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Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius EXAM FOCUS: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius EXAM FOCUS: 1. Vocabulary: multiple choice: 40 -54 2. GRAMMAR – stress: chh. 39 -52. Go through the checklist below when reviewing. Also, review the worksheets and the PPT’s. 3. CULTURE: stress: chh. 43 -54, from the reports and the book. 4. TRANSLATION – either open book or multiple choice. Bring your books to the final.

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 39: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 39: Indirect Questions (page 143) The use of the periphrastic future subjunctive in an indirect question (page 143) The Perfect Active Subjunctive (page 143) The use of num to introduce an indirect question (page 143) Double questions introduced by (1) utrum…an, (2) utrum…necne (page 144) Sequence of Tenses for indirect questions explained (page 144) Miscellanea: Latin Phrases in common use today (page 145) The confiscations (page 39) Chapter 40: Ablative with verbs utor and fruor (page 146) Ablative of Comparison (page 146) – what is the joke about the Abl. of comparison? Ablative of measure of difference (aka – Abl. of degree of difference (page 146) Ablative of Price (page 146) Genitive of Value (page 146) Ablative of Origin (page 146) Chart of the subjunctives for the irregular verbs: esse, posse, velle, malle, nolle, ferre, and ire (see chart on page 147) Semi-Deponent Verbs (page 147) The verb fio, fieri, factus sum: its meaning and frequent use as passive of facere (page 147) Adverbs expressing Place or Motion (see chart on page 148) Latin Poetry (page 46)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 41: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 41: Indirect Statement!!! Accusative + infinitive (page 148 -150) All forms of the infinitives per conjugation (see list on page 149) Alternate future infinitive of sum: fore = futūrus/a/um esse (page 149 & 164) Note the infinitives of deponent verbs and, as always, their passive forms, but active meanings (page 149) Verbs which introduce indirect statement, e. g. , “Verbs of the Head” (page 149) The use of the reflexive pronoun and reflexive possessive adjective in I. S. (page 149) Agreement of the participle with the accusative subject in I. S. (page 150) Translation examples of I. S. , when main verb is past!!! (page 150) Adjectives formed from the endings (1) –ilis, (2) –bilis (page 151) Horace (page 52) Chapter 42: No new grammar, because of the humungous importance of indirect statement in Ch. 41 Adjectives ending is –ax, -ācis denoting a tendency or habit (page 153) Books (page 57)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 43: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 43: RESULT CLAUSES (aka consecutive clauses) – ut / ut + negative word (page 153) Trigger Words listed on page 153: tam, tantus/a/um, totiens, ita, adeo, sic Sequence of tenses is not necessarily followed in result clauses (page 154) The perfect subjunctive is used to stress the actuality of the event (page 154) Inscriptions (page 154 -155) Maecenas (page 62) Chapter 44: CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (page 155), notes: protasis = if clause; apodosis = conclusion 1. Present Simple/General/Open conditions (page 155) 1. Past Simple/General/Open conditions (page 155) 2. Present Contrary To Fact conditions (page 156) 2. Past Contrary To Fact conditions (page 156) The imperfect subjunctive (“would verb”) is used to refer to present time; the pluperfect subjunctive (“would have verbed”) is used to refer to past time (page 156) 3. a. Future More Vivid conditions with emphatic protasis (page 156) 3. b. Future Less Vivid conditions (page 156) – aka “should-would” clauses Note words ending in –cumque denoting indefiniteness (page 157) Travel (page 68)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 45: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 45: INDEPENDENT SUBJUNCTIVES (page 158) 1. Jussive/Hortatory Subjunctives… “Let…” (page 158) – for negative, use ne 2. Deliberative Questions (page 158) use of utrum…an in double questions (page 158) 3. Optative Subjunctive – utinam + present subjunctive (subsequent), or imperfect subjunctive (present contrary to fact), or pluperfect subjunctive (past contrary to fact)…for the negative, use ne (page 158) 4. Potential subjunctive with velim, ausim, nolim (page 159)…the negative is non Two doctors – funerary inscriptions (page 160) Patrons and Clients (page 75) Chapter 46: Review Chapter – remember we translated 46. 