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ROLE OF URBAN DESIGN IN REAL DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT ROLE OF URBAN DESIGN IN REAL DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT

Overview § Urban design is an institutionalized control of spatial manifestations of human activities Overview § Urban design is an institutionalized control of spatial manifestations of human activities in a market economy § A town must work properly and be economically sound…. but it should also be pleasant to the observer (fusion of technical to aesthetics)…function-economy-aesthetics § City building programs are statements of the principal tools of urban design

Sustainable Development § Is urban space an essential dimension of sustainable development? ………. Sustainability Sustainable Development § Is urban space an essential dimension of sustainable development? ………. Sustainability is local. . . : it needs a place to happen. ………. Although problems aggregate and become manifest on a global scale (e. g. , ozone depletion, global climate change), offenses to the environment are produced locally.

PROPERLY DESIGNED & PROJECTED SPACE IS A RESOURCE § It is a register of PROPERLY DESIGNED & PROJECTED SPACE IS A RESOURCE § It is a register of development § It facilitates access, proximity, mobility, security, flexibility, appropriation, identity, etc…. . through articulation of morphological conditions § It acts as a generator/localizer of economy § It works as an integrating device [between conflicting interests, specialized sectors, etc. ] § becomes a generator of an urban culture & citizenship, aiming at diversity, inclusion, tolerance, responsibility, involvement, etc. § Space is almost a non-renewable resource…not recognizing it as a resource results in a waste of opportunity § Inappropriate planning/design is a burden to development.

URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION § Space is able to generate economic opportunities: ……. URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION § Space is able to generate economic opportunities: ……. [at all scale levels, including the localizing of global economies, the provision of informal economies, etc. ] urban agriculture: livelihood provision, green lung & edge to urban expansion

URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION (cont’d) synergies of activities: mobility & informal economic activites URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION (cont’d) synergies of activities: mobility & informal economic activites

URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION (cont’d) § Design increases quality of life: … [by URBAN SPACE & POVERTY REDUCTION (cont’d) § Design increases quality of life: … [by providing qualitative space as collective wealth] § Design provides multiple life improvements: ……. . [security, access to facilities, infrastructure, etc. ] § Design proposes means for the spatial redistribution of wealth: …. [cross-subsidy, land sharing, density management, etc. ]

Land sharing: co-presence of classes, equal accessibility to infrastrcuture & services. . . . Land sharing: co-presence of classes, equal accessibility to infrastrcuture & services. . . . Aranya Community Housing, Indore, India [B. V. Doshi, 1982, masterplan]

URBAN SPACE & SUSTAINABILITY ● Rational use of land 1. natural resources 2. historical URBAN SPACE & SUSTAINABILITY ● Rational use of land 1. natural resources 2. historical resources [patrimony] 3. material resources [material, knowledge, skills & technology] 4. social & cultural resources [including interests and involvement of civil organizations, community, individuals] ● Development of sustainable design technologies [energy balances, ecological footprints, material life-cycles, etc. ] ● Integrates aspects of social, economical, ecological ● Expands Brundtland definition preservation of existing resources + structure growth & investment

Missing synergetic relations between two. . . . Confrontation between national park and modern Missing synergetic relations between two. . . . Confrontation between national park and modern city (Nakuru, Kenya)

Problem turned into opportunity to stucture entire city . . . accentuating natural assets, Problem turned into opportunity to stucture entire city . . . accentuating natural assets, protecting fragile ecologies & green links (Nakuru kenya)

Urban Park: mediating between two potentially conflicting urban land uses (Nakuru, Kenya) Urban Park: mediating between two potentially conflicting urban land uses (Nakuru, Kenya)

Thus, sustainability not only aims to protect the rights of the next generation, but Thus, sustainability not only aims to protect the rights of the next generation, but also requires investment for the next generation [creating future patrimony]

An urban design definition of sustainability may suggest: : §A dense, compact city with An urban design definition of sustainability may suggest: : §A dense, compact city with a dynamic balance between community and privacy. §A community of richness in architectural form, public space, and individual and collective opportunities §A city with a strong sense of itself as a place, a clear and defined form, and a common destiny (identity) §A human-scaled environment, not one that is overscaled and sized to primarily accommodate vehicles, industries, and faceless institutions §A city with appropriate spaces for modern processes (metabolic and economic)

Basic Design Principles in Development § Strengthening existing spatial structure • Dynamic, coherent, and Basic Design Principles in Development § Strengthening existing spatial structure • Dynamic, coherent, and integrating framework • Addressing threats & creating new opportunities

Basic Development Concepts • Qualifying urban space • ‘Localizing’ urban development • Broadening of Basic Development Concepts • Qualifying urban space • ‘Localizing’ urban development • Broadening of ‘sustainability’ definition • Visions / actions / projects • Co-productive processes • Governance triangle (Public, civil society, & private sector) • Innovation based on practice

