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Review… page 705 -707 • DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH • DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH Review… page 705 -707 • DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH • DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH • A TRANSFORMED SOUTH • Were slaves now citizens? What questions remained? • “Forty Acres and a Mule”

Essential Questions • Was Reconstruction ultimately a success or a failure? • How did Essential Questions • Was Reconstruction ultimately a success or a failure? • How did both Southern and Northern attitudes shape Reconstruction? • What effect did Reconstruction have on race relations and the conditions of blacks?

Think About It: If you were a member of Congress, what would you require Think About It: If you were a member of Congress, what would you require the ex-confederate states to do in order to rejoin the Union?

Key Questions 1. How to bring the South back into the Union? 2. How Key Questions 1. How to bring the South back into the Union? 2. How to rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How to integrate and protect newlyemancipated black freedmen?

v Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364, 000 soldiers. The v Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364, 000 soldiers. The South lost 260, 000 soldiers. Between 1865 and 1877, the federal government carried out a program to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union. This program was known as Reconstruction v v Freedmen (freed slaves) were starting out their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity. v v Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. Poor white Southerners could not find work because of new job competition from Freedmen The war had destroyed two thirds of the South’s shipping industry and about 9, 000 miles of railroad. LINK v

Review… page 705 -707 • DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH • DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH Review… page 705 -707 • DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH • DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTH • A TRANSFORMED SOUTH • Were slaves now citizens? What questions remained? • “Forty Acres and a Mule”

South after war 1 South after war 1

1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start 1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history. Bureau’s Accomplishments v. Built thousands of schools to educate Blacks. v. Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children. v. Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school.

Letter by a Teacher teaching freedmen on the importance of education, 1869: “It is Letter by a Teacher teaching freedmen on the importance of education, 1869: “It is surprising to me to see the amount of suffering which many of the people endure for the sake of sending their children to school. Men get very low wages here---from $2. 50 to $8. 00 month usually, while a first rate hand may get $10. 00, and a peck or two of meal per week for rations-----and a great many men cannot get work at all. The women take in sewing and washing, go out by day to sour, etc. There is one woman who supports three children and keeps them at school; she says, “ I don’t care how hard I has to work, if I can only send Sallie and the boys to school looking respectable. ” Importance of Educ to freedmen

Freedmen’s Bureau 3 Freedmen’s Bureau 3

Freedmen’s Bureau 4 Freedmen’s Bureau 4

Freedmen’s Bureau 5 Freedmen’s Bureau 5

Lincoln’s speech “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the Lincoln’s speech “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds…. to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. ” Lincoln speech

PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION ● Lincoln’s 10% Plan ● 10% (1860 voters) pledged loyalty = readmitted PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION ● Lincoln’s 10% Plan ● 10% (1860 voters) pledged loyalty = readmitted ● Acknowledge Emancipation ● Congress? ● Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens ● Thaddeus Stevens (Rep. PA) ● Charles Sumner (Sen. - Mass) Charles Sumner

pardon pardon

Wade-Davis Bill • Required 50% of white men in ex-Confederate states to swear “Iron-Clad Wade-Davis Bill • Required 50% of white men in ex-Confederate states to swear “Iron-Clad Oaths” • Abolish Slavery • No former Confederate official could hold office • Repudiate (reject) Confederate debt • Lincoln – Pocket Veto

PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION • Lincoln’s Assassination (April 14, 1865) • John Wilkes Booth Ford’s Theatre, PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION • Lincoln’s Assassination (April 14, 1865) • John Wilkes Booth Ford’s Theatre, April 1865 John Wilkes Booth (1862)

President Andrew Johnson « Pro Union Southerner « Anti-Aristocrat « Agreed with Lincoln that President Andrew Johnson « Pro Union Southerner « Anti-Aristocrat « Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union. « Power struggle with congress « Impeached – not removed

Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle Amnesty: Presidential pardon • Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle Amnesty: Presidential pardon • Rebels sign an oath of allegiance • 10% of the population • Even high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions • approve the 13 th Amendment Presidential Reconstruction

Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle Amnesty: Presidential pardon • Johnson’s plan to readmit the South was considered too gentle Amnesty: Presidential pardon • Rebels sign an oath of allegiance • 10% of the population • Even high ranking Confederate officials Write new state Constitutions • approve the 13 th Amendment • submit to U. S. Government authority No mention of • Education for freedmen • Citizenship and voting rights Presidential Reconstruction

 • Similar to Slave Codes. • Restricted the freedom of movement. • Limited • Similar to Slave Codes. • Restricted the freedom of movement. • Limited their rights as free people.

v. As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they v. As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. v. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: v. Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. v. Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. v. Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. v. Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.

