5 -13 Cumulative Diff. +3 Production Plan 80 80 100 120 140 140 120 100 80 60 Actual Production J 50 70 80 90 -2 -15 40 40 Inventory Plan 20 80 120 160 180 130 20 10 50 110 120 60 70 60 Difference -10 Cumulative Diff. -10 -20 Actual Inventory Difference 0 -10 67 112 155 -13 -8 -5 14

S&OP 예제 : ATO / MTO Past Product Group B SCM 개요 – 생산계획 S&OP 예제 : ATO / MTO Past Product Group B SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Present D J F M A Sales Plan 2 4 6 8 Actual Sales Difference 3 1 5 1 Future 7 1 Cumulative Diff. M J J 12 19 25 15 A S 8 4 O N D J 9 10 3 5 8 4 4 16 15 16 +1 +2 +3 Production Plan 8 8 10 10 Actual Production 7 8 9 Difference -1 0 -1 Cumulative Diff. -1 -1 -2 Backlog Plan 20 14 10 6 Actual Backlog 16 13 11 Difference +2 +3 +5 4 12 14 14 14 12 10 4 15 9 20 21 17 11 12 6

S&OP 수립 전략 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 수량 평준화 생산 전략 (level) 기간 S&OP 수립 전략 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 수량 평준화 생산 전략 (level) 기간 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 판매 생산 재고 수량 수량 수요 추종 생산 전략 (chase) 기간 기간 <범례> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16

자원 계획 ( Resource Planning) 개요 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – The process 자원 계획 ( Resource Planning) 개요 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – The process of establishing, measuring, and adjusting levels of long-range capacity – Based on the sales and operations plan – Addresses those resources that take long periods of time to acquire – Requires top management approval 17

자원 계획 ( Resource Planning) 처리 프로세스SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 6 Take action 자원 계획 ( Resource Planning) 처리 프로세스SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 6 Take action where necessary 5 Compare to planned capacity Calculate the load on each resource 4 3 Determine planned capacity 2 Operations Plan 1 Decide on units of measure Develop bills of resources 18

자원 명세표(BOR : Bill Of Resources) Product Group Unit of Measure A Energy KWH 자원 명세표(BOR : Bill Of Resources) Product Group Unit of Measure A Energy KWH 50 Space Cu. Ft. Lab. Testing Hours Waste Treatment Gallons SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 B C D Resource 100 5 19 5 10 10 1 0 20 5 50 10 20 30 5

자원 명세표(BOR : Bill Of Resources) 예제 Product Group Unit of Measure Production Plan 자원 명세표(BOR : Bill Of Resources) 예제 Product Group Unit of Measure Production Plan A B C D Total Load 50 80 40 400 100 Capacity Available Load % 100 2500 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Energy KWH Space Cu. Ft. 500 800 0 2000 3300 3500 94. 3 Lab. Testing Hours 250 400 200 5000 5850 6000 97. 5 Waste Treatment Gallons 500 800 3000 5100 5000 102. 0 20 3400 3200 106. 3

S&OP 와 Master Schedule 연관성 Product Group A Working Days/ Month Approved Production Plan S&OP 와 Master Schedule 연관성 Product Group A Working Days/ Month Approved Production Plan from S&OP MPS Week July August SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 September October November 22 21 23 20 19 22, 000 21, 000 23, 000 20, 000 19, 000 40 41 42 43 Product A 1 1, 000 Product A 2 500 1, 000 1, 500 2, 000 Product A 3 1, 500 500 1, 500 Product A 4 2, 000 2, 500 2, 000 500 Total 5, 000 21

S&OP vs. Master Schedule 특성 비교 22 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 S&OP vs. Master Schedule 특성 비교 22 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립

Master Schedule 활용 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – The anticipated build or buy Master Schedule 활용 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – The anticipated build or buy schedule – For independent demand items – Projects inventory/backlog position – Drives material and capacity plans – Order promising – Assigning priorities – NOT a sales forecast! 23

Master Schedule Input SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Production plan line from the Master Schedule Input SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Production plan line from the S&OP – Detailed sales forecast – Inventory position and targets – Backlog position and targets – Time fence policies – Customer/ Interplant / Service parts orders – Distribution requirements – Planning bills of material 24

Master Schedule Output SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Master production schedule – Master Master Schedule Output SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 – Master production schedule – Master purchasing schedule – Projected inventory position – Projected backlog position – Product availability information – Valuable order promising information 25

Master Schedule 프로세스 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 5 4 3 2 Production plan Master Schedule 프로세스 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 5 4 3 2 Production plan from S&OP 1 Publish master schedule Re-evaluate using RCCP Revise master schedule Evaluate using RCCP Develop preliminary master schedule 26

기간 울타리(Time Fence) 정의 • Demand Time Fence SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • 기간 울타리(Time Fence) 정의 • Demand Time Fence SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 • Planning Time Fence – Sets the period of the master – Sets the period within which schedule where changes are changes to the master seldom permitted schedule must be made by the master scheduler – Covers period of actual – Combination of actual demand customer demand plus forecasted demand – Usually set to cover the – Usually set to include material production and assembly time for a product or the delivery and components acquisition time for a service time 27

Master Schedule Format SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Item: 78100 Demand Time Fence: 3 Master Schedule Format SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Item: 78100 Demand Time Fence: 3 Description: Commercial Generator Unit Planning Time Fence: 8 Lot Size: 50 On Hand: 50 Lead Time: 2 periods Period 1 2 3 Forecasted Sales 20 22 21 25 24 23 Customer Orders 19 17 15 Projected Avail. Balance 50 Available-to-Promise Master Production Schedule 28 4 11 5 9 6 5 7 8 9 21 21 25 2 1 0

약속가능 재고/능력 (ATP : Available To Promise) – 생산계획 수립 SCM 개요 – Available-to-promise 약속가능 재고/능력 (ATP : Available To Promise) – 생산계획 수립 SCM 개요 – Available-to-promise (ATP) is the uncommitted portion of the current inventory or future planned supply – ATP is similar to the uncommitted amount of your current bank balance and future paychecks • ATP (period 1) = On-hand balance + MPS (1 st period only) – Sum of customer orders before next MPS • ATP = MPS – Sum of customer orders before next MPS (all future periods that contain an MPS planned receipt) 29

ATP 계산 예제 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Item: 78100 Demand Time Fence: 3 ATP 계산 예제 SCM 개요 – 생산계획 수립 Item: 78100 Demand Time Fence: 3 Description: Commercial Generator Unit Planning Time Fence: 8 Lot Size: 50 On Hand: 50 Lead Time: 2 periods Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Forecasted Sales 20 22 21 25 24 23 21 21 25 Customer Orders 19 17 15 11 9 5 2 Projected Avail. Balance 50 31 14 49 24 0 27 6 35 10 43 49 Available-to-Promise 14 15 Master Production Schedule 50 30 1 50 9 0 50