Development Strategies • Make apparent urban visions • Unite and canalize different contested urban Development Strategies • Make apparent urban visions • Unite and canalize different contested urban forces • Consider structural impact and leverage effect • Build capacity to link, mediate, and organize multiple actions and actors • Emphasize feasibility, visibility, and innovation

Thematic Areas 1. Urban Design and Safety • design / policy & disaster prevention Thematic Areas 1. Urban Design and Safety • design / policy & disaster prevention • emergency measures with long-term vision • condition of destruction creates new opportunities • threat management 2. Urban Design and Poverty Alleviation • generation of economic opportunities • qualitative space as collective wealth • multiple day life improvements [security, access…] • rational / economic use of scarce resources • means for the spatial redistribution of wealth

Thematic Areas (Cont’d) 3. Urban Design and Sustainability • facilitate appropriate use of available Thematic Areas (Cont’d) 3. Urban Design and Sustainability • facilitate appropriate use of available resources • integrate multiple time frames • develop technologies of sustainable design • integrate social, economical, ecological sustainability

Spatial Issues & Challenges 1. New Urban Frontiers • the ‘rurban’ fringe (residence/agriculture mix) Spatial Issues & Challenges 1. New Urban Frontiers • the ‘rurban’ fringe (residence/agriculture mix) • the unarticulated appendage (undifferentiated sprawl) • the ‘garden-city’ simulacrum (the gated satellite) • Domain ‘jua kali’ (Areas facing informal sector infestation) • The indomitable slum (shanties & squatter settlements)

The ‘rurban’ fringe (Town/agriculture mix) The ‘rurban’ fringe (Town/agriculture mix)

The unarticulated appendage (undifferentiated sprawl) Unarticulated appendage: Bujumbura [Burundi]; village expansion [Ethiopia] The unarticulated appendage (undifferentiated sprawl) Unarticulated appendage: Bujumbura [Burundi]; village expansion [Ethiopia]

The ‘garden-city’ simulacrum (the gated satellite) The ‘garden-city’ simulacrum (the gated satellite)

The Domain ‘jua kali’ Areas facing informal sector infestation Toi Market, Kibera, Nairobi The Domain ‘jua kali’ Areas facing informal sector infestation Toi Market, Kibera, Nairobi

The indomitable slum shanties & squatter settlements Mukuru Village, Embakasi, Nairobi The indomitable slum shanties & squatter settlements Mukuru Village, Embakasi, Nairobi

Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 2. Transformation/Requalification of Existing Fabrics: • Destruction of historic Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 2. Transformation/Requalification of Existing Fabrics: • Destruction of historic neighbourhoods • Inner-city densification & gentrification • Peripheral suburbanization • Urban renewal (slum up-grading, regularization, etc. ) • Informalization of inner-city areas

Destruction of historic neighbourhoods Historic patrimonium Traditional street [Zanzibar]; Gebel Barkal pyramids [Sudan]; Lamu Destruction of historic neighbourhoods Historic patrimonium Traditional street [Zanzibar]; Gebel Barkal pyramids [Sudan]; Lamu [Kenya]

Informalization of city centre street markets: Kilifi and Eastleigh[Kenya]; Informalization of city centre street markets: Kilifi and Eastleigh[Kenya];

Slum upgrading / Exclusive suburbs Renewal [Nairobi, Kenya] Suburb Kigali [Rwanda] Slum upgrading / Exclusive suburbs Renewal [Nairobi, Kenya] Suburb Kigali [Rwanda]

Inner City densification and Urban Renewal Inner City densification and Urban Renewal

Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 3. Emerging Ecologies • Urban agriculture • The urban Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 3. Emerging Ecologies • Urban agriculture • The urban nature reserve • Areas prone to natural disasters (drought, flood, earthquake, etc)

Urban Agriculture Kampala [Uganda]; Brick factory [Burundi] Urban Agriculture Kampala [Uganda]; Brick factory [Burundi]

Nature Reserve Highands [Rwanda]; Ngorongo Crater [Tanzania] Nature Reserve Highands [Rwanda]; Ngorongo Crater [Tanzania]

Areas Prone to Natural Disasters Flood [Sudan]; Hafun Tsunami damage [Somalia] Areas Prone to Natural Disasters Flood [Sudan]; Hafun Tsunami damage [Somalia]

Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 4. Infrastructure Development: • Dilapidated road network & traffic Spatial Issues & Challenges (cont’d) 4. Infrastructure Development: • Dilapidated road network & traffic congestion • Disused infrastructure & underutilized lands (railway sidings, port, speculative realty, etc) • Inadequate infrastructural services • Poor waste disposal & pollution

Dilapidated Road Network Kinshasa [RD Congo] Mwanza [Tanzania]; Nairobi [Kenya]; Dilapidated Road Network Kinshasa [RD Congo] Mwanza [Tanzania]; Nairobi [Kenya];

Capacity of existing infrastructures Mombasa, Kenya Kinshasa, Congo Capacity of existing infrastructures Mombasa, Kenya Kinshasa, Congo