3? Prepositions/Adverbs turned into comparatives and superlatives (page 161) Houses (page 81)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 47: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 47: USES OF CUM – CUM CLAUSES (page 161 -2) 1. Conjunction cum means “when” most often (page 161) 1. a. If the cum clause follows the main clause, the indicative is used (page 162) 1. b. If cum means “whenever”, then the indicative is used (page 162) 2. Primary Sequence: cum means “when” with a present or future idea, the indicative is used (page 162) 3. When conjunction cum means “since, ” the subjunctive is always used (page 162) 4. When conjunction cum means “although, ” the subjunctive is always used, and tamen (but still, even so) is usually found in the main clause (page 162) USES OF DUM – DUM CLAUSES (page 163) 1. Most commonly, dum means “while” and is followed by a present indicative (page 163) 1. a. But, if the action of the dum clause goes on throughout the action of the main clause, the imperfect is used (page 163) 2. dum can mean “until” and is usually followed by the indicative (page 163) 2. a. If the dum clause expresses purpose, it takes the subjunctive (page 163) The CONNECTING RELATIVE (page 163 -4) P. S. 1. : Shortened 3 rd person plural perfect, where –ērunt is shortened to –ēre (page 164) P. S. 2. : Alternate Verb forms, where a –v- or –vi- is omitted (page 164) P. S. 3. : Alternate future infinitive of sum: fore = futūrus/a/um esse (page 149 and 164) P. S. 4. : Alternate forms of the imperative (page 164) P. S. 5. : Alternate 2 nd person singular, from –ris -re (page 164) P. S. 6. : (1) Alternate ablative singular for –i-stem nouns: -ī; (2) Alternate accusative plural for –i-stem nouns: -īs (page 164) Divorce (page 87)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 48: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 48: Clauses of Fearing (page 165) – 1. introduced by nē 2. negative feat clauses use nē+ a negative, e. g. , nōn or numquam (page 165) 3. If there is no change in subject, use an infinitive and not a nē-clause (page 165) NB 1: the use of the reflexives – sē and suus/a/um in fear clauses (page 165) NB 2: the translation of perfect participles of deponent verbs (page 165) Inscription on a triumphal arch (page 166) Cleopatra (page 92) Chapter 49: I. IMPERSONAL VERBS (page 167) To translate most impersonal verbs, use “it” to translate into English. Ex. : ningit = it is snowing Many Latin impersonal verbs are not used impersonally in English: me oportet = I ought most commonly govern the accusative or dative case of the person. mihi licet = I may impersonal verbs often take a complementary infinitive. II. Intransitive verbs in the passive (page 168) Intransitive verbs must be used impersonally in the passive Verbs of motion in the passive impersonal you must supply a subject from the context Verbs which take the dative are used impersonally in the passive: mihi persuadetur = I am persuaded. P. S. The genders of 3 rd Declension nouns (page 169) Caesar Augustus (page 97)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 50: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 50: GERUNDS (page 169 -170) Gerunds decline like 2 nd Declension neuter nouns, only in the singular (page 169) If the gerund is the subject or direct object, the infinitive is used instead of an –nd- form. Use of the gerund with ad to show purpose (page 170) Use of the gerund in the genitive case preceding causā to show purpose (page 170) The gerund in the ablative case usually expresses cause or means (page 170) NB 1: The gerund of eo is ire, eundi, eundo, eundum, eundo (page 170) NB 2: Be sure to distinguish between the English gerund and the present participle, which both end in “-ing” in English (page 170) P. S. Funerary Inscription for a Vestal Virgin, and one for a British lady (page 171) Vixi puellis (page 102) l Chapter 51: GERUNDIVES (page 172) – which decline like any –us, -a, -um adjective Gerundives are more commonly used, instead of a gerund when there is an object – keep in mind the case needed 1 st, then gender and number of the noun (page 172) Use of the gerundive with ad to show purpose (page 172) Use of the gerundive in the genitive case preceding causā to show purpose (p. 172, sentence # 2) The gerundive in the ablative case usually expresses cause or means (p. 172, sentence # 7) NB 1: The gerundive of deponent verbs is translated passively. (page 172) P. S. Two epigrams (page 173) The Roman Empire (page 107)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 52: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 52: GERUNDIVES of Obligation – aka the “passive periphrastic” (page 174) Gerundives with the helping verb (form of sum, esse) show necessity, obligation (p. 174) The Dative of Agent with gerundives of obligation (page 174) The gerundive of intransitive verbs is often used impersonally (page 174) The gerundive showing purpose as the object of curo, mitto & do (page 174) P. S. Memorabilia – famous lines from Vergil (page 175) Some glimpses of Augustus (page 114) Chapter 53: The Double Dative Predicative Dative (aka, Dative of Purpose) Expressions that take the Double Dative Relative Clauses of Purpose (subjunctive) quō Purpose Clauses (with a comparative adjective or adverb) The town mouse and the country mouse (page 120)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 54: Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Chapter 54: Summary of the Uses of ut + indicative (“as”, “when”, “since”) ut + subjunctive: in purpose clauses (see ch. 34) in indirect commands (see ch. 35) in result clauses (see ch. 43) other uses of ut not in this book (see grammar cards) Death (page 125) Reference Grammar: Forms for Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Numerals, Pronouns (page 191 -196) Forms for regular verbs (page 197 - 201) Forms for deponent verbs (page 201) – but also review the passive forms Forms for irregular verbs (page 201 -202) Principal Parts for verbs (page 203 -206) Forms for Prepositions (page 207) Forms for Conjunctions (page 207) I have completely reviewed vocabulary, especially for chapters 39 -54.

