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SBSTA Workshop on National Systems Data Improvements: Canada’s Experience Art Jaques Greenhouse Gas Division Environment Canada Bonn, Germany April 13 -14 2005
2 Outline of Presentation Ø Ø Ø Key Points Context Data Collection and Improvements- introduction Roles and Responsibilities in Canada’s Inventory Canadian experience with data collection and improvements: Ø Ø Ø Energy Industrial Processes Agriculture Waste LULUCF Additional Area
3 Key Points Ø Ø Ø Institutional Arrangements are a Pillar for Data Collection Improvements in quality, comprehensiveness and availability of data are the key focus of improvements to the Canadian Inventory Unique Challenges in Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry: Ø Ø New Partnerships to develop estimates Good Practice Guidance requirement for consistency of land representation, KP requirements for spatially referenced reporting Availability of consistent data sets (across time, space and scales) Gap between research and operational methods
Canada’s GHG Emissions Profile 2003 Profile 5
Contribution of Key Source Categories to Level Assessment 6
Contribution of Key Source Categories to Trend Assessment 7
8 Data Collection and Improvements: introduction
9 Data Collection and Improvements Ø Ø FCCC Article 4, KP Article 10 and IPCC Guidelines and Good Practice Guidance require ongoing data improvements Data quality improvement is an integral part of national inventory planning and inventory quality management cycle Goals are to: Ø Increase the accuracy and quality of inventory, activity data and emission factors Ø Ensure completeness of inventory Ø Refinement of estimation models Ø Implementation of GPG Ø Ø Ø Strategy begins with assessment of UNFCCC ERT reviews and domestic reviews (quality assurance) Focus on key categories for the most efficient use of resources Collection of Meta data also important (on methods, assumptions, circumstances, scale of the data collected etc. )
10 Data Improvements - Challenges Ø Institutional arrangements: Ø Ø Ø Constitute a pillar to ensure data collection needs are met Contribute to ensuring consistency, continuity and quality in data provision/delivery Time and Resource Constraints: Ø Ø Ø Delegation of Roles & Responsibilities Quality control on new incoming data Temporal and spatial consistency of data sets
11 Institutional Arrangements for Canada’s Inventory
The GHG Inventory – Current Roles & Responsibilities Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service (CFS) Energy Forecasting Division Emissions Data & Energy Analysis Energy & Greenhouse Gas Forecast Activity Data Greenhouse Gas Division Specialty Emissions Expertise Industry Industries & Associations Some Emission Data, Activity Data, Research & Information Mandatory Facility Reporting (Inventory Agency) INPUTS Consulting Groups (Other Groups) Specialty Surveys & Research Specific Emissions Data Environment Canada Agriculture Research Data Some Emissions & Removals Exchange • Determines appropriate methods, EF’s and data –performs QC / QA • Develops emission/removal estimation methods and GHG estimates. • Prepares, publishes & reports National Inventory, Fact Sheets, and GHG Indicators • Develops standards & protocols for estimating and verifying domestic greenhouse gas emission reductions and • Provides guidance & outreach services Review (GHG System) (June 1, 2005) Additional Peer Review • Environmental and Industry Stakeholders informal QA • Federal/Provincial Colleagues (Other – MARs partners) • Federal Departments (NRCan; Ag. Can, Industry Canada) PRODUCTS Statistics Canada Energy & Other Activity Data Census of Agriculture Environment Canada National Greenhouse Gas Inventory • National Inventory Report (NIR) • Trends Fact Sheets & GHG Indicators • Reporting Guidance 12
13 Data Improvements Energy
14 Energy Statistics – Strengths & Weaknesses Annual Report on Energy Supply & Demand – Key Source of Data. Strengths Ø Ø Captures all energy use including internally produced and consumed energy. Differentiates between fuels used for industrial processes and fuels used for electricity. Differentiates between energy products used for energy purposes and non-fuel use (e. g. natural gas and petroleum coke). Provides information for a large number of energy commodities at a fine level of detail. Weaknesses Ø Ø Ø Reliance on information provided by suppliers of energy Energy consumption data for key sectors such as oil and gas More industry detail required for key sectors Alternative and emerging transportation fuels Little provincial energy consumption data
15 Energy Sector - Data Improvements Joint Working Groups Ø Federal Government (Statistics Canada/Natural Resources Canada and Environment Canada) Ø Improvement and refinement of energy and fossil fuel data by: Ø Ø Additional Quality Assurances through enhanced reviews of national energy balances, and reviews of the industrial consumption of energy balance Providing technical input to the energy surveys’ reporting instruction Canadian Industrial Energy End Use Analysis Centre Ø Ø University Centre of Excellence, Industry and Government Refinement of non-commercial refinery fuel emission factors
16 Energy Sector - Data Improvements Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) Ø Ø Joint study undertaken with CPPI EC/NRCAN Refinement and improvement of the data quality, the estimation model and emission data for the petroleum refining industry Ø 1990 -2002 GHG Inventory of Emissions Ø Inclusion of additional GHG sources to ensure completeness (i. e. , venting and flaring, emissions from off -road mobile sources) Ø Reviewed and approved by industry members
17 Energy Sector - Data Improvements Aviation Methodology Ø Ø Ø . Revised method to improve allocation between domestic and international Incorporates the use of tonne-kilometer activity data reported by Canadian airlines both domestically and abroad Allocates the fuel sold using a comparison of passenger traffic. Initial assumption that 50% of total international tonnekilometers flown by Canadian airlines, subsequently revised to 69%. Comparison with data generated by external fuel consumption models (SAGE – USA and AERO 2 K – UK) which employ a “Flight Path by Aircraft type” evaluation.
