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São José dos Campos, September, 15 th to 18 th of 2002 ISPRS Commission São José dos Campos, September, 15 th to 18 th of 2002 ISPRS Commission VI – Education and Communications Mid Term Symposium on New approaches for Education and Communication GIS and Remote Sensing Technology Development: The Brazilian Experience Reviews the Appropriate Technology Concept Antônio Miguel Vieira Monteiro Gilberto Câmara Divisão de Processamento de Imagens DPI/INPE

Contents 1. GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology 2. Background - Description of Geotechnology Contents 1. GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology 2. Background - Description of Geotechnology Development and Education at DPI/INPE 3. Technology in the Third World - Benefits and Challenges 4. SPRING Project: Empowering People 5. Terra. Lib: Empowering Programmers to Empower People 6. Conclusions - Some Lessons Learned in 20 Years of Technological Development at DPI/INPE

What is Appropriate Technology Anyway ? The Historical Context Schumacher, E. (1973). Small Is What is Appropriate Technology Anyway ? The Historical Context Schumacher, E. (1973). Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York, Mattered Harper and Row. …economically developing nations should not adopt, uncritically, technological solutions from economically developed nations. …The original formulation, as proposed by Schumacher, was mainly based on issues related to the use of energy and nonrenewable resources, and also linked to an overall perspective (typical of the 1960 s and 1970 s) relating to limits in the Earth’s resources. DPI/INPE

GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology Revisiting the Concept GIS and RS are technologies GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology Revisiting the Concept GIS and RS are technologies fostered to help the apprehension of large spaces, in particular to help us organizing and representing in the digital domain, by means of digital computers, the spatio-temporal features of the processes that take place in a particular geographic space. DPI/INPE

GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology Revisiting the Concept … and if we are GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology Revisiting the Concept … and if we are talking about computer representations of a geographic space, then there is nothing that should be taken more critically than those technological solutions from economically developed nations, just because “Geometries are not Geographies!” DPI/INPE

Three Contemporary Brazilian Thinkers “ The territory is the essential condition for our every Three Contemporary Brazilian Thinkers “ The territory is the essential condition for our every day Life”. Prof. Milton Santos Por uma nova Globalização (ed. Record, 2000) “Build up your own Agenda is a very powerful political instrument in these days. What is left out from the Agenda do not come to exist”. Prof. Bertha Becker DPI/INPE

“The first condition to set free from underdevelopment is to escape from the obssesion “The first condition to set free from underdevelopment is to escape from the obssesion of reproducing the profile of those that name themselves ´developed´. It is necessary and fundamental to grasp one´s own identity. ”. Prof. Celso Furtado DPI/INPE

DPI/INPE Foto: Getúlio Batista DPI/INPE Foto: Getúlio Batista

Geo. Data “Scale” : Satellite Images DPI/INPE Geo. Data “Scale” : Satellite Images DPI/INPE

Geo. Data “Scale”: Satellite Images Mosaico cedido pela organização do X SBSR (www. dsr. Geo. Data “Scale”: Satellite Images Mosaico cedido pela organização do X SBSR (www. dsr. inpe. br/sbsr 2001) CBERS/WFI, 09/04/2000, 250 m, 3 a 5 dias ETM+(TM-7), 05/08/1999, 25 m, 16 dias IKONOS-2, 20/08/2000, 1 m(4), 3 a 7 dias DPI/INPE

Satellite Nigth ligths and Municipalites DPI/INPE Satellite Nigth ligths and Municipalites DPI/INPE

Human Activities Garimpo DPI/INPE Human Activities Garimpo DPI/INPE

Slides: Silvana Amaral DPI/INPE Slides: Silvana Amaral DPI/INPE

“A System of Human Settlements (‘An Urbanized Forest? ’)” DPI/INPE “A System of Human Settlements (‘An Urbanized Forest? ’)” DPI/INPE

The “Scale” of the Citzen: “Mapping” Social Exclusion/Inclusion : SP Capturar as discrepâncias sociais The “Scale” of the Citzen: “Mapping” Social Exclusion/Inclusion : SP Capturar as discrepâncias sociais da cidade de São Paulo 49 VARIÁVEIS SÓCIO-ECONÔMICAS AGREGADAS PELOS 96 DISTRITOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO PAULO DPI/INPE

