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Ruralisation with eco-units Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folkeg@gmail. com Ruralisation with eco-units Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Nutrients To produce food, you need nutrients Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folkeg@gmail. com Nutrients To produce food, you need nutrients Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Nutrients What is ’nutrients’? In principle, ’nutrients’ are the constituents of the animal or Nutrients What is ’nutrients’? In principle, ’nutrients’ are the constituents of the animal or plant body Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com FG

Nutrients The constituents of an animal (or plant) body: All nutrients are not the Nutrients The constituents of an animal (or plant) body: All nutrients are not the same H O C N S P Na K Ca … 64 Folke Günther With gaseous phases — can be transported by the air Without gaseous phases — must be transported as solids or liquids http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Nutrients H O C N S 10 times more common in the P body Nutrients H O C N S 10 times more common in the P body than in the Earth crust Na More common K in the Earth => phosphorus is the most important nutrient ! Ca crust than in All nutrients are not the same … 64 the body Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Extraction horizons of phosphorus Peak phosphorus At higher energy price: At current energy price: Extraction horizons of phosphorus Peak phosphorus At higher energy price: At current energy price: Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folke ? ? years 100 – 150 years [email protected] com

We are in trouble Cheap energy will soon be a memory of forlorn times We are in trouble Cheap energy will soon be a memory of forlorn times 1. Whithout cheap energy, phosphorus need to be recycled 2. Whithout cheap energy, supply lines need to be short (Clausewitz) 3. Whithout cheap energy, we have to rely on ecosystem services Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Therefore, we need a lifeboat Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folkeg@gmail. com Therefore, we need a lifeboat Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Peak phosphorus = Exploration = Possible consumption Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folkeg@gmail. com Peak phosphorus = Exploration = Possible consumption Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Scenario analysis for phosphorus recycling A. Current practice, sludge P on landfills etc, concentration Scenario analysis for phosphorus recycling A. Current practice, sludge P on landfills etc, concentration to 1/60 of the food producing area. B. Efficiency, all the P collected in the sludge is placed on agriculture C. Substitution, source separating toilets recycling all P entering the town to an appropriate area D. Rethinking, The city is distributed over the food producing area Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Scenario * Effort for P to agricul- handling ture (index) (ton) Max theoretical cirkulation Scenario * Effort for P to agricul- handling ture (index) (ton) Max theoretical cirkulation A (Current) 183 154 1, 7 % B (Efficiency) 761 235 76 % C (Substitution) 958 319 96 % D (Rethinking) 986 1 100 % *) assuming an 1 millon pop. city Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Peak phosphorus is not a problem in an ecounit • Phosphorus molecules does not Peak phosphorus is not a problem in an ecounit • Phosphorus molecules does not wear out ! • The ecounit is designed for phosphorus recycling ! • The main thing is to avoid losses Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Safe food supply and nutrient recycling requires: • a balanced agriculture • a limited Safe food supply and nutrient recycling requires: • a balanced agriculture • a limited group of people • a local recycling system Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

One hectare: Balanced agriculture: Animals are fed with plants growing from their manure = One hectare: Balanced agriculture: Animals are fed with plants growing from their manure = about 80% recycling of nutrients Folke Günther Urin e Feed PO 4 http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

One hectare: Limited group of people Urin e Feed Food The 3 -4 kg One hectare: Limited group of people Urin e Feed Food The 3 -4 kg amounts to the P content of the excrements from 5 persons PO 4 . . but 3 -4 kg of the phosphorus (20%) is exported as food ≈ 0, 2 ha/pers Urine Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

