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  • Количество слайдов: 21

Royal Power and Conflict Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group Divine Right: Royal Power and Conflict Absolutism: unlimited power on an individual or group Divine Right: idea that monarchs received their power directly from God and are only responsible to Him

Spanish Monarchs Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor Divided Hapsburg lands between Ferdinand Philip II Spanish Monarchs Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor Divided Hapsburg lands between Ferdinand Philip II (r. 1556 -1598) “Defender of the Catholic Faith” ▪ Inquisition: Autos Da Fe ▪ Marranos & Moriscos ▪ Dutch Independence Prudent King (cautious and hard-working) Unified the Government (capital city – Madrid) Spanish Armada: ▪ Fleet of warships; sent to attack England ▪ 130 ships; 33, 000 men

“Golden Century” (1550 -1650) Cervantes – Don Quixote Presents a new hero Symbolized the “Golden Century” (1550 -1650) Cervantes – Don Quixote Presents a new hero Symbolized the decline of Spain Inflation became a concern Philip II’s successors lacked governing skills

Charles II (r. 1665 -1700) Was Physically and mentally weak No heirs to the Charles II (r. 1665 -1700) Was Physically and mentally weak No heirs to the throne European monarchs plotted for control

French Monarchs (The Bourbons) Henry IV (r. 1589 -1610): Henry of Navarre Edict of French Monarchs (The Bourbons) Henry IV (r. 1589 -1610): Henry of Navarre Edict of Nantes (1598): allowed Protestantism Restored the crown’s treasury, repaired roads, etc. Tried to restore discipline to the military Laid the foundation of absolutism Cardinal Richelieu: Louis XIII gave power over to him Destroyed castles to end noble control of France Gave local authority to intendants, non-nobles 1625: Huguenots revolted against Louis XIII ▪ Lost at La Rochelle (1628) ▪ Lost rights to live in independent towns

 Louis XIV (r. 1643 -1715) Became king at age 5, began to rule Louis XIV (r. 1643 -1715) Became king at age 5, began to rule alone at 23 Absolute Rule: ▪ Feared disorder if a strong monarchy did not exist ▪ Lived through the Fronde as a youth ▪ Supported by the church (Jacques Bossuet) Court Life: ▪ Moved the government and courts to Versailles ▪ Kept a close eye on his nobles Government Policies: ▪ Carefully chose advisors ▪ Separate authorities for separate duties ▪ Two key aides: Colbert and Tellier

 Louis XIV (continued) Taxation ▪ Tax burden was on the poor ▪ Little Louis XIV (continued) Taxation ▪ Tax burden was on the poor ▪ Little desire for higher output b/c of higher taxes Religious Policy ▪ Persecuted Huguenots; many left France ▪ 1685: repealed the Edict of Nantes Expansion and Conflict (War of Spanish Succession) ▪ England, Austria, and the Dutch allied together ▪ Treaty of Utrecht: France and Spain can’t unite Legacy ▪ ▪ Brilliant cultural period Nobles lost ability to govern Peasants and middle-class resented the wealthy Nobles wanted to regain power under Louis XV

“The New Roman Empire” Charles V tried to revive the H. R. E. as “The New Roman Empire” Charles V tried to revive the H. R. E. as the strong center of trade/politics in Europe Unlike the Eastern Empires – individual states developed independently Protestant Reformation allowed a political gathering and stronghold for German princes Attacks from the French and Ottoman Empire proved to be to much on the defense

German Monarchs (The Hapsburgs) Thirty Years’ War: Religious conflict continued after the Peace of German Monarchs (The Hapsburgs) Thirty Years’ War: Religious conflict continued after the Peace of Ausburg Ferdinand of Stryia was in favor of the Hapsburgs and caused the Czechs to revolt Spain sent aid – Denmark, England, and Sweden joined together against the Hapsburgs Approx. 1/3 of German population killed Peace of Westphalia: recognized Calvinism as a religion Austria: received land in Italy and the Netherlands Pragmatic sanction: allowed female succession and stated that Hapsburg land could not be divided Maria Teresa succeeded Charles VI in 1740 ▪ Strengthened the Austrian throne - improved bureaucracy

Prussian Monarchs (The Hohenzollerns) Prussia: enemy of Austria during the 1700 s Fredrick William Prussian Monarchs (The Hohenzollerns) Prussia: enemy of Austria during the 1700 s Fredrick William “the Great Elector”: ▪ Allied with the Junkers (nobles) = absolute power ▪ Only nobles could own land, exempt from taxes ▪ Fredrick I inherited the throne (weak ruler) Fredrick William I: a powerful ruler ▪ United all functions into one beaucracy ▪ Devoted to the military (regiment of giants) Fredrick II “Fredrick the Great”: ▪ Rejected the pragmatic sanction (seized Austrian land) ▪ 1748: the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle – recognized Prussia ▪ 1756 -1763: Seven Years War: G. B. & France competed for land (ended with the Treaty of Paris)

