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REVOLUTION, THE RE-IMPOSITION OF ORDER, AND CONSOLIDATION Also known as: pretending that life after Napoleon is actually meaningful. PCK pages: 483 to 559
A moment of silence, please?
revolutions Hysterical working-class yoyo-makers everywhere freaking out and overthrowing their governments – a timeless story.
When the Revolutions Happened • • • When in doubt, the answer is 1848. “Never before had Europe seen so truly universal an upheaval as in 1848…. In 1848, the revolutionary movements broke out spontaneously from Copenhagen to Palermo and from Paris to Budapest. ” It’s like spontaneous combustion! January 12: Sicilian rebellion against King Ferdinand. Technically, this was the first of these “spontaneous” revolutions, but it wasn’t the one that sort of triggered all the others. That would be: February 21 -24: February Revolution in France. March Days: Mr. Metternich freaks out and jumps ship (wuss), the entire Austro-Hungarian empire goes up in flames—see right. June 24 -26: Class wars in Paris. Because Paris apparently likes fighting. Apparently. Who knew? No, seriously. Is France even trying to be happy, or are they just trying to make history interesting?
The Juicy Details • Italy: Milan drives out Austrian forces. Tuscany / Venice = republics. Charles Albert, King of Sardinia (Piedmont), declares war on Austria and calls for all-Italian war. • France (part I): It’s like the old saying goes: “When France coughs, the rest of Europe catches a cold. ” After France’s February Revolutions, the rest of Europe followed suit. The revolutionaries, pissed off that Guizot had canceled their banquet, built barricades in the working class quarters of Paris and demonstrated outside Guizot’s house. When Guizot’s guards shot down 20 of the demonstrators, the revolutionaries took some of those bodies and paraded them around Paris as a symbol of their struggle, which is extremely gross but was quite effective, since the ensuing riots resulted in Louis Philippe heading for the hills. • Austria / Habsburg Empire: March 3, Radical assembly of Hungarians inspired by the French & led by Kossuth gain support through speeches insurrection in Vienna. Metternich flees = proves the instability of the government, rioting began in Berlin • France (part II): The National Workshops of Louis Blanc mobilized the working class and unified them; May 15 = attack on the Constituent Assembly, provisional gov’t, insisted on a social revolution gov’t demanded abolition of workshops, martial law. This led to three days of riots and ten thousand dead; CA regains uneasy rule.
The Legacy of These Revolutions • • • Italy: The establishment of Tuscany and Venetia as independent states Habsburg Empire: Kossuth’s national assembly of radical Hungarians (Magyars) passes MARCH LAWS (constitution enacted) similar laws passed in Bohemia. France: Louis Phillipe was unseated in three days, like Charles X; the “June Days” shocked and frightened Europe, leading to counter-revolutionary actions, established the lower classes in opposition to the bourgeoisie; “it was decided, in view of the disturbances just passed, to create a strong executive power in the hands of a president to be elected by universal male suffrage, ” rise of Napoleon III Free Tuscany! Oh, and Venetia. Louis Bonaparte, aka Napoleon III, aka the MUCH LESS COOL ONE.
The Common Demands of the Revolutionaries • Constitutional government • The unification of national groups (especially within the very diverse Habsburg Empire). • An end to serfdom and manorial restrictions where they still existed • They also arose to combat international forces such as the Catholic Church and the Habsburg influence, causing revolutionary sentiments to be equally widespread – Also, France sneezed.
let’s review! • • January: Insurrection in Italy February Freak-Outs in France March Madness after Metternich goes MIA June Days: Summer Shoot-Outs Along the Seine
the re-imposition of order “Wait, life kinda sucks even though Napoleon’s gone. WE CAN’T HOLD ANYTHING TOGETHER. The people are freaking out. Um, let’s repress them? ”
Let’s take a step back and assess the situation. • “The old governments had been stunned in the March Days, but not really broken. They merely awaited the opportunity to take back promises extorted by force. ” • Eventually, the lower classes lost their zeal for revolution and were not swayed by the upper class ideologies of nationalism, and the bourgeoisie elements could not agree with each other. The revolutionaries were very much weakened. • Prague in June 1848, Pan-Slav Assembly = advocating Slavic unity and equality • Could rulers such as Ferdinand accommodate liberalism that would cost them power? UM, NO.
Okay, so how do we deal with this situation? • When riots break out, they are crushed militarily, and the Slav Congress is forced to disperse. • Austria defeats Italy in July and Lombardy and Venetia are restored to the empire. • Austria brings the pain to Bohemia and completely owns Vienna on Halloween of 1848. • Ferdinand “steps down, ” which is in the best interests of the conservative movement, making it easier for a new ruler to “repudiate” the promises of progress he made in March.
COMEBACK? • “For a time in the first part of 1849, the revolution in many places seemed to blaze more fiercely than ever. ” • Republican riots in Germany • Charles of Sardinia again invades Lombardy • Magyars, led by Kossuth, declare total independence. Kossuth – what an imposing man. What about him doesn’t inspire independence?
SHUT DOWN. • In Hungary, the Habsburgs completely nullify the Magyar Constitution and are like: “Um, shut up, we still own you. ” • A French army drives Young Italy and those revolutionaries from Rome, gives the Pope back his powers and hat and stuff • Charles of Sardinia is defeated again • Procedures of the Holy Alliance are restored—new emperors include Emperor Joseph Francis, who makes nice with Tsar Nicolas to kick some Magyar ass once and for all. • Game, set, match.
The Frankfurt Assembly and Why It Sucked • “The convocation of the Frankfurt Assembly was made possible by the collapse of the existing German governments in the March Days of 1848. • May 1848 to May 1849 • The goals of the Frankfurt Assembly: to unify the German state under a liberal constitution • Obstacles to unification: the 39 German states resisted surrender of sovereignty to united Germany; Germanic “dualism, ” polarity between Berlin and Vienna—diverse populations!
The Deal with Prussia • “Prussia was illiberal but not backward. ” • The underlying issue with Prussia was that since 1840, Frederick William IV couldn’t make up his mind about liberalizing Prussia —he was determined not to share his power, but had promised a liberal constitution that he was eternally trying to get out of. • Eventually allowed Prussia to have a Prussian Assembly, which was “surprisingly radical” and anti-Russia as fortress of reaction (they were right, see Tsar Nicolas’s intervention with the Magyars). • “By the end of 1848, in Prussia as in Austria, the revolution was over. The king again changed his mind; and the old authorities, acting through the army, were again in control. ” “I was going to give you a constitution? It was going to be liberal? Oh shit – did I actually say that? ”
An AIM Conversation Between Frederick William IV and His People • • • • • fw 4: heyyyy, long time no talk! prushppls 1840 s: yeah. we know. prushppls 1840 s: we want our rightzzzz fw 4: . . . fw 4: oh fo sho prushppls 1840 s went away March Days of 1848 prushppls 1840 s signed on at April of 1848. fw 4: heyyyy. so about those rights. . . prushppls 1840 s: yeah, you said we could have a constitution and stuf. . . like, um, liberalism? fw 4: ohhhhh yeah… fw 4: jkjkjkjk fw 4: roflmao!!!! prushppls 1840 s: >. < prushppls 1840 s: wtf? fw 4: lol, ttyl! Lylas prushppls 1840 s: lylas? fw 4: lol, love ya like a slav, tee-hee.
the new “isms” Yes, that’s right, folks. There are even more –isms. Brace yourselves – they’re thrilling. Tbc. . ?