One hectare: Local recycling system. . these nutrients must be returned to close the One hectare: Local recycling system. . these nutrients must be returned to close the cycle With sourceseparating toilets, these nutrients can be recycled Folke Günther Urin e Feed Food PO 4 Urine = 0, 2 ha/pers http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The eco-unit, a small population maintained by a permaculture Small agriculture population, about 200, The eco-unit, a small population maintained by a permaculture Small agriculture population, about 200, Balanced agriculture by supported Balanced and all of the animal fodder agriculture, Nutrients from the settlement is aimed at the recycled to agricultural land support of. Open ditches the • Nutrient local population reclaim the agriculture Providing most of the human food • Landscape diversity • Predator habitat • Lee – planting • Biomass production Area: 50 ha for 200 inhabitants Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The eco-unit PO Food 4 PO 4 Feed • High diversity • Perennial plants The eco-unit PO Food 4 PO 4 Feed • High diversity • Perennial plants • Co-operation • Mutualism • Nutrient circulation • On-site consumption • Water export by evaporation Biological greywater treatment plant (wetpark) Clean water is returned to the households Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Economy Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folkeg@gmail. com Economy Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The energy economy of conventional food production Food energy delivered to household: about 4. The energy economy of conventional food production Food energy delivered to household: about 4. 000 k. Wh/ 4 p. Energy invested by middlemen: about 36. 000 k. Wh/ 4 p. Total energy investment: about 40. 000 k. Wh / 4 pers Energy invested in agriculture: about 4. 000 k. Wh/ 4 p. Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The economy of conventional food production in Sweden 60 000 kr 30 000 kr The economy of conventional food production in Sweden 60 000 kr 30 000 kr 15 000 kr Folke Günther 0 kr Annual consumer cost for food (four person Swedish family) 60. 000 kr Trade, distribution and processing about 75% of the total price Producer salary, about 3. 000 kr Payment to producer, less than 25% (5% of consumer cost) Producer cost (fuel, interests etc. ) 80% of producer payment http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The economy of ecounit food production 60 000 45 000 30 000 60. 000 The economy of ecounit food production 60 000 45 000 30 000 60. 000 No middlemen = the consumer cost for the food decrease with 50%. . but the rest is the farmers Distribution and trade increase salary, which may 400% 30. 000 12. 000 15 000 Folke Günther 0 Because of the increased 18. 000 food diversity produced, Salary 3. 000 13. 000 the farmers’s expenses are assumed to Expensesincrease with 50% http: //www. holon. se/folke conventional ecounit [email protected] com

Assume a group of consumers subscribe for food from a local farmer Folke Günther Assume a group of consumers subscribe for food from a local farmer Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

They will drive the industry out of the market by paying the double industrial They will drive the industry out of the market by paying the double industrial price (≈half of the consumer price) Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The energy economy of ecounit food production Total energy investment in food : about The energy economy of ecounit food production Total energy investment in food : about 8. 000 k. Wh / 4 pers Energy invested local management: about 4. 000 k. Wh/ 4 p. Energy invested in (conventional) agriculture: about 4. 000 k. Wh/ 4 p. Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Saved money Let’s hope that the consumers will use their saved money to invest Saved money Let’s hope that the consumers will use their saved money to invest in the agriculture… Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folke Cheaper food Lesser energy price vulnerability [email protected] com

The ruralisation scenario # A scenario is an imagination made by a scientist # The ruralisation scenario # A scenario is an imagination made by a scientist # The rules are: You can imagine the most ridiculous things But you have to render a statement of the effects Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

The ruralisation scenario – start point At this scenario, the following is assumed: In The ruralisation scenario – start point At this scenario, the following is assumed: In start point, the centre of the municipality has a population of 33 000 The city is inhabited by 1. Theperiphery: 3 000 decision-makers who have the capacity to make far-sighted and strategic decisions 2. They have the same knowledge of limiting resources, ecology and the rules for long-term survival as you. 3. Furthermore, they understand that the city is not static, but dynamic. Old houses are torn down and new are built. (The average life-time for a house is supposed to be 60 years, which gives the city a rate of change of 1, 6%) 4. They decide that, instead of building new houses on the same place as the old ones were torn down, they will build eco-units in the periphery of the town. Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Ruralisation – after 12 years The town center: 24 000 The periphery : 12 Ruralisation – after 12 years The town center: 24 000 The periphery : 12 000 Local parks replacing the old houses Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/folke Groups of four Eco-units Each group is inhabited by 800 people [email protected] com

Ruralisation – after 25 years The town : 12 000 The periphery : 24 Ruralisation – after 25 years The town : 12 000 The periphery : 24 000 Reversed ditching: Cleaner water Underground streams are brought to the surface Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com

Ruralisation – after 50 years The endpoint of the ruralisation process: The municipality : Ruralisation – after 50 years The endpoint of the ruralisation process: The municipality : 3 000 The periphery : 36 000 Area with 5, 600 inhabitants in eco-units Population density closing to 500/km 2 • High diversity • Perennial plants • Co-operation • Mutualism • Nutrient circulation • On-site consumption • Slow change • Water export by evaporation By changing into a more resilient and less fuel May be, the human impact on dependent state, the ecological maturity of the this area has changed from a parasitic to a supportive type area is considerably increased Folke Günther http: //www. holon. se/[email protected] com