Скачать презентацию SADC Rhino Management Group Dr Mike Knight Chair Скачать презентацию SADC Rhino Management Group Dr Mike Knight Chair

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SADC Rhino Management Group Dr Mike Knight: Chair Dr Richard Emslie: Specialist member (& SADC Rhino Management Group Dr Mike Knight: Chair Dr Richard Emslie: Specialist member (& IUCN SSC Af. RSG Scientific Officer)

Africa’s black rhinos SA= 39% 1, 915 Africa’s black rhinos SA= 39% 1, 915

Africa’s white rhinos SA= 93% 18, 800 Africa’s white rhinos SA= 93% 18, 800

South Africa’s importance • More rhinos than any other country in the world • South Africa’s importance • More rhinos than any other country in the world • Conserves 82. 7% of Africa’s rhino • Private sector in South Africa conserves slightly more rhinos than whole of rest of Africa m • Great success story, until recently…ore than whole of rest of Africa

18 yrs 1990 -2007: Avg 0. 03 / day 18 yrs 1990 -2007: Avg 0. 03 / day

Massive escalation in poaching since 2007 Massive escalation in poaching since 2007

Annual Increase Previous -08 +503% 2008 -09 +63% 2009 -10 +173% 2010 -11 +35% Annual Increase Previous -08 +503% 2008 -09 +63% 2009 -10 +173% 2010 -11 +35%

2010 Steady Increase 2010 2010 Steady Increase 2010

2011 average similar to last 4 months 2010 (2011 only +1. 2%) 2010 2011 average similar to last 4 months 2010 (2011 only +1. 2%) 2010

Leveling off for most of 2011 with spike before Christmas Rapid escalation till end Leveling off for most of 2011 with spike before Christmas Rapid escalation till end of 2010 2011

Despite poaching numbers still increasing Starting population beginning 2011 20700 Despite poaching numbers still increasing Starting population beginning 2011 20700

Average annual growth 1428 2011 growth 6. 9% 20700 Average annual growth 1428 2011 growth 6. 9% 20700

Minus poaching Minus poaching

Minus additional pseudo-hunting Minus additional pseudo-hunting

Rate of poaching escalation key. . • Currently we are still winning (6. 9% Rate of poaching escalation key. . • Currently we are still winning (6. 9% average net growth with 2. 2% poaching) but from 2009 -10 poaching increased +173% in one year = CRISIS - If that rate of escalation had continued (and we had +90 more rhinos hunted/year than normal due to psuedohunting) numbers would have started to decline by 2013. Thankfully the big effort in response has dampened the rate of poaching increase. • Poaching escalation rate Decline starts • +35% escalation (2010 -11) 2016 • +22% (end 2010 -end 2011) 2018 • Some success but unless we manage to halt the continued escalation in poaching we will eventually lose all our rhino.

The problem and solutions • The very high black market prices and demand for The problem and solutions • The very high black market prices and demand for horn in SE Asia is what is fuelling the escalation in poaching and the psuedohunting. • If we could reduce black market prices in SE Asia this should reduce illegal demand reduce poaching. • To reduce poaching we need to try to increase costs for poachers and reduce the rewards they get. • Improved law enforcement and prosecutions … but problem of organised crime – there always more to fill places of those convicted. • Permanent NWCRU but need for more cooperation – priority crime! • Need for improved detection at airports, post etc.

Problems & possible solutions • Control psuedohunting and illegal hunting • Problems with current Problems & possible solutions • Control psuedohunting and illegal hunting • Problems with current permit and hunting control and supervision system especially NW and Limpopo. • Urgent need to establish national integrated & secure database & permitting system (numbers, movt, stocks, hunts). • Increase law enforcement, intelligence & penalties. ESPECIALLY needed to stop poachers before they kill. • Important to create incentives for pvt sector & communities & encourage buy in (security of information + amnesty) • Biological management & monitoring • Live sales and legitimate hunting positive & important

Issues and recommendations • International collaboration Viet. Nam, China, Mozambique • Monitoring of rhino, Issues and recommendations • International collaboration Viet. Nam, China, Mozambique • Monitoring of rhino, movements, horns (use DNA) • Legal trade suggested as possible way to reduce black market price and poaching and increase incentives and resources for successful conservation? Supported by majority of delegates at WR BMP W/S but detail required. 2/3 rds at CITES? (Issues. . eg. Policing & prevention of laundering, problems of SA pvt sector and psuedohunting) • Alternatives also been proposed (education, dehorning, treating, encourage use of substitutes, more LE etc) • Need for more detail and to critically evaluate pros and cons of all options