18 Data Improvements – Industrial Processes
19 Industrial Processes - Data Improvements PFCs and CO 2 from Aluminium Production Ø Ø Ø Previously plant specific emissions not available and estimates derived from national production, and national EFs and prorated to plants based on capacity Aluminium Association of Canada (AAC) provided data in 2004 on PFC and CO 2 process emissions for 1990 -2003, at plant level. Plant production data and documentation provided in support of estimates. Third party audit reports also provided on GHG emission accounting methods and estimates. An agreement to secure continuation of voluntary data delivery for future years is being negotiated.
20 Industrial Processes - Data Improvements Consumption of HFCs Ø Ø Ø Previously activity data for HFC consumption collected through periodic surveys – details on data use patterns uncertain. Estimation model for HFCs emitted from cooling and refrigeration systems was not adequately addressing the growth in the stock of HFCs as held within the existing systems. Recent survey undertaken to obtain updated HFC activity data Estimation model for HFC emissions reviewed and modified by industry experts to capture a higher rate of replacement of CFCs by HFCs. An agreement to secure continuation of voluntary data delivery for future years is being negotiated.
21 Industrial Processes - Data Improvements Inclusion of New Industrial Process Sources Ø Ø Ø SF 6 activity data from magnesium casters and power utilities not previously available. Study undertaken in 2004 provided survey data for SF 6 consumption in the magnesium casting industry, for 1990 -2003. SF 6 consumption in the power utility sector was estimated based on the quantity of SF 6 purchased from suppliers for most years and where these data were unavailable alternative approaches, such as comparisons with imports of SF 6 and consumption SF 6 in other sectors. Uncertainties in the estimates were reduced by reconciling survey data received from distributors of SF 6 and data received from magnesium casters. An agreement to secure continuation of voluntary data delivery for future years is being negotiated with both casting facilities and the Canadian Electricity Association.
22 Data Improvements – Agriculture and Waste Sectors
23 Agriculture - Data Improvements Ø Ø Ø Recent switch to Tier 2 methods for enteric fermentation and CH 4 from manure management required enhanced data gathering University of Guelph and University of Manitoba studies (2004): Ø Data collection to characterize cattle and other animal production practices (productivity, performance, feeding, volatile solids…) Ø Updated distribution of Animal Waste Management Systems by animal type Collection tool: expert surveys and consultations in each region with cattle specialists, industry associations, researchers.
24 Waste - Data Improvements CH 4 Emissions from Solid Waste Disposal on Land Ø Ø Ø Landfill per capita disposal rate not updated since 1994 Waste model parameters (CH 4 generation rate constant k) and CH 4 generation potential Lo) also require updating to reflect wide ranging conditions across the country. Studies underway to move towards a statistical basis for waste disposal data collection rather than extrapolated values from waste generation rates. Study to be initiated this year to examine waste model parameters (methane generation rate constant k) and methane generation potential Lo) Landfill sites owners and operators are being asked to provide annual landfill gas capture data.
25 Data Improvements – Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry
26 Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (MARS) for LULUCF Steering Committee Agriculture Canada Environment Canada Agriculture Working Group Forestry Working Group Earth Science Sector -NRCan Canadian Wildlife Service- EC Canadian Forest Service Statistics Canada Land Use, Land. Use Change Working-Group Canadian Space Agency
LULUCF – Data and Model Improvements (Forests) Ø Forest Inventory: Can. Fi, provincial inventories, new National Forest Inventory Ø Growth and Yield information (including from provincial and corporate sources) Ø Disturbance data (fires, insects outbreaks, harvesting. . . ) Ø National Afforestation Inventory Ø Into CBM-CFS 3 27
LULUCF – Data and Model Improvements (Cropland Grasslands) Ø Ø Census of Agriculture as basis Targeted surveys (tillage data, farm management practices. . . ) Satellite imagery: 22 agriculture “stack sites” being put in place for complete enumeration (rule setting and uncertainty analysis) Into Century Model → emission factors 28
29 LULUCF – Data Improvements (Land Use and Land-Use Change) Ø Large number of widely diverse, inconsistent and incomplete data sets, either planned or existing: Ø Ø Ø Inventories: Forest, Census of Ag Earth Observation data: Forest 2000, Ag “stack sites”, limited deforestation Large effort needed for data integration in spatially consistent LU and LUC datasets Trends toward greater role of EO-based measurements Gaps to fill: settlements, wetlands, northern lands
LULUCF – Challenges and Limitations Ø GPG requirement for consistency of land representation, KP requirements for spatially referenced reporting Ø Size of country, diversity of ecozones and LU/LUC patterns Ø Data reconciliation (across time, space and scales) Ø Ø Gap between research and operational methods (models, remote sensing) Complexity of multi-partner initiatives 30
31 Data Improvements – Additional Areas
32 Mandatory GHG Reporting from Large Facilities Ø On March 13, 2004, the Minister of the Environment, on behalf of the government of Canada, announced Phase 1 of the GHG reporting system in the Canada Gazette Ø Ø Ø Phase 2, to be in place by 2007, will: Ø Ø requires reporting of 2004 GHG emissions by June 1, 2005 targets largest emitters - reporting threshold of 100 kilotonnes annually captures all 6 GHGs (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs, SF 6) national coverage at the facility level data will be published by facility, except where confidential Collect more information, other than GHG emissions, such as energy and fuel use Prescribe standard methods for calculating GHG emissions Lower threshold for reporting which would increase coverage of emitters Ultimate System will increase precision of national inventory & support compliance with reduction targets