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RUN, THE COPS ARE HERE! A Content Analysis of Teen Drinking in American Hollywood RUN, THE COPS ARE HERE! A Content Analysis of Teen Drinking in American Hollywood films, 1984 -2007 By: Meggan Bridget Patty

Introduction Legal age to buy, possess, and consume alcohol in the United States = Introduction Legal age to buy, possess, and consume alcohol in the United States = 21 years old. Alcohol is a contributing factor in the top three causes of teen deaths: accidents, homicide, and suicide. The entertainment media increasingly glamorizes and sexualizes alcohol and its consumption. Exposing adolescents to the social norms of party atmospheres revolving around alcohol is a staple of Hollywood films.

Thesis Purpose: To examine the depiction of underage alcohol consumption in Hollywood films since Thesis Purpose: To examine the depiction of underage alcohol consumption in Hollywood films since the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act in 1984. The data gathered from this analysis examines media images, particularly regarding female teenage drinking, occurring in films over a period of 23 years.

Previous Literature q Drinking Behavior Among Teenagers q Bank et. al. (1985) q Gender Previous Literature q Drinking Behavior Among Teenagers q Bank et. al. (1985) q Gender Differences q Robbins and Martin (1993) q Alcohol in the Media q Bucholz and Robbins (1989)

q Robert Merton (1938) q Social norms are frequently broken in society even when q Robert Merton (1938) q Social norms are frequently broken in society even when formal and informal controls are in place to prevent or minimize deviance. q Anomie is understood as a situation in which the norms of society are weak, absent, or unclear or no longer applicable to the current conditions. q A condition in which there is an evident inconsistency between the culture's norms about what constitutes success (socially defined goals) and the culture's norms about the proper ways to achieve those goals (means). Structural Strain Theory

Methodology Content Analysis q q 25 American Hollywood films 1984 -2007 q Amazon. com Methodology Content Analysis q q 25 American Hollywood films 1984 -2007 q Amazon. com / IMDb (Internet Movie Database) key words: “teen- movie, ” “teen/party, ” “underage-drinking, ” and “teenage girl/teen. ” Total of 275 films were identified q Population of 50 films q Random sample to select final 25 films

Methodology Coding: q q Each alcohol encounter, party scenes, and illegal alcohol encounter Start Methodology Coding: q q Each alcohol encounter, party scenes, and illegal alcohol encounter Start and end time of the alcohol exposure was recorded in minutes/seconds Type of alcoholic substance shown (brand names were noted) Which characters were shown using the alcoholic substance, and the nature of the character that used the alcohol

Findings 66 Main Teenage Characters: Race Class 64 White 54 (81%) middle class 9 Findings 66 Main Teenage Characters: Race Class 64 White 54 (81%) middle class 9 (15%) upper class 3 (4%) lower class /poor 2 Black

Findings Gender Table 1: Female vs. Male Differences in Alcohol Related Behaviors Female Male Findings Gender Table 1: Female vs. Male Differences in Alcohol Related Behaviors Female Male Frequency/ % Frequency/% Alcohol Abuse /Drunkenness 47 (35%) 37 (32%) Alcohol Use 38 (29%) 43 (38%) Passing Out 17 (13%) 17 (15%) (Unwanted) Sexual Behavior 14 (11%) 4 (3. 5%) Vomiting 11 (8%) 10 (8%) Memory Loss 6 (4%) 3 (2. 6%) Drunk Driving/ Attempt to drive 0 (0%) 1 (0. 9%) 133 (100%) 114 (100%) Total

Findings Gender Table 2: Types of Alcohol Consumed N=25 Female Male Totals Beer f Findings Gender Table 2: Types of Alcohol Consumed N=25 Female Male Totals Beer f 47 % 43% f 71 % 61% Frequency 118 # of films / % 21/25 (84%) Hard Alcohol 25 23% 21 18% 46 16/25 (64%) Wine 20 19% 11 9% 31 11/25 (44%) Shots/Shooters 16 15% 10 9% 26 11/25 (44%) Kegs 0 N/A 4 3% 4 3/25 (12%) 108 100% 117 100% 225 Totals 50%

Findings Gender Table 3: Other Alcohol-Related Activities Females Males Totals f % Frequency % Findings Gender Table 3: Other Alcohol-Related Activities Females Males Totals f % Frequency % Flask 1 12. 5% 10 45% 11 37% Drinking games 2 25% 3 14% 5 16. 5% Fake ID’s 4 50% 1 4% 5 16. 5% Pyramid of Cans 0 N/A 3 14% 3 10% Beer Bong 0 N/A 3 14% 3 10% Beer Helmet 0 N/A 2 9% 2 7% Roofies (date rape drug) 1 12. 5% 0 N/A 1 3% Total 8 100% 22 100% 30 100%

Table 4: Total Time of Alcohol Content in Minutes/Seconds Year 1984 Time 10 min, Table 4: Total Time of Alcohol Content in Minutes/Seconds Year 1984 Time 10 min, 16 sec Decade Average 1985 1986 18 min, 29 sec 3 min, 43 sec 1980 s 8 min 1987 2 min, 32 sec 1988 6 min, 36 sec 1989 9 min, 10 sec 1995 20 sec 1995 1998 10 min, 33 sec 42 min, 3 sec 1990 s 13 min 1999 7 min, 11 sec 1999 13 min, 28 sec 1999 11 min, 4 sec 1999 7 min, 2 sec 2000 14 min, 13 sec 2000 2001 8 min, 17 sec 13 min, 7 sec 2000 s 7 min 2001 4 min, 21 sec 2001 14 min, 13 sec 2004 0 min 2004 6 min, 20 sec 2004 2 min, 41 sec 2004 23 sec 2005 6 min, 46 sec 2006 18 sec 2007 9 min, 15 sec Total Time = 3 hours, 42 min, 21 sec Mean = 9. 3 min

DISCUSSION q The majority of the teen characters portrayed in the sample are middle-class, DISCUSSION q The majority of the teen characters portrayed in the sample are middle-class, white, “popular” teenagers. q Alcohol consumption in the films is portrayed as a normal, frequent, and exceedingly common aspect of teen social interaction. q Teen’s attitudes and behaviors about alcohol consumption may be shaped by the media images, leading to real life consumption as “normal. ” q Portrayal of female alcohol consumption is shown as either peer pressured or influenced by problems within her personal life. q Image of female alcohol use in films implies the irresponsibility of an inexperienced drinker, shown as unable to handle alcohol.