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Rhetorical Analysis Understanding Rhetoric: A Practical Life Guide to Becoming A Critical Reader, Writer, Thinker, and Speaker w/ Mr. Roberts (this guy):
What is Rhetoric? Raise your hand if you have heard this word before. What do you think it means or might signify? (Inevitable segue) → ? ? Meet me at the next slide.
Examples of Rhetoric That's right, a rhetorical question is where most students of all ages and levels begin this conversation. “Hot enough for ya? ? ” “What are ya, stupid? ? ” Give me some more examples of rhetorical questions. . .
Examples of Rhetoric – Con't. Let's begin listing types of rhetoric based on the following principle that I'd like us all to agree upon: RHETORIC is any form of written or spoken language. Based on this, let's name types of rhetoric and consider which might prove most important- for instance. . .
Examples of Rhetoric – Con't. That's right, advertising and political speech are two of the most important types of rhetoric. Consider this: a recipe, a STOP sign, President Obama's speeches, Puma e-mailer, HEB coupon pages, a novel, Principal de la Garza's announcements, Roberts' new publications projects, the manual of your new Xbox 360 game purchase
So why the hell do we have to know this, mister? Consider the rhetoric of that sentence. Critical reading, writing, speaking An informed, educated citizen maintains the integrity of a working democracy by participating as an informed voter, civilian, and by the way- do you want to let yourself be manipulated by politicians, doctors, lawyers, journalists, and companies advertising to you?
History of Rhetorical Analysis I think it's important my students understand that this lesson has stood the test of time. . . Aristotle - “On Rhetoric” - Ancient Greece, circa 300 -500 B. C.
Use this if it helps. Rhetorical Triangle
Step One: the Primary Appeals You might want to draw a visual diagram alongside your notes if that helps. Triangle w/ A, A, P and any idea bubbles you may have. Every piece of rhetoric has the primary appeals and every critical reader/writer/speaker/thinker MUST immediately identify the following Remember: CYS, Consider Your Source.
Primary Appeal #1: Author AUTHOR Who is the person writing or speaking? IDENTIFY. Pretty basic, huh? You'd “be” surprised. . . e
Primary Appeal #2: Audience AUDIENCE Who is this piece of rhetoric intended for? Sports fans? Milby Buffaloes? Movie-goers? Republicans and Democrats? Teenagers? American voting public? People hungry for pizza? Again, pretty basic, right? This is the easy part!
Primary Appeal #3: Purpose PURPOSE or INTENT What is the point of this piece of rhetoric? whether it's a sign, speech, song or news article - there is a REASON it was produced- Why? What's the purpose or intent? Most Common purposes are: to inform, to entertain, or to persuade or convince (voters, consumers)
Review of Primary Appeals Aristotle, Ancient Greece (method to madness) Identify the following: author, audience, purpose Now let's practice before we move on to the secondary appeals- remember, you MUST master this concept in order to write an “A” paper (that paper you will proofread, provide three drafts of, and is at least 750 words)
Review of Primary Appeals Author, audience, purpose:
Stop if Necessary Q&A, Part 2 to be continued. . . bring a pen.
Step Two: Secondary Rhetorical Appeals Let's begin, and remember to use the Triangle map if needed- Triangle w/ E, P, L This is the tricky part and you MUST master this concept for the essay to prove successful and for you to REALLY understand how politicians, advertisers, and writers, etc. try to manipulate (positive/negative connotation) our emotions each day- consider JAWS. . . a, a, p, e, p, l
Secondary Appeal #1: Ethos ETHOS Greek root of which English words? (duh → ethics) Associated with TRUSTWORTHINESS & CONFIDENCE What makes you trust the speaker, writer, or advertisement, and do they know what they're doing to MAKE YOU TRUST THEM AND THEIR MESSAGE? ? Consider: education, experience, mastery of specified vocabulary, doctors/lawyers/judges, level of trust, “My Fellow Americans” etc.
Ethos at Work. . . Ethical dilemma. . . trust 'em or not?
Ethos at Work – Con't.
Examples of Ethos Include: Experience (judges, lawyers, accepting that Rx he/she hands) Education (name one elected official w/o a degree) Invented & Situated Ethos (explain) Specified Vocabulary (use of vernacular, proper terms, etc. ) Demonstrated Knowledge/Mastery of Subject Level of faith or trust (member of organization, BBB, etc. )
Secondary Appeal #2: Pathos PATHOS Greek root of which English words? Associated with EMOTION How does this speech, chapter, article, advertisement, movie trailer, song, etc. MAKE YOU FEEL? ? Consider: sex appeal, music cues, colors (hot/cold), appeal to thirst/hunger, patriotic appeal, political appeal
Pathos at Work. . . Emotional appeals. . .
Pathos at Work – Con't. Pathos. . .
Examples of Pathos Include: Emotionally loaded language and/or emotional manipulation Use of strong or colorful vocabulary Use of colors in marketing (hot/cold) Size of images in marketing Really, any eliciting/evocation of a feeling Remember: pathetic, sympathy, empathy, pathological
Secondary Appeal #3: Logos LOGOS What English word lies here? (duh again, logic!) Where in the speech or advertisement (in any piece of rhetoric, remember)- where is the logic? The facts, the statistics, the hard data and truths—percentages, research, numerical data, charts, graphs, “the fine print”, geographical locations, etc.
Logos at Work. . . Where are the facts? Consider your source- 99% of all students know that! We will identify and encounter TONS OF LOGOS in Generation Me “In 2008, the average college graduate in America finished school with $45, 000. 00 in student loan and associated debt. ” “Houston Dynamo held scoreless in road loss to Vancouver Whitecaps”- the Dynamo have earned 35 points in 27 games played, having won 8, lost 8, and drawn (tied) 11 matches. As of Sunday 8/28 the Dynamo have 34 goals for and 33 goals against for a goal differential of +1. They are currently in 3 rd place in the nine-squad MLS Eastern Conference behind Sporting Kansas City and the
Examples of Logos Include: Facts (National Geographic reports the Houston Toad is endangered. ) Statistics (The unemployment rate in Spain is one-fifth of the national population. ) Percentages (Texas has won 72% of football games vs. Texas A&M in their history. ) Verifiable Truth, Certifiable, Valid Information (America's government has three branches: judicial, legislative, executive) Information found at “Useful Student Links” (dailybuffalo. squarespace. com) (for now) Charts, Graphs, Data (Stock Exchange reports, Hurricane tracking radar information) Anything you can prove or a useful figure (Hank Aaron hit 774 home runs in his career. )
Let's try all six appeals: Try it.
Good Job. Let's watch a trailer. Trailers – imdb. com, apple. com/trailers Watch the first time, second viewing let's analyze. After that, we'll exeamine a song and lyrics- the Fugees' “Zealots” from “The Score” (hip-hop) Consider Martin Luther King, Jr. 's “Letter from Birmingham Jail” example
Major Essay #1 (test grade): Rhetorical Analysis of a Political Speech and Print or Internet Advertisement Your first assignment, should you choose to accept and stay in the course is as follows: Mr. Roberts will announce the due dates in class. Use American. Rhetoric. com as a starting point and choose a piece (dailybuffalo. squarespace. com → “useful student links” top right) Three draft writing process, proofreading sign-offs, TYPED final draft, proper heading, MLA works cited (easybib. com), 12 -point font, double -spaced (google 'double spacing word document' if confused), MINIMUM word count of 750, include word count (google this as well if applicable), Time New Roman, Arial, or Garamond font preferred, NO LATE PAPERS