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Robert E. Davis Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Robert E. Davis Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Don Cline National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center National Weather Service, NOAA Fall AGU Meeting San Francisco, CA December 15, 2000

Goal: Estimate the spatial distribution of snow properties and freeze/thaw processes over a mesoscale Goal: Estimate the spatial distribution of snow properties and freeze/thaw processes over a mesoscale area, so that we can use the data for comparison with remote sensing products. Fall AGU Meeting San Francisco, CA December 15, 2000

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Active and Passive Microwave Remote Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Data Multiple scales, to permit comparison of two approaches for addressing important issues in cold land hydrology, and to identify potential synergism using both approaches. Intensive Ground and Low-flying Aircraft Snow Observations Provide meaningful and credible “Ground Truth” over multiple scales, from a few meters to 25 -km x 25 -km areas. Wide Range of Terrain, Snow, and Freeze/Thaw Conditions Permit comprehensive testing and development of models and algorithms. NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Multi-scale Atmospheric and Land Surface Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Multi-scale Atmospheric and Land Surface Modeling Incorporate into the data collection and analysis process to provide guidance for sampling strategies at different scales, and forcing data sets for high-resolution models of snow and ice dynamics. Measures to Help Ensure the Safety of Field Personnel Data collection during winter and early spring in remote, and often rugged terrain is hazardous, and requires risk mitigation efforts. Data Pre-processing and Long-term Management Provide for the organization and pre-processing of data sets immediately following the experiment, and the long-term data management and archive of the data collected during the experiment. NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Colorado Study Area Fort Collins Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Colorado Study Area Fort Collins Steamboat Springs 200 km 25 x 25 km Boulder Denver Grand Junction 175 km Gunnison

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Observation Areas (IOAs) Walden Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Observation Areas (IOAs) Walden North Park IOA Steamboat Springs Ft. Collins Estes Park Craig Rabbit Ears IOA Kremmling Fraser Experimental Forest IOA Loveland Pass IOA Glenwood Springs Vail Aspen Dillon Leadville Granby Winter Park Idaho Springs Boulder Denver

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Observation Areas (IOAs) Walden Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Observation Areas (IOAs) Walden High-Elevation Parkland Low-Relief Steamboat Springs Craig Moderate Predominantly Grassland Shallow Snow Packs Relief Very Cold Deep Snow Packs Estes Winters Park Extensive Riparian Areas WMO Precipitation Intercomparison Site Kremmling Sub-Alpine Forests Controlled Forest Treatments High Alpine Glenwood Springs Vail Aspen Dillon Leadville Granby Winter Park Idaho Springs