Mississippi Governor, 1866: “The Negro is free” “Whether we like it or not; we Mississippi Governor, 1866: “The Negro is free” “Whether we like it or not; we must realize that fact now and forever. To be free, however, does not make him a citizen or entitle him to social or political equality with the white man. ” Gov of Miss

St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 1: Be it ordained by the police jury St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 1: Be it ordained by the police jury of parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without a special permit in writing from his employer. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of $2. 50, or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road or suffer corporeal punishment. Black codes 2

St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 2: Be it ordained: That every Negro who St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 2: Be it ordained: That every Negro who shall be found absent from the residence of his employer after 10 o’clock at night, without a written permit from him employer, shall pay a fine of $5. 00, or in default thereof, shall be compelled to work 5 days on the public road or suffer corporeal punishment. Black codes 2

St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 5: Be it ordained, No Negro who is St. Landry’s Parish, Louisiana, 1865 Section 5: Be it ordained, No Negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons, within said parish, without the special written permission of his employers. Subject to $5. 00 fine, road work or corporeal punishment.

Charles Summner Thaddeus Stevens • Confederate states were “conquered providences”. • Advocated black suffrage Charles Summner Thaddeus Stevens • Confederate states were “conquered providences”. • Advocated black suffrage and denial of Confederates to return to office • Disenfranchise former Confederates • Clashed with Johnson Radical Republicans

Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1866 “Strip a proud nobility of their bloated estates, send Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1866 “Strip a proud nobility of their bloated estates, send them forth to labor and you will thus humble the proud traitors. ” Thaddeus Steven, in Congress, 1867 “I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. If it be just, it should not be denied: if it be necessary, it should be adopted: if it be a punishment of traitors, they deserve it. ” Quotes of Radicals

 • Johnson vetoes extension of the Freedmen’s Bureau • Civil Rights Act of • Johnson vetoes extension of the Freedmen’s Bureau • Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Congress passed both over veto (2/3 vote) • 1866 Elections – **Radical Republicans **

Fourteenth Amendment • Ratified in July, 1868 • Defines U. S. citizenship for the Fourteenth Amendment • Ratified in July, 1868 • Defines U. S. citizenship for the first time • Guarantees “equal protection under the laws” and the right to “due process” • First amendment to explicitly apply to state governments

Reconstruction Acts of 1867 « Command of the Army Act * The President must Reconstruction Acts of 1867 « Command of the Army Act * The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. « Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. § Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government. § A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton

Plans compared Reconstruction Act of 1867 --76 (Harsh) 1867 • Military Reconstruction Act • Plans compared Reconstruction Act of 1867 --76 (Harsh) 1867 • Military Reconstruction Act • 5 military districts • Draft new state constitutions • African American Suffrage • Congress Removed S. C. power to review Reconstruction

Impeachment • Tenure of Office Act • Edwin Stanton • Impeachment of President Johnson Impeachment • Tenure of Office Act • Edwin Stanton • Impeachment of President Johnson • Trial in Senate • Salmon P. Chase

15 th Amendment (1870) « The right of citizens of the United States to 15 th Amendment (1870) « The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. « The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. « Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote! v. All ratify but Kentucky «Union League

The Freed Slaves v. Did not abandon their homes v. How did Military Service The Freed Slaves v. Did not abandon their homes v. How did Military Service benefit African Americans? «Growth of Baptist Church membership «Schools «Marriage

Sharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites who stayed in the South and continued to Sharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites who stayed in the South and continued to farm. v. Freedmen signed a work contract with their former masters. v. Picked cotton or whatever crop the landowner had. v. Freedmen did not receive “ 40 acres and a mule” vbased on the “credit” system.