The Tudor Dynasty The Tudor Dynasty

English Monarchs (Tudors) Henry VII (r. 1485 -1509) Aristocracy became dependent on the crown English Monarchs (Tudors) Henry VII (r. 1485 -1509) Aristocracy became dependent on the crown Used diplomacy to avoid war Used marriages to strengthen royal power Henry VIII (r. 1509 -1547) Viewed as the most powerful Tudor monarch Developed a strong Navy Married six times Worked with Parliament to accomplish his goals Seized monastic lands and redistributed them Edward VI (r. 1553 -1558) Inherited the throne at 9 yrs. old – died at 15 yrs. old

 Mary I (r. 1553 -1558) Was devoutly Catholic; supported by the people Married Mary I (r. 1553 -1558) Was devoutly Catholic; supported by the people Married Philip II of Spain; restored Catholicism Went to war with France – lost the port of Calais Died in 1558 without an heir to the throne Elizabeth I (r. 1558 -1603): Also known as the “Virgin Queen” Speculation on who would succeed her Respected by her subjects Elizabethan Court & Government: advised by nobles Social & Economic Policy: (monarch, gentry, yeomen) ▪ Statute of Apprentices (1563); Poor Laws (1595 & 1601) Foreign Policy: Relied on the Channel for protection ▪ Mary Queen of Scots

The End of the Tudor Dynasty Elizabeth did not leave an heir 1603: The The End of the Tudor Dynasty Elizabeth did not leave an heir 1603: The English throne passed to James Stuart of Scotland (Mary Q. of Scots’ son) King James VI (I): United England Scotland Began the Stuart Dynasty

The English Civil War The English Civil War

I. Background to War Opposition to the Crown James I believed in divine right I. Background to War Opposition to the Crown James I believed in divine right (resentment in Parl. ) Ended the war with Spain and made reparations to Spain Religion and the Monarchy Puritans wanted a “pure” church, began to emigrate 1604: Bible translated into English (completed in 1611) Charles I (1625 -1649): Opposed the Puritans; believed in divine right Appointed Wm. Laud Archbishop of England Asked Parl. for money to fight France and Spain 1628: forced to sign the Petition of Right (limited power) Tried to force Catholicism on the Scots and English

II. The Civil War 1640: Scots invaded England, Charles calls Parliament, dissolves it 3 II. The Civil War 1640: Scots invaded England, Charles calls Parliament, dissolves it 3 weeks later Forced to call them back, lasted over 20 years Abolished Charles’ courts; executed Laud Ireland rebelled and refused to accept the Church of England 19 Propositions was rejected by Charles and he led troops into the House of Commons Roundheads (led by O. Cromwell) and Cavaliers were gathered for war Charles was forced to surrender in 1649; was executed Parliament forced the remaining opposition out

III. A New Government Commonwealth: state ruled by elected officials Cromwell placed England under III. A New Government Commonwealth: state ruled by elected officials Cromwell placed England under military rule Navigation Acts (1651) passed to benefit English imports Cromwell allowed freedom of religion Enforced Puritan rules in government No strong leader when Cromwell died in 1658

IV. The Return of the King The Restoration: Charles II returned (1660) Did not IV. The Return of the King The Restoration: Charles II returned (1660) Did not challenge Parliament Allowed the Clarendon Code ▪ Church of England made the official church. Constitutional Monarchy was established John Milton’s Paradise Lost A Bloodless Revolt: James II succeeded Charles 1685: claimed that he had absolute power Was forced to flee England (the Glorious Revolution)

V. William and Mary 1689: they agreed to govern according to Parliament’s statutes Parliament V. William and Mary 1689: they agreed to govern according to Parliament’s statutes Parliament passed the Bill of Rights King could not raise taxes w/o Parliament's consent King could not suspend laws Right to trial by jury, no cruel and unusual punishment 1689: James II led the Irish to recapture England Act of Settlement (1701): excluded Catholics from inheriting the throne

VI. Succession and Union 1702: Anne, Mary’s sister succeeded William New order of succession VI. Succession and Union 1702: Anne, Mary’s sister succeeded William New order of succession since Anne did not have any children; The house of Hanover Act of Union (1707) united Scotland England Scotland able to retain religion and laws George I succeeded Anne in 1714, wasn’t English Sir Robert Walpole became Prime Minister 1760: George III became king Expanded the British Empire American Revolution