The “Scale” of the Citzen: Social Dynamics of SP-Anos 90: Homicides - Trend Surface The “Scale” of the Citzen: Social Dynamics of SP-Anos 90: Homicides - Trend Surface Homicídos - SP 1996 Homicídos - SP 1999 DPI/INPE

The “Scale” of the Citzen: Territorial Inequalities: Social Exclusion/Inclusion in the Urban Space of The “Scale” of the Citzen: Territorial Inequalities: Social Exclusion/Inclusion in the Urban Space of São José dos Campos. Slides: Patricia genôvez DPI/INPE

Slides: Patricia genôvez DPI/INPE EXCLUSÃO SOCIAL DPI/INPE Slides: Patricia genôvez DPI/INPE EXCLUSÃO SOCIAL DPI/INPE

Slides: Marília Carvalho ENSP/FIOCRUZ The “Scale” of the Citzen: Health Service Assessment FONTE: FIOCRUZ Slides: Marília Carvalho ENSP/FIOCRUZ The “Scale” of the Citzen: Health Service Assessment FONTE: FIOCRUZ DPI/INPE

The “Scale” of the Citzen: Public Health Context Assessment : Teenager Preganancy in RJ The “Scale” of the Citzen: Public Health Context Assessment : Teenager Preganancy in RJ GAM Kernel DPI/INPE

OD 97 e a Grade Auto/pop OD 87. Resolution 500 x 500 m. DPI/INPE OD 97 e a Grade Auto/pop OD 87. Resolution 500 x 500 m. DPI/INPE

We Need Technologies that Enable Us to Share Different “Visions” of the Geographical Space We Need Technologies that Enable Us to Share Different “Visions” of the Geographical Space DPI/INPE

GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology For Empowering Local Governments Agencies, NGOs and Social GIS and RS as Appropriate Technology For Empowering Local Governments Agencies, NGOs and Social Movements in the Third World to adequately use sophisticated technology such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to better manage their human and natural resources oriented towards bettering the Quality of Life of their Population. DPI/INPE

The True Challenge: The Political Challenge To share a different standpoint: That is possible The True Challenge: The Political Challenge To share a different standpoint: That is possible for Developing Countries developing local alternatives of GIS technology. We hope to demonstrate that the general belief that local scientists and engineers in Developing Countries inevitably will be powerless to bring about innovation is misleading and selfdefeating. We argue, based on the Brazilian experience, that investment in and dependence on qualified local expertise is the key to successful use of information technologies such as GIS/RS. DPI/INPE

The True Challenge: The Political Challenge When based on thoughtful and sustained research and The True Challenge: The Political Challenge When based on thoughtful and sustained research and development programs, local teams can eschew international aid packages while providing more appropriate information technology solutions for their nations. Rather than viewed as mere dependents, such research teams are able to relate to "developed world" scientists and engineers as mutually respected partners and valued contributors to intellectual discourse and scientific and technological advancement. DPI/INPE

INPE is doing its Homework Human Developing Report 2001 ‘Iniciatives to Bridge the Digital INPE is doing its Homework Human Developing Report 2001 ‘Iniciatives to Bridge the Digital Divide’ Spring (25000 users, Public, Free, Software and Tutorials) Terra. Lib (Open Source Software) DPI/INPE

Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: From Where we Came from Meteorology DIN (Engineering) (Dpto. of Informatics) Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: From Where we Came from Meteorology DIN (Engineering) (Dpto. of Informatics) SERE I-100 (Image Analyser- 100) 1984 DPI (18 years) 2002 Multidisciplinary Team Research/Development (Geotechnologies) International/ National Cooperations DPI/INPE

Geotechnologies at DPI : The SPRING Experience Brazilian Technology for GIS: The ”White-Box” Model Geotechnologies at DPI : The SPRING Experience Brazilian Technology for GIS: The ”White-Box” Model Resultados = Software + Metodologies+ Training § Software § Innovation as priority § Metodologies § Concepts in Operational Procedures § Training § Technology as part of the qualification process DPI/INPE

Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: A Brief History of Time 1984 – 1990 : SITIM 110 Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: A Brief History of Time 1984 – 1990 : SITIM 110 / SITIM 150 / SITIM 340 / SGI 1991 – Início Desenvolvimento 1993 – SPRING 1. 0 (Unix) 1996 – SPRING 2. 0 (Unix) 1998 – SPRING 3. 0 e SPRING 3. 1 (Unix / Windows) 1999 – SPRING 3. 2 e SPRING 3. 3 (Unix / Windows) 2000 – SPRING 3. 4 (Unix / Linux / Windows) 2001 – SPRING 3. 5 e SPRING 3. 5. 1 2002 – SPRING 3. 6 DPI/INPE

Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: Today Grupo Desenv. Interfaces Grupo Bco. Dados Geográfico Grupo Imagens Grupo Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE: Today Grupo Desenv. Interfaces Grupo Bco. Dados Geográfico Grupo Imagens Grupo Dados Cadastrais Grupo Análise Espacial Grupo Mapas Temáticos SPRING Grupo MNT Grupo Dados Rede Grupo Usuários Grupo Divulgação DPI/INPE

August, 2002 DPI/INPE August, 2002 DPI/INPE

August, 2002 DPI/INPE August, 2002 DPI/INPE

August, 2002 DPI/INPE August, 2002 DPI/INPE

Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE Evolution of the SPRING product Family (next 5 years) 2002 – Geotechnologies at DPI/INPE Evolution of the SPRING product Family (next 5 years) 2002 – SPRING 3. 7 2003 – SPRING 4. 0 - 4. 1 2004 – SPRING 4. 2 - 4. 3 2005 – SPRING 4. 4 - 4. 5 2006 – SPRING 5. 0 2007 – SPRING 6. 0 DPI/INPE

§ GIS Technology Today § Monolitic Systems § There is not enough room for § GIS Technology Today § Monolitic Systems § There is not enough room for “customizations” § SPRING is already the state-of-the-art! § The Future § Extensible DBMS § Spatial Data as just another data! § Integrated Management of Spatial data and Functions DPI/INPE

Terra. Lib Project: A New Technological Project Leap at DPI/INPE Important Note: Terra. Lib Terra. Lib Project: A New Technological Project Leap at DPI/INPE Important Note: Terra. Lib and SPRING Live Together, Talk AND Converge ! DPI/INPE

Geotechnology Developments at INPE § Motivation § Provide innovative and user-friendly systems § Strongly Geotechnology Developments at INPE § Motivation § Provide innovative and user-friendly systems § Strongly linked to Research and Education § Long-term Investment § 1 st. Generation (1982 -1992): DOS system § 2 nd. Generation (1992 -present): SPRING (Windows/Linux) § Cooperative Development § INPE: team of 40 people (R&D) at DPI § Brazilian institutions: EMBRAPA, PUC/RJ, UNICAMP § 150 man-years, 600. 000 LOC in C++ DPI/INPE

INPE: SPRING Technology § Support for Environmental Projects § Data Integration (Images, Surfaces, Socio-Economical INPE: SPRING Technology § Support for Environmental Projects § Data Integration (Images, Surfaces, Socio-Economical Data, Thematic Maps) § Data Modelling (Map Algebra, Spatial Statistics) § Education § Support for 100 graduate students in 5 years (At INPE alone) § Around 1000 users trained in Brazil and S. America (3 years – Taking only INPE’s Team) § 4 books produced (available on-line www. dpi. inpe. br/geopro) DPI/INPE

SPRING Technology: Empowering People § SPRING - Emphasis on Innovation § New Image Classification SPRING Technology: Empowering People § SPRING - Emphasis on Innovation § New Image Classification Algorithms § Strong Analytical Capability § Use of Geostatistics and Spatial Statistics § Available on the Internet - SPRING ‘lives’ on the WEB § near 25000 downloads (August, 2002) § Mirror Sites: Spain, Portugal, Bolivia and USA (Soon!) ü Free Technology Need not Be Worse ! DPI/INPE