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Give the functions (uses) of each case and special translations where applicable. LATIN CASES FUNCTION(S) / USES of the CASES NOMINATIVE 1. 2. GENITIVE 1. 2. DATIVE 1. 2. ACCUSATIVE 1. 2. ABLATIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. VOCATIVE Direct Address Translations to be added

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Give the functions (uses) of each case and special translations where applicable. LATIN CASES MOST BASIC FUNCTION(S) / USES of the CASES NOMINATIVE 1. Subject of the verb, 2. Complement with a linking verb GENITIVE 1. Possession, 2. whenever: “of” DATIVE 1. Indirect Object 2. Dative after a compound verb ACCUSATIVE 1. Direct Object of the Verb 2. Object of Motion Towards ABLATIVE 1. Accompaniment (with), Translations to be added --- VOCATIVE Direct Address -----[Hey, yo! O!] 2. Object of Motion Away From (from) 3. Means or Manner (by, with) 4. Place Where (in, under) 5. whenever: WFBI 6. Agency (by) of, ’s, s’ (to/for) ---With, From, By, In

Case Special Translations Basic Functions or Uses per case Nominative -------- 1. Subject 2. Case Special Translations Basic Functions or Uses per case Nominative -------- 1. Subject 2. Complement (w/ linking verbs) Genitive ’s/s’, of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Possession Genitive of Value Partitive Genitive (satis aquae = enough water) Causā w/ preceding genitive of the gerund/gerundive w/ verbs of remembering or forgetting with ideas of filling (to/for) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Indirect Object Agent (w/ passive periphrastic) with Compound verbs (e. g. occurrō) After certain verbs and adjectives (e. g. similis/e) Double Dative (ch. 53) --------- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Direct Object of Motion Towards Indirect Statement Duration of Time “ad” + gerund/gerundive (purpose) Extent of Space Exclamation (Bonam Fortunam!) ***any 3 required on FINAL EXAM*** Dative ***any 3 required on FINAL EXAM*** Accusative ***any 4 required on FINAL EXAM***

Ablative WFBIO i r ynn t o h m ***any 6 required on FINAL Ablative WFBIO i r ynn t o h m ***any 6 required on FINAL EXAM*** Any others are extra credit U n d e r 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Means Accompaniment Time When/Within Which (at, on; within, in) Price (exact price) Object of Motion Away From or Place From Which (ab, de, ex) 6. Ablative Absolute 7. Agency (ab/ā) 8. Place Where (in, sub) 9. w/ certain adjectives and verbs (e. g. , ūtor; dignus/a/um) 10. Manner 11. Degree of Difference 12. Comparison 13. Attendant Circumstances 14. with ideas of filling Vocative (Hey!/ O!) 1. Direct Address Locative at/in 1. Place Where (names of cities, towns and small islands)

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Give a translation of the English word “bug” LATIN CASES NOMINATIVE GENITIVE DATIVE ACCUSATIVE ABLATIVE VOCATIVE ENGLISH TRANSLATION, with bug as an example (singular) ENGLISH TRANSLATION, with bugs as an example (PLURAL) ”

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Give a translation of the English word “bug” LATIN CASES ENGLISH TRANSLATION, with bug as an example (singular) NOMINATIVE (the/a) bug GENITIVE DATIVE of (the/a) bug, (the/a) bug’s [to/for] (the/a) bug ACCUSATIVE (the/a) bug ABLATIVE WFBI (the/a) bug VOCATIVE [Hey, yo! O!] bug (!) ENGLISH TRANSLATION, with bugs as an example (PLURAL) (the) bugs of (the) bugs, (the) bugs’ [to/for] (the) bugs WFBI (the) bugs [Hey, yo! O!] bugs (!) ”

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1 st Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1 st Decl 2 nd 3 rd Decl. (Masc) (Neut. ) (M&F) (Neut. ) Nom Sing * Gen Sing Dat Sing Acc Sing Abl Sing Voc Sing Nom Pl Gen Pl Dat Pl Acc Pl Abl Pl Voc Pl * Only give special 3 rd Decl. i-stem 4 th 5 th Decl. (Masc) (Neut. )

