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SCAFFOLDING READING COMPREHENSION Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success OFFICE SCAFFOLDING READING COMPREHENSION Before, During, and After Reading Strategies & Routines for Success OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS

Before During After Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through Before During After Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. It consists of three elements: The reader The text The activity or purpose for reading (Rand Reading Study Group, 2002) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

What should happen before, during and after reading? OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND What should happen before, during and after reading? OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

SCAFFOLDING READING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES The Scaffolding Reading in the Elementary Grades modules SCAFFOLDING READING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES The Scaffolding Reading in the Elementary Grades modules provide the instructional routines and strategies teachers need to help students extract and construct meaning. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BEFORE READING Module Contents Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words Teach the BEFORE READING Module Contents Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge Preview the story or the article OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

DURING READING Module Contents Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice Ask DURING READING Module Contents Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice Ask appropriate questions during passage reading Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading Use graphic organizers to enhance comprehension OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

AFTER READING Module Contents Provide intentional fluency building practice Engage students in a discussion AFTER READING Module Contents Provide intentional fluency building practice Engage students in a discussion Have students answer written questions Provide engaging vocabulary practice Have students write summaries of what they have read OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

SNAPSHOTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND ROUTINES OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY SNAPSHOTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND ROUTINES OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BEFORE READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING BEFORE READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BEFORE READING BIG IDEA If students can read the words in a passage accurately BEFORE READING BIG IDEA If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

TEACH THE PRONUNCIATION OF DIFFICULT TO READ WORDS. Procedures for telling the word(s). This TEACH THE PRONUNCIATION OF DIFFICULT TO READ WORDS. Procedures for telling the word(s). This word is __________. What word ___________? Spell and read the word. _________ focus inspector OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING glimpse spectator

A STRATEGY MODELED Decoding Instruction, 1 st Grade OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND A STRATEGY MODELED Decoding Instruction, 1 st Grade OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their BIG IDEA If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

TEACH THE MEANING OF CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Tier One: Basic words Tier Two: Words TEACH THE MEANING OF CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Tier One: Basic words Tier Two: Words in general use, but not common Chair, bed, happy, house Concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity Tier Three: Rare words limited to a specific domain Tundra, igneous rocks, weathering OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

KEY CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select words that are unknown and critical KEY CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select words that are unknown and critical to passage understanding. Select words students are likely to encounter in the future Tier 2 words Academic vocabulary Student-friendly explanations OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

EXAMPLE: TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select three words for robust explicit instruction. Reading Level: EXAMPLE: TEACHING CRITICAL, UNKNOWN WORDS Select three words for robust explicit instruction. Reading Level: 2 nd Series: Harcourt Trophies Passage: Lemonade for Sale announced members neighborhood arrived rebuild lemonade glum squawked clubhouse OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

STUDENT-FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS Dictionary Definition Relieved – (1) to free wholly from pain, stress, pressure. STUDENT-FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS Dictionary Definition Relieved – (1) to free wholly from pain, stress, pressure. (2) to lessen or alleviate, as pain or pressure Student Friendly Explanation When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

STUDENT FRIENDLY DEFINITIONS Dictionary Definition Disgusting – to cause to feel disgust; be sickening, STUDENT FRIENDLY DEFINITIONS Dictionary Definition Disgusting – to cause to feel disgust; be sickening, repulsive, or very distasteful to Fragile – easily broken, damaged, or destroyed Gratitude – a feeling of thankful appreciation for favors or benefits received Loitering- to linger in an aimless way; spend time idly OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING Student-Friendly Definition

ACTIVITY: CREATING STUDENT- FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS v Gape - to open the mouth wide involuntarily, ACTIVITY: CREATING STUDENT- FRIENDLY EXPLANATIONS v Gape - to open the mouth wide involuntarily, as the result of hunger, sleepiness, or absorbed attention v Glimpse – 1) momentary or slight appearance, 2) a vague idea; inkling. v Scrutinize - to examine in detail with careful or critical attention OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

COLLINS COBUILD STUDENT DICTIONARY http: //www. elearnaid. com/coconewstdis. html COLLINS COBUILD STUDENT DICTIONARY http: //www. elearnaid. com/coconewstdis. html

A STRATEGY Vocabulary Instruction, 2 nd Grade OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY A STRATEGY Vocabulary Instruction, 2 nd Grade OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension BIG IDEA If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

TEACH OR ACTIVATE NECESSARY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE. Strategy #3 Example Prior to passage reading, select TEACH OR ACTIVATE NECESSARY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE. Strategy #3 Example Prior to passage reading, select and read aloud a book that provides necessary background knowledge Passage: Me and Uncle Romie Background knowledge needed: Life in a big city OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

ACTIVATING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Activate background knowledge using a research validated strategy Ask students questions ACTIVATING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Activate background knowledge using a research validated strategy Ask students questions and engage in a discussion Activate Brainstorm the knowledge topics/questions that might be using the KWL covered strategy OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE B-K-W-L-Q Background Knowledge What we want Language to know needed for writing BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE B-K-W-L-Q Background Knowledge What we want Language to know needed for writing Questions we can now answer Front load, front load!! (Adapted from Ogale’s KWL by J. Allen) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA If students preview a passage, their comprehension is enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL BIG IDEA If students preview a passage, their comprehension is enhanced. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

DURING READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING DURING READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Asking students questions during passage reading has proven effectiveness in improving the BIG IDEA Asking students questions during passage reading has proven effectiveness in improving the comprehension of students. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

APPROACH FOR ENHANCING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH TEXT ( BE CK , MC KEO WN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING STUDENT ENGAGEMENT WITH TEXT ( BE CK , MC KEO WN , HAMILT ON & KUCAN , 1997) Comprehension strategy to teach students to construct meaning during reading Queries, or discussion questions, encourage students to engage with ideas in text to build meaning Queries help teachers facilitate group discussion and student-to-student interaction OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

QUERY EXAMPLES What is the author trying to say? Why do you think the QUERY EXAMPLES What is the author trying to say? Why do you think the author used the following phrase? Does this make sense to you? OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Instruction in specific cognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension for all students BIG IDEA Instruction in specific cognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension for all students and, most particularly, can assist struggling readers. (RAND Reading Study Group, 2002) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Competent Readers Strategies Text Structure Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Reread Look back Read COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Competent Readers Strategies Text Structure Strategies Fix-Up Strategies Reread Look back Read ahead Restate in your own words OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA The ability to identify and take advantage of text organization can contribute BIG IDEA The ability to identify and take advantage of text organization can contribute to students’ comprehension. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

TEXT ORGANIZATION Story Grammar Title, author, setting, main characters, conflict resolution, events, conclusion Patterns TEXT ORGANIZATION Story Grammar Title, author, setting, main characters, conflict resolution, events, conclusion Patterns of Expository Text Each paragraph is a body of knowledge Determine topic of paragraph Determine critical supporting details OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

STRATEGY EXAMPLE Paragraph Shrinking Name the who or what. Tell the most important thing STRATEGY EXAMPLE Paragraph Shrinking Name the who or what. Tell the most important thing about the who or what. Say the main idea in 10 words or less. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA The main effect of graphic organizers appears to be on the improvement BIG IDEA The main effect of graphic organizers appears to be on the improvement of the reader’s memory for the content that has been read. (Dickson, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Narrative Text (Story Maps) Expository Text (Flow charts, compare/contrast) OFFICE OF SPECIAL GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Narrative Text (Story Maps) Expository Text (Flow charts, compare/contrast) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

AFTER READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING AFTER READING OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Fluency is related to reading comprehension. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, & BIG IDEA Fluency is related to reading comprehension. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988) OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

FLUENCY Repeated Reading Cold-timing Accuracy Practice Fluency Building Hot-timing OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED FLUENCY Repeated Reading Cold-timing Accuracy Practice Fluency Building Hot-timing OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Engaging students in a discussion can increase their depth of text processing BIG IDEA Engaging students in a discussion can increase their depth of text processing and subsequent comprehension. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

DISCUSSION Teach discussion behavior. Looks Like Sounds Like Facing peers Using a pleasant voice DISCUSSION Teach discussion behavior. Looks Like Sounds Like Facing peers Using a pleasant voice Making eye contact Sharing opinions and supporting facts Participating Sharing positive comments Listening Staying on topic OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your BIG IDEA Writing about what you have read can improve your comprehension. Expressing your ideas in writing helps the reader organize ideas. OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

Students must Read, And read, And read some more! OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED Students must Read, And read, And read some more! OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

WVDE LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE Reading Lesson Plan OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY WVDE LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE Reading Lesson Plan OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING

CONTACT INFORMATION Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director, Office of Special Programs pveith@access. k 12. wv. CONTACT INFORMATION Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director, Office of Special Programs pveith@access. k 12. wv. us Linda Palenchar, Coordinator, Office of Special Programs lpalench@access. k 12. wv. us OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS, EXTENDED AND EARLY LEARNING