Technological Development in the Third World - The Challenges § How to Empower People Technological Development in the Third World - The Challenges § How to Empower People with Advanced Technology ? § Is There a Place for Third-World Technology in a Global Market ? DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology in Brazil § Environment § Largest Rain-Forest (4. 000 km Empowering People with Geotechnology in Brazil § Environment § Largest Rain-Forest (4. 000 km 2) § what is causing a 15, 000 km 2 annual deforestation in Amazonia ? § Economy § 10 th in GNP, 75 st in HDI § where are the excluded citizens of Brazil ? § Health § What are the patterns of endemic diseases and their risks of epidemics? DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology § Geotechnology: Benefits § § Information About Space (“where”) Management Empowering People with Geotechnology § Geotechnology: Benefits § § Information About Space (“where”) Management of Natural Resources Assessment of Human Impacts Planning for Sustainable Development DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology § Geotechnology: Challenges § § Complex Solution Qualified Human Resources Empowering People with Geotechnology § Geotechnology: Challenges § § Complex Solution Qualified Human Resources Data Collection and Data Handling Data Analysis and Decision Support DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology § “Black-box” Approach § Buy equipment/software, not solutions § Technology Empowering People with Geotechnology § “Black-box” Approach § Buy equipment/software, not solutions § Technology does not Match Local Qualifications § High Risk - Lots of Failures in the Third World DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology § Alternatives to the “Black-box” § Technology Choice Should Match Empowering People with Geotechnology § Alternatives to the “Black-box” § Technology Choice Should Match User Capability § Develop Qualified People Before Buying Complex Systems DPI/INPE

Empowering People with Geotechnology: The “White-Box” Model results = people + methods + software Empowering People with Geotechnology: The “White-Box” Model results = people + methods + software § People § “Learning by Doing” x “Learning by Using” § Methods § Translate Concepts into Working Procedures § Software § Provide Adequate Support for Data Analysis and Integration DPI/INPE

Third-World technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § Competitive IT Solutions § Third-World technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § Competitive IT Solutions § Requires Qualified Personnel § Long-term Investment (10+ years) DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § Lots of Qualified IT Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § Lots of Qualified IT Personnel in Third World § Dispersed in Many Institutions (no critical mass) § How to Share Resources and Knowledge ? DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § “Act locally, think globally” Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Challenges § “Act locally, think globally” § Local Solutions can be Applied Elsewhere § Sucessful IT Products Should Have a Global Perspective DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Building an Alternative to Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Building an Alternative to Technological Domination § Internet supporting a network of co-operation DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Co-operative IT solutions § Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Co-operative IT solutions § requires re-thinking of how IT works § Open Source: Linux as a paradigm § SPRING/Terra. Lib is an example of what can be achieved DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Towards a “New Utopia” Third-World Technology in a Global Market: Towards an Alternative § Towards a “New Utopia” § “turning globalization upside down” IT should bring solutions, not Software Monopolies DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Barriers § Local users mistrust their Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Barriers § Local users mistrust their very own institutions § “Cultural domination” is self-reinforceble DPI/INPE

Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Barriers § Global Barriers International Agencies Third-World Technology in a Global Market : The Barriers § Global Barriers International Agencies Finance Technology Sales, But not Knowledge Acquisition World Bank and IMF Consultants (in most cases) Do Not Accept Local Technology and Expertise DPI/INPE

Some Lessons Learned in 20 years of Geo. Technologies Development and Education in Brazil Some Lessons Learned in 20 years of Geo. Technologies Development and Education in Brazil The Build-up of Skilled Local Experts is a Fundamental and Necessary Step for Effective use of Geotechnologies UN, World Bank and Related Financing Organizations Should Give Priority to Actions Where Local Research and Development Work is Involved DPI/INPE

Final Remark The availability of Geospatial Data and Geotechnologies that can be apropriated by Final Remark The availability of Geospatial Data and Geotechnologies that can be apropriated by local governments, is today an essential condition to forge a truly redistributive economic growth, human development , and the true modernity, at least for the Brazilian State. DPI/INPE

Now, It is Really the Final Remark! “ Geometries are not Geographies” Prof. Milton Now, It is Really the Final Remark! “ Geometries are not Geographies” Prof. Milton Santos DPI/INPE

Visit or Sites! Geoinformation and People Projects http: //www. dpi. inpe. br/geopro/exclusao http: //www. Visit or Sites! Geoinformation and People Projects http: //www. dpi. inpe. br/geopro/exclusao http: //www. dpi. inpe. br/proarco Geotechnologies at DPI http: //www. dpi. inpe. br/spring http: //terralib. dpi. inpe. br DPI/INPE