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School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS The Role of School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One Dr Elizabeth Bruton, Postdoctoral Researcher, “Innovating in Combat: Telecommunications and intellectual property in the First World War”, University of Leeds. Twitter: @WWITelecomms / @lizbruton elizabeth. [email protected] com RSGB Centenary Convention, Horwood House, 12 October 2013

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Innovating in Combat School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Innovating in Combat • Elizabeth Bruton, Postdoctoral Researcher, “Innovating in Combat: Telecommunications and intellectual property in the First World War” • Aim of the project is to help museums, archives, and the wider public to better appreciate the significance of communications technologies during World War One • University of Leeds and Museum of the History of Science, Oxford • Graeme Gooday and Elizabeth Bruton • Funded by AHRC

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Outline • Introduction School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Outline • Introduction • Amateur Wireless before World War One • Wireless Society of London • What could wireless amateurs do in wartime? • Henry Norman, MP • Russell Clarke and Colonel Richard Hippisley • Leslie Mc. Michael • Postwar developments – broadcast radio • Conclusion Illustration from Amateur Number One by Irving Vermilya published in QST, February 1917, pp. 8 -12.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Introduction • Early School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Introduction • Early August 1914: World War One • Wireless telegraph: valuable and dangerous tool • Amateur wireless sets sealed up • End of story? • No! • Signals Intelligence and wartime work Special Call for RSGB Centenary, 2013

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Amateur Wireless before School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Amateur Wireless before World War One • Wireless Society of London • 6 June 1913: Rene Klein writes to English Mechanic • 5 July 1913: Establishment of London Wireless Club • Summer 1913: GPO introduces one guinea charge for all wireless licenses • 13 September 1913: First AGM of London Wireless Club; changes name to Wireless Society of London – national not local • 1922: RSGB Rene Klein KXJ, 2 HT, G 8 NK, in later life. Image courtesy of RSGB

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Early Members of School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Early Members of Wireless Society of London Includes • Henry Hope-James • A. A. Campbell-Swinton • J. Ambrose Fleming • William Duddell • W. H. Eccles • Henry Jackson • Oliver Lodge • Sylvanus Thompson Portrait of Alan A C Swinton, 1908. Image available in the public domain via Wikimedia Commons

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Wireless Publications Left: School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Wireless Publications Left: First cover of The Marconigraph (1911); Right: The four-color cover of May 1913 Wireless World. Both images are available in the public domain.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS What could wireless School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS What could wireless amateurs do during wartime? • “Listen in” • Russell Clark and Richard Hippisley • Henry Norman MP • Wartime Service • Leslie Mc. Michael Richard John Bayntun Hippisley (1865 -1956) Image from Mate's County Series (1908) and available in the public domain.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Hunstanton Wireless Station, School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Hunstanton Wireless Station, Norfolk A postcard of the Lighthouse and Marconi Wireless Station at Hunstanton, early 20 th C. Wireless station is to the left of the mast. Image available in the public domain.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Hunstanton Wireless Station, School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Hunstanton Wireless Station, Norfolk The former Marconi wireless station and naval intercept station at Hunstanton as it is today. Image courtesy of Right. Move. co. uk.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Wartime wireless interception School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Wartime wireless interception and signals intelligence A Wireless Direction-Finding Station on the East Coast of England during World War One. Image available in the public domain.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Henry Norman, MP School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Henry Norman, MP • Born in Leicester and educated abroad • MP for 23 years • Knighted in 1906 • Pioneer in radio telegraphy • 1914: First President of Derby Wireless Club, founded in 1911 • “Listening in” begins before outbreak of Portrait of Sir Henry Norman, 1 st Baronet, war taken from The World's Work (1914). Image available in the public domain via Wikimedia Commons.

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Leslie Mc. Michael School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Leslie Mc. Michael • Served in Wireless Instructional Section of RFC and RAF • 1919: Demobbed and begins business in Hampstead, supply exmilitary stock including radio valves • June 1920: Establishes L. Mc. Michael Ltd • Directors are Leslie Mc. Michael and Rene Klein • Becomes highly respected maker of radio sets

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Conclusions • Revival School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Conclusions • Revival of wireless amateurs post-war • Wartime expertise crosses over into peacetime • Wireless amateur have key role in development of broadcast radio • 1922: Different radio clubs and societies including Wireless Society of London merge to become RSGB

School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Thank you! e: School of Philosophy, Religion, and History of Science FACULTY OF ARTS Thank you! e: elizabeth. [email protected] com w: http: //blogs. mhs. ox. ac. uk/innovatingincombat/ @WWITelecomms / @lizbruton