Poor waste disposal Uncollected garbage (Nairobi, Kenya; Floating waste, Somali coast Poor waste disposal Uncollected garbage (Nairobi, Kenya; Floating waste, Somali coast

Changing Development Context 1. CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS • Increased urbanization & urban growth rates • Changing Development Context 1. CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS • Increased urbanization & urban growth rates • Impact of HIV/AIDS (depopulation, health care facilities access, etc) 2. GLOBALIZATION & ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION • Structural adjustment programs & Unintended consequences (economic decline & poverty) • Implosion of formal economic sector & explosion of informal sectors • Public/Private, Global/Local Partnerships & International Investments 3. POLITICAL DEMOCRATIZATION & ADMINISTRATIVE DECENTRALIZATION • Devolution & re-designation of governance systems • Growing influence of community & non-governmental organizations • Grater participation of civil society in governance processes 4. CIVIL WAR & INTENSIFICATION OF INTERNAL CONFLICT • Politically instigated spatial displacement; proliferation of refuge camps; make-shift settlements • Collapse of urban systems • Degradation of urban environments

Varying Roles at Different Levels 1. National & Regional Scale - - Regional design: Varying Roles at Different Levels 1. National & Regional Scale - - Regional design: determination of significant and integral physical sections and delineating these according to their characteristic topography, climate, and culture Recreational Area Design: areas of natural terrain should be withtin one hour travel time from the central city Developing regions: to encourage flow of investment capital, maintain development interest, and create livable places Wilderness areas and old preserves: safeguard the value of those that have acquired a character that we can look back with pride and admiration

2. - Metropolitan Scale Metropolitan structure: Plans for entire metropolises addressing among others land 2. - Metropolitan Scale Metropolitan structure: Plans for entire metropolises addressing among others land use and transport Metropolitan form and pattern: careful design of form and pattern to address land use, transport, topography, proximity to open and green spaces e. t. c Metropolitan open space system: open space plan to complement built up areas and also address open space reserves Metropolitan Transportation: to increase mobility, while respecting urban tissue and equity in network distribution and construction Approach to the city: The first sight of should leave a lasting impression…need for clarity amid increasing complexity

- Metropolitan views and vistas: strong visual links to embrace the entire city or - Metropolitan views and vistas: strong visual links to embrace the entire city or parts of it; these need formal recognition and protection so as to enhance city image - Metropolitan skyline/ Townscape: Townscape refers to the (3 -dimensional) compositional character of sequences of urban spaces and buildings. - To specify sites of special vertical heights as well as the special low sites such as those along aviation lines

3. City-wide Scale: § System of open spaces: design open spaces based on an 3. City-wide Scale: § System of open spaces: design open spaces based on an intricate classification of size and type to reflect urban vitality § Pedestrian circulation: a design that interweaves pedestrian movement to the entire city, connecting to major activity areas and generators. § Municipal trees: Planting design that beautify and humanize public environments, e. g streets § Electric lighting: designs for city illumination that will clarify different areas according to distinct type of lighting

- Street Furniture: Design of street level objects that will - Street Hardware: design - Street Furniture: Design of street level objects that will - Street Hardware: design of objects pertaining to utility and - Civic Design: careful outdoor design for sculpture, murals, pavements, fountains e. t. c - Landscape Design: artificial sculpturing of urban landscape to enhance views, complement landform, and correct visual errors. enhance pedestrian convenience: benches, advertising kiosks, pavillions, bus and cab shelters e. t. c mechanical systems e. gutility posts, parking meters, traffic signals, bill boards e. t. c

4. Comprehensive Area/District Design …designing parts of the city - - The Downton/CBD: designing 4. Comprehensive Area/District Design …designing parts of the city - - The Downton/CBD: designing of downtowns to ensure ease of access, diversity, and attractiveness; development of residence to keep them alive. Renewal of old neighbourhoods: designs to restore the soundness of old neighbourhoods and correct the effects of blight while introducing stabilising elements. Historic preservation: designs to restore and remodel historic areas of the city to enhance their relevance and command regarding the contemporary Suburban centres: Designs for outlying centres that will address issues of circulation for both pedestrians and motor traffic, parking, landscaping, clustering of shops, location of recreation areas e. t. c New Suburbs and New Towns: Designing new communities as guided by the need for open space reserves, major utility services, zoning requirements e. t. c

5. Site Level § preparation of site plans considering human needs/function and the environment. 5. Site Level § preparation of site plans considering human needs/function and the environment. § determination of detailed layout of an area in relation to natural environment and human requirements: § What should happen on a given area of land? § Where it should happen? § An evaluation of the vast range of environmental, social, and economical factors with a bearing on decision making.

6. Object level: - design of individual objects as projects to complement wider urban 6. Object level: - design of individual objects as projects to complement wider urban objectives - Calls for specialised professionals with good appreciation of urban design e. g architects and engineers who design buildings and bridges meant to transform urban character. Examples: Bridges, buildings, sculpture, monuments, fountains e. t. c