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Roaring 20’s, The Great Depression and the New Deal MR. WILLIAMSON SOMERVILLE HS Roaring 20’s, The Great Depression and the New Deal MR. WILLIAMSON SOMERVILLE HS

Post-War Adjustment American’s yearn for “normalcy” after WWI Wanted a return to free market, Post-War Adjustment American’s yearn for “normalcy” after WWI Wanted a return to free market, capitalism, reduction in federal spending, isolationism in foreign affairs Economy recovers – business expands, taxes lowered, government spending is lower Due to mass production/Innovation – Henry Ford cars, airplanes, plastic products, restaurants/hotels, new affordable goods flood the market

The Roaring Twenties Because of strong economy, US now a “consumer culture” New products The Roaring Twenties Because of strong economy, US now a “consumer culture” New products make life easier (washing machines, refrigerators, etc. ) Advertising becomes popular – radio mostly, billboards, etc. Buying on credit Arrangement for buying something with borrowed $ then paying the loan back Stock market in the 1920 s – enjoyed a bull market, more and more Americans begin to invest their $ into stocks

The Roaring Twenties New Trends in Pop-Culture – Citizens now have “Leisure Time” Average The Roaring Twenties New Trends in Pop-Culture – Citizens now have “Leisure Time” Average Workweek – 45 hours compared with 70 in 1850, from working 7 days a week to 5 days Question: What do people do when they have free time? 1920 s Pop Culture Heroes – Babe Ruth (sports), Amelia Earhart, Henry Ford (business) New Media – Radio, magazines, movies The Arts– Music in the Jazz Age, night clubs, artists/writers

The Roaring Twenties Discussion Questions 1. Think of someone TODAY that would be extremely The Roaring Twenties Discussion Questions 1. Think of someone TODAY that would be extremely popular like the people above. It can be anybody in entertainment, music, sports or business. Why is that individual popular and respected like the ones discussed above? 2. The Charleston was a very popular dance performed by the youth of the 1920 s. What dance or dances of your lifetime are considered to be popular? Why do you think they caught on with the public? What advancements/inventions TODAY (name 3) do you believe are most important to the average person?

Pop Culture of the 1920 s In today’s activity, you will be comparing the Pop Culture of the 1920 s In today’s activity, you will be comparing the pop culture of the 1920 s to today. At each station, read the information as a group, look at the pictures and information provided. Each station has specific questions to answer; please answer in full sentences as this will be used for the 2 nd half of today’s challenge.

Pop Culture of the 1920 s Now that you have read through information on Pop Culture of the 1920 s Now that you have read through information on the pop culture of the 1920 s today and answered questions about today’s culture, let’s compare and contrast the two eras. Use your answers from the station exercise to help with your assignment You have two choices: 1. Essay Assignment – 3 paragraphs, comparing/contrasting the two eras 2. Venn Diagram – Name/List 10 items for each category that are specific to pop culture of the 1920 s/today as well as what they have in common

1920 s Bio Sketch Rules for the Computer Room – Please follow! If not, 1920 s Bio Sketch Rules for the Computer Room – Please follow! If not, there will be consequences. No Food or drink at anytime! No Social Media Websites – Facebook, Twitter, etc. No music/Youtube is to be played; cell phones, i. Pods are to be put away. No downloads of any kind…Thank You! Do not switch computers randomly, please notify Mr. Williamson if you have a problem with your machine If you are in violation with any of the above, your computer privileges will be revoked and you will be required to research information on the project on your own.

Causes of the Great Depression Election of 1928 – Republican Herbert Hoover elected president Causes of the Great Depression Election of 1928 – Republican Herbert Hoover elected president amid economic/social optimism However, troubling signs were beginning to show Agriculture – after WWI, farmers’ crops no longer needed, faced debt/bankruptcy Uneven Wealth – Worker output increased but wages did not grow as quickly; industrial workers became “less poor” Expansion of credit – accumulation of debt from cars/radios begin to increase

Causes of the Great Depression As stock market rises in the 1920 s, people Causes of the Great Depression As stock market rises in the 1920 s, people began to buy on margin to increase their profit Borrowing large amounts of $ to buy stock However, when share price drops, creditors demand the $ they are owed As a result, homes, cars, or any asset is sold to repay debt Black Tuesday, October 1929 – huge drop in the stock market, the start of the GREAT DEPRESSION Investors are scared, sell their investments pushing prices down. Investors lose ~$30 billion in 1 day

Causes of the Great Depression Banking Crisis – as stock market crashed, there was Causes of the Great Depression Banking Crisis – as stock market crashed, there was concern that banks, holding $$ of individuals, would close because of bad loans to stockbrokers and farmers People with bank accounts rushed to withdraw their $ BANK RUN – when customers simultaneously withdraw their $ out of a fear the bank will close DO NOT COPY - 1933, 1/5 of banks operating in 1930 were closed Millions of people see their savings vanish

Causes of the Great Depression Review Quiz – Complete on index card provided 1. Causes of the Great Depression Review Quiz – Complete on index card provided 1. What was the primary reason farmers fell on hard times in the 1920 s? 2. What consumer goods were purchased using easy credit in the 1920 s? 3. What was the motivation for individuals to buy stock on margin? 4. What event sparked a chain of events that led to the beginning of the Great Depression? 5. What is a bank run and why did they occur after Black Tuesday?

