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SCAN Academic Trends & Career Markets External Mandates k-16 Internationalization/Globalization Expand mission to include Continuing ed. , Professional development, certifications Experiential Learning Academic workload Faculty Demographics General Education
External Mandates Accreditation • Growing number of programs face accreditation and/or external review • Accreditation requirements for some programs impact all programs • Growing costs associated with accreditation and program approval process
External Mandates Shared Governance • Mandated by USM 10/04/96 amended 8/25/00 • Workload impact of mandate debated • Policy requirement for proper level of resources for those involved
External Mandates Funding Sources • Higher Education becoming more accountable to funding sources at time when funding is shrinking • Self regulation vs. government regulation of Higher education • Increased federal regulation • Limited state resources • Rising educational costs • Growing demand for accessibility and equity
Academic Trends K-16 • Strengthen K-16 connections in assessment, accountability and professional development • Business community’s growing influence in K-16 education • Sixteen states on board through NASH • Being driven by MHEC, MSDE and USM
Academic Trends K-16 Cont. • Two year to four articulation proliferates • Two year institutions given preprofessional degree programs • Identification of Learning Outcomes for Higher Education Institutions
Internationalization& Globalization Efforts on College Campuses • Push/Pull of Globalization – Strong public support and student interest in internationalization – Discouraging picture of current internationalization ethos on campuses
Questions that every campus should be asking –To what extent is global learning articulated as a goal of undergraduate education at the institution? –Does the institution’s general education curriculum include global perspectives? –Do collaborative activities with institutions in other countries affect the experience of undergraduates?
Continued Questioning –Do the international activities of faculty members have an impact on undergraduates? –How does the institution implicitly or explicitly encourage or discourage study abroad? –To what extent do academic policies and practices, including promotion, tenure criteria and faculty development opportunities, emphasize and reward teaching and learning with a global focus?
Best Practices Case Studies –Appalachian State University • Expanded short-term Study Abroad • Encouraged semester and academic year aboard • Increased international student exchange for one semester with partner institutions
Best Practices Case Studies –Arcadia University • Identified internationalization as key focus in reaccredidation in 1999 – five goals • Expanded well-known London Preview Program • Required freshmen interdisciplinary course, “Justice and Multicultural Interpretation” • Set foreign language requirement • Set study abroad opportunities as component of each academic department description
Best Practices Case Studies -SUNY Binghamton • Set internationalization as one of three overarching institutional priorities • Developed campus-wide vision with set of specific action objectives • Developed two new curricular programs » International Studies Certificate Program – program of language study, cross-cultural courses, experience learning, and independent study capstone project taken parallel with major » Global Studies Integrated Curriculum – 40 credit concentration
Best Practices Case Studies -Indiana University (Bloomington) • Has had a reputation as an international university for more than 50 years • Instituted new “strategic directions charter” with one plank dedicated to strengthening international programs in teaching and research • Supported implementation of internationalized curricula in new fields • Established international studies summer institute for high school students • Improved contact and programming for international alumni
A few universities offer academic credit to Peace Corps volunteers –At Humboldt State University, program is part of TESOL degree in which students take most of required courses on campus, and then earn remaining credits applying their knowledge as volunteer. –Peace Corp is trying to forge more links with higher education institutions – especially in areas of master degrees in international programs, and in medicine, technology, and agriculture.
Academic Programming Mission Issues for Comprehensive Institutions • Carnegie Classifications – significance • Character of State Colleges -- not so hot/hot • New academic programs/focus in demand and/or need: – Ethnic-studies programs – Climate science
Internships • Employers highly value -- leading recruiting tool; ¾ have internship program • Nearly all Universities have internship programs; concentrated in business, healthcare, and education
Service Learning community volunteering Student involvement: 28% & growing at 68% schools, Liberal Arts Faculty involvement: 13%, obstacles - teaching load & lack time Institutional Support: SL courses, centers, directors, work study Common issues: tutoring (esp. reading), mentoring, housing / homelessness, environment, hunger, health, voter issues Populations served: low-income, youth, minority groups, homeless, elderly, non-English speaking
Civic Engagement Teach civic skills to participate in a democratic society (critical thinking, public deliberation, involvement, tolerance, collective action, etc. ) – Fluid concept; Growth on campuses – Main activities thus far: • Undergrad ed. reform, student service learning & exposure to diversity/multicultural issues, leadership development • University-Community partnerships, esp. K-12 • Public policy development; faculty development – Missing emphasis -- Increased citizens activism w/ Governments. – Trend issue: Translating service learning into real civic engagement, civic skills, and interest in politics.
Undergraduate Research – Growth on campuses -- more, larger, and longer conferences, greater diversity of disciplines participating. – NSF program to encourage
Fastest Growing Occupations • • Computer Software engineer, applications Computer Software, systems software Network & computer systems administrator Network systems & data communications analyst Database Administrator Computer System analyst Physician Assistant Teachers: career/technology , computer science, ESOL, German, Spanish, Math, Chemistry, Physics, special ed. , speech.
Who’s in Demand? • Demand focuses on Technical degrees at Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctoral Electrical Engineering Accounting Mechanical Engineering Management Information Systems Marketing/marketing management ALSO… Nurses, pharmacist, teachers
Skills Employers Seek Communications Skills (verbal & written) Honesty/integrity Teamwork Interpersonal skills (relates well to others) Strong work ethic Motivation & initiative Flexibility adaptability Analytical skills Computer Skills Organizational Skills
Career Earnings by Educational Attainment o o No high school-$16, 053 HS-$23, 594 Bachelors-$43, 782 Advanced Degree$-64, 473 The earnings of those with advanced degrees have skyrocketed, growing by 28% in inflation-adjusted dollars
General Education Trends • Developmental model that is integrated throughout the entire education process • Outsiders look at Gen. Ed. as part of the accrediting process and assessment
Faculty Workload • “No single formula for an equitable faculty workload can be devised for all of American higher education. ” • “Preferred Teaching Loads…For undergraduate instruction, a teaching load of nine hours per week. ” - AAUP Statement on Faculty Workload
Faculty Workload • Increasingly legislators view higher education as unproductive and unaccountable, and do not understand or are unsympathetic to what faculty do outside of the classroom. • Many states attempt to link allocations to faculty workload and productivity. • Despite working long hours (faculty average 52 -hour work weeks), there is increasing pressure to be more productive, not just from legislators, but also in order to achieve tenure.
Faculty Hiring • Huge dependence on part-time & nontenure-track faculty – from 1976 to 1995, total faculty in US increased by 47%, but part-time faculty increased by 91%, whereas full-time faculty increased by 27%. • According to Dept of Education, in 1987 11% of full-time faculty members were nontenure track; – in 1998, the number was 18%. • According to 1998 study, nearly all colleges contribute to benefits for full-time faculty. – 53% of institutions contribute to benefits for parttime faculty.
Faculty Hiring • Nearly a third of faculty members are 55 or older compared to a quarter 10 years ago. – We should expect lots of retirements, thus serious competition for new faculty (perhaps at time of budget constraints and hiring restrictions). – Hard to predict when faculty will retire, though.