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Focus on Edges, Gradients, and Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Focus on Edges, Gradients, and Transitions Colorado Winter and Spring of 2002 Two intensive ground aircraft measurement periods, each lasting seven to ten days. High Elevation Low Elevation February March April NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Snow Observation Networks SNOTEL Automated Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Snow Observation Networks SNOTEL Automated Sensors SWE, Precip, Temp Continuous Recording Near Real Time Reporting SNOTEL Snow Course Augmentation Needs Soil/Snow Temp Profiles Wind Speed, RH Radiation Fluxes Snow Depth Near Sfc. Soil Moisture (m) Snow Course Transects Snow Depth, Density Monthly Surveys Some Bi-weekly Surveys Augmentation Needs Additional Bi-weekly Surveys for Feb, Apr NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Ground Truth Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Ground Truth for Snow, Freeze/Thaw Status of Soil and Vegetation Snow Pits Depth Density Stratigraphy Temperature Profile Grain Size and Shape Liquid Water Content Presence of Ice Layers SWE { Soil Freeze/Thaw Status Moisture/Ice Content (Upper 30 -40 cm) Temperature Profile (Upper 30 -40 cm) 20 -30 Snow Pits in each IOA NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Snow Coring Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Snow Coring Snow Depth Density Surface Wetness Surface Temperature SWE { ~350 Snow Cores in each IOA NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Snow Depth Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Intensive Ground Observations Snow Depth Probing Snow Depth Surface Wetness Surface Temperature ~1000 Snow Depth Probes in each IOA NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Coupled Land-Atmosphere Models LAPS - Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Coupled Land-Atmosphere Models LAPS - Local Analysis/Prediction System - 10 -km resolution, hourly - Developed by NOAA Forecast Systems Laboratory - Hourly analyses outputs include: - 3 -D and surface temperatures - surface u and v winds, vertical velocity - dew-point temperature - relative humidity, specific humidity - pressure, MSL pressure - cloud type, mean cloud-drop diameter, cloud base, cloud top, fractional cloud cover, cloud liquid water, cloud ice - surface precipitation type, rain concentration, snow concentration - soil moisture - snow water equivalent, snow accumulation, and snowmelt NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Coupled Land-Atmosphere Models RAMS - Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Coupled Land-Atmosphere Models RAMS - Regional Atmospheric Modeling System 1 -km resolution, hourly Developed by Colorado State University Fully 3 -dimensional, nonhydrostatic - Includes telescoping, fully interactive nested grid capabilities - Supports various turbulent closure, short- and long-wave radiation, and boundary condition schemes - Includes a land-surface energy balance sub-model which accounts for vegetation, open water, and snow-related surface fluxes - Includes explicit cloud microphysical sub-models describing liquid and ice processes related to clouds and precipitation - Driven with the 10 -km LAPS 3 -D atmospheric fields, RAMS will be used to nest down to a 1 -km horizontal grid element NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Optical Satellite Data Sets Sensor Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Optical Satellite Data Sets Sensor Resolution Domain Purpose Scenes IKONOS Very High Partial Snow Cover 1 -2 dates, Feb, Apr LANDSAT High Partial Snow Cover Grain Size 4 -5 dates, Oct-Jun ASTER High Partial Snow Cover Grain Size 4 -5 dates, Oct-Jun MISR High Partial BRDF - Solar 4 -5 dates, Oct-Jun MODIS Moderate Full Snow Cover Frequent, Oct-Jun AVHRR Moderate Full Snow Cover Frequent, Oct-Jun NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Microwave Satellite Data Sets Sensor Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Microwave Satellite Data Sets Sensor Resolution Domain Purpose Scenes Radar. SAT High Partial Snow Wetness Freeze/Thaw 1 -2 dates, Feb, Apr ASAR High Partial Dry Snow Cover Freeze/Thaw 2 -4 dates, Feb, Apr Quick. SCAT Low Full Dry Snow Cover Freeze/Thaw Frequent, Oct-Jun SSM/I Low Full Dry Snow Cover SWE Correlation Frequent, Oct-Jun AMSR-E Low Full Dry Snow Cover SWE Correlation Frequent, Oct-Jun NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Airborne Data Collection NASA DC-8 Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Airborne Data Collection NASA DC-8 NASA P 3 AIRSAR Snow Water Equivalent Snow Wetness Freeze/Thaw Snow Extent Snow Water Equivalent Snow Wetness Snow Extent Snow Depth PSR Freeze/Thaw NOAA AC 690 GAMMA Snow Water Equivalent Soil Moisture NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Ground-Based Microwave RS Data Collection Plan for the Cold Land Processes Mesoscale Field Experiment Ground-Based Microwave RS Data Collection Candidate Sensors Wavelength 21. 4 cm 4. 4 cm 2. 8 cm 1. 6 cm 8. 6 mm 8. 1 mm 5. 0 mm 3. 4 mm 3. 2 mm Frequency Active Passive 1. 4 GHz 6. 8 GHz 10. 7 GHz 19 GHz 35 GHz 37 GHz 60 GHz 89 GHz 95 GHz Others? Principal Benefit: Continuous Observation - Diurnal Processes, e. g. nocturnal refreezing NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

Status: • Preliminary planning completed. • Open forum / workshop: 17 December 9 AM-5 Status: • Preliminary planning completed. • Open forum / workshop: 17 December 9 AM-5 PM Marriott Hotel – Pacific I Fall AGU Meeting San Francisco, CA December 15, 2000