Causes of the Great Depression Hawley-Smoot Tariff Tax that raised prices on foreign imports/exports Causes of the Great Depression Hawley-Smoot Tariff Tax that raised prices on foreign imports/exports With excess inventory (food, goods, etc. ), businesses could not sell overseas Crisis in US reaches a global scale, everyone is affected With stock crash/bank failures, consumer spending plunges As a result, US businesses cut production, layoff workers With high unemployment, consumer spending continues to fall Unemployment rate rises to 25% from a low of 3%

Human Impact of the Great Depression Severe poverty in both cities/farms Although unemployment was Human Impact of the Great Depression Severe poverty in both cities/farms Although unemployment was high, some jobs remained but hours/wages were cut significantly Impact – Smaller meals, water instead of milk, potatoes instead of meat Translates into pop-culture, news & music “Brother Can You Spare a Dime? ”

Newspaper Article Challenge Your Challenge Imagine you are a business reporter for the NY Newspaper Article Challenge Your Challenge Imagine you are a business reporter for the NY Times in the early 1930 s. Your editor has asked you to write a 2 paragraph informational article on the causes of the Great Depression. You Must: Create a HEADLINE which will grab my attention Complete a 2 -paragraph article discussing the reasons for the depression Detail WHY the issues covered led to a bad economy in YOUR OWN WORDS See rubric for grading scale, HW grade, good luck!

Wall Walk Directions Label the station you are located at. You do not have Wall Walk Directions Label the station you are located at. You do not have to write the question. Discuss the primary source in your small group. Complete all questions in full and complete sentences. Add details where necessary 6 minutes at each station, do not waste time!

Responding to the Great Depression Government/Politicians had differing ideas of how to “cure” the Responding to the Great Depression Government/Politicians had differing ideas of how to “cure” the depression Conservative approach – Republican Leave it alone and it will improve, “laissez faire” or hands off Liberal Approach – Democratic Increased spending on public works to create jobs (roads, bridges) Tax corporations/wealthy to provide social welfare (government assistance) for citizens in need

Responding to the Great Depression Herbert Hoover, Republican (conservative) President believed the federal government Responding to the Great Depression Herbert Hoover, Republican (conservative) President believed the federal government should not give aid to the needy Felt his job was to let the economy “fix” itself Had faith in “localism”, idea that problems are solved best at the local and state gov’t level Favored “rugged individualism” so people could better themselves through their own efforts

Responding to the Great Depression However, Depression continued to worsen, became clear no policy Responding to the Great Depression However, Depression continued to worsen, became clear no policy was not the answer Wanted to put $ in hands of banks/businesses through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) Believed in “trickle-down economics” where they would use gov’t aid to increase production/employment However, bankers and businesses do not increase lending/employment Public views Hoover as “out of touch” and unwilling to help them in time of need

Wall Walk Directions Label the station you are located at. You do not have Wall Walk Directions Label the station you are located at. You do not have to write the question. Discuss the primary source in your small group. Complete all questions in full and complete sentences. Add details where necessary 6 minutes at each station, do not waste time!

Human Impact of the Great Depression Urban vs. Rural Reality of the Great Depression Human Impact of the Great Depression Urban vs. Rural Reality of the Great Depression With no job, savings gone, citizens sell any “asset” to keep the rent-mortgage paid/pantry full Asset – useful/valuable property, can be used to meet debts In cities, “Hoovervilles” spring up in public land/vacant lots across the US Tents/Shacks (shoddy housing), Newspapers – “Hoover blankets”, Pant pockets turned inside out – “Hoover Flags” DO NOT WRITE – WHY DID THEY USE A HOOVER REFERENCE? WHAT’S THE REASONING?

Human Impact of the Great Depression The Rural Depression Experience Low crop prices/high debt Human Impact of the Great Depression The Rural Depression Experience Low crop prices/high debt forces farmers to sell their land Drought/Dust Bowl forces families to migrate out, referred to as “Okies” Sought refuge in CA, OR, WA, where job could be found E. G. – “The Grapes of Wrath” Significant shift in population from rural to urban states

Urban vs. Rural Impact Using your teammate, notebook/textbook , complete the Venn Diagram below Urban vs. Rural Impact Using your teammate, notebook/textbook , complete the Venn Diagram below by comparing/contrasting the impact of the Great Depression on the urban and rural environments. Focus on the struggles each faced, their challenges, etc. Be SPECIFIC. The goal is to have 5 -6 items in each portion of the diagram You have 10 minutes, please begin!

Hooverville Diary Project Compose a 3 -day diary as if you were a resident Hooverville Diary Project Compose a 3 -day diary as if you were a resident of the “Hooverville” in Central Park. Each day must be a separate entry (1 paragraph long) with date, location, etc. Review the rubric provided to aid writing (content, form, quantity) and the total points possible. Creativity is the goal here! Due – Tuesday, 23 rd!