Sharecroppers Sharecroppers

CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION in the South § crop lien system Sharecropper’s cabin, North Carolina, 1914 CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION in the South § crop lien system Sharecropper’s cabin, North Carolina, 1914 Freedmen in Richmond, Virginia, 1865

6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to 6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord. 1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land. 3. Hire poor whites and freedmen as laborers 5. At harvest time, the sharecropper is paid. • Pays off debts. • If sharecropper owes more to the landlord or store than his share of the crop is worth; 2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers. 4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store. • Sign contracts to work landlord’s land in exchange for a part of the crop.

Sharecropping Sharecropping

Sharecroppers Sharecroppers

v. First Black Senators and representatives in the 41 st and 42 nd Congress. v. First Black Senators and representatives in the 41 st and 42 nd Congress. v. Hiram Revels v. Blanch K. Bruce Black Congressmen

v. Evaulate the Radical Republican Record: v. Success? v. Failure? v. Evaulate the Radical Republican Record: v. Success? v. Failure?

New South • Becomes industrialized • Cities rebuilt • Railroads • Schools, over a New South • Becomes industrialized • Cities rebuilt • Railroads • Schools, over a thousand • Hospitals, 45 in 14 states • Diversify economy.

kkk Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South to help reconstruct the kkk Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South to help reconstruct the South Scalawags Southerners who helped Carpetbaggers and opposed seccession Freedmen Blacks who tried to vote or were involved in the reconstruction of their states governments.

Black & White Political Participation Black & White Political Participation

The 1868 Republican Ticket The 1868 Republican Ticket

The 1868 Democratic Ticket The 1868 Democratic Ticket

Waving the Bloody Shirt! Waving the Bloody Shirt!

1868 Presidential Election Public Credit Act of 1869 1868 Presidential Election Public Credit Act of 1869

“The Era of Good Stealings” • Soft Currency • vs. Hard Currency • • “The Era of Good Stealings” • Soft Currency • vs. Hard Currency • • President U. S. Grant(1869 -1877) Credit Mobilier (1872) Whiskey Ring Panic of 1873 (6 yr. depression)

v. Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle v. v. Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle v. Organized in 1867, in Polaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest. v. Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiers v. Disrupted Reconstruction as much as they could. v. Opposed Republicans, Carpetbaggers, Scalawags and Freedmen. KKK

Spreading Terror v v The Ku Klux Klan The Klan sought to eliminate the Spreading Terror v v The Ku Klux Klan The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters. They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers. They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them. Prosperous African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims. The Federal Response v President Grant’s War On Terrorism. v The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting. v Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places. v As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended.

The Failure of Federal Enforcement v Rise of the Redeemers The Failure of Federal Enforcement v Rise of the Redeemers

1876 Presidential Election 1876 Presidential Election

1876 Election • Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. * • Special Commission 1876 Election • Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. * • Special Commission gives votes to Hayes. • Hayes wins the election *Disputed Electoral votes 164 369 total electoral votes, need 185 to win. • Democrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President

Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden v. The election of 1876 and the Compromise of Rutherford B. Hayes Samuel Tilden v. The election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 are referred to as the Corrupt Bargain. v. The Democrats and Republicans work out a deal to recognize Hayes as President v. In return, President Hayes must end Reconstruction and pull the Union troops out of the South. v. Once this happens, there is no protection for the Freedmen and the South will regain their states and go back to the way it was.

social reality After Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states social reality After Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2 nd class citizens and from voting. vpoll taxes vliteracy tests vgrandfather clause v. Plessy v. Ferguson

The Struggle for African American Suffrage 1865 Civil War ends Reconstruction begins 1900 s-1940 The Struggle for African American Suffrage 1865 Civil War ends Reconstruction begins 1900 s-1940 s Jim Crow laws prevent African Americans from voting 1870 s Reconstruction ends. Plessy vs Ferguson effected social equality for Black Americans from 1896 to 1960’s 1950 s-1960 s Civil Rights movement begins.

Voting Restrictions for African Americans in the South, 1889 -1950’s Voting Restrictions for African Americans in the South, 1889 -1950’s