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Only give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Only give special 3 rd Decl. i-stem Gen Sing 1 st Decl 2 nd Decl. (Masc) -us (er, -a ius) -ī -ae Dat Sing -ae -ō -ō -ī -ī -uī -ū -ēī Acc Sing -am -um -em = Nom. S -um -ū Abl Sing -ā -ō -ō -e -e -ū -ū -em -ē Voc Sing -a -um = Nom. S -us -ū -ēs Nom Pl Gen Pl Dat Pl Acc Pl Abl Pl Voc Pl -ae -e (er, ī) -ī -a -ēs Nom Sing 2 nd Decl. (Neut. ) -um 3 rd Decl. (M&F) (Neut. ) varies -us -ū -ēs -ī -is -ūs -ēī - ārum - ōrum -um (-ī) 4 th 5 th Decl. (Masc) (Neut. ) -a -ia. Neut -ūs -ua -ēs -um -ium -uum -ērum -ibus -ēbus -ūs -ua -ēs -ibus -ēbus -ua -ēs - īs -ibus - ās - ōs -a -ēs -a - īs -ibus -ae -ī -a -ēs -a -ia. Neut -ūs

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 4. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 4. Give the endings for the 3 rd declension: (1) Masculine & Feminine + (2) Neuter endings SINGULAR Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (1) 3 rd Declensio n Masc. & Fem. (2) 3 rd Declensio n NEUTER Voc Nom Gen PLURAL Dat Acc Abl Voc

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 4. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 4. Give the endings for the 3 rd declension: (1) Masculine & Feminine + (2) Neuter endings SINGULAR Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl (1) 3 rd varies -is -ī -em -e Declensio Voc = Nom PLURAL Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Voc -ēs -ibus -ēs -um -ibus S n Masc. & Fem. (2) 3 rd Declensio n NEUTER varies -is -ī = Nom S -e = Nom S -a -um -ibus -a

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 5. Decline Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 5. Decline the adjective fractus, a, um “broken” in agreement with the noun pēs, pedis M. “foot” & translate: CASE/NUMBER Nominative Sing Genitive Sing Dative Singular Accusative Sing Ablative Sing Vocative Sing Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural Ablative Plural Vocative Plural LATIN FORMS 1 ENGLISH Translation

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 5. Decline Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 5. Decline the adjective fractus, a, um “broken” in agreement with the noun pēs, pedis M. “foot” & translate: CASE/NUMBER LATIN FORMS Nominative Sing pēs fractus (a/the) broken foot Genitive Sing pedis fractī of (a/the) broken foot, the broken foot’s Dative Singular pedī fractō [to/for] (a/the) broken foot Accusative Sing pedem fractum (a/the) broken foot Ablative Sing pede fractō with, from, by, in (a/the) broken foot Vocative Sing pēs Nominative Pl pedēs Genitive Plural pedum fractōrum Dative Plural pedibus fractīs 1 ENGLISH Translation Accusative Plural pedēs Ablative Plural pedibus Vocative Plural pedēs fracte fractī fractōs fractī [O!/Hey!] broken foot (the) broken feet of (the) broken feet, the broken feet’s [to/for] (the) broken feet with, from, by, in (the) broken feet [O!/Hey!] broken feet

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 8. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 8. Give the endings for the 3 rd declension i-stem nouns: (1) Masculine & Feminine + (2) Neuter endings. Note that in the ablative singular, the ending –ī is for all 3 rd declension adjectives (and neuter i-stem nouns only) SINGULAR Nom (1) 3 rd Declensio n Masc. & Fem. (2) 3 rd Declensio n NEUTER Gen Dat Acc PLURAL Abl Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Voc

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 8. Give Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 8. Give the endings for the 3 rd declension i-stem nouns: (1) Masculine & Feminine + (2) Neuter endings. Note that in the ablative singular, the ending –ī is for all 3 rd declension adjectives (and neuter i-stem nouns only) SINGULAR PLURAL Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl varies -is -ī -em -e / -ī = -ēs -ium -ibus -ēs Nom Sing varies -is -ī = Nom S -e / -ī = Nom Sing (1) 3 rd Declensio Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Abl Voc n Masc. & Fem. (2) 3 rd Declensio n NEUTER -ia -ium -ibus -ia

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 9. Decline Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 9. Decline & translate the 3 rd declension adjective gracilis, gracile “slender” to agree with the noun liber, librī M. “book”: CASE/NUMBER Nominative Sing Genitive Sing Dative Singular Accusative Sing Ablative Sing Vocative Sing Nominative Plural Genitive Plural Dative Plural Accusative Plural Ablative Plural Vocative Plural LATIN FORMS 1 ENGLISH Translation

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 9. Decline Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 9. Decline & translate the 3 rd declension adjective gracilis, gracile “slender” to agree with the noun liber, librī M. “book”: LATIN FORMS 1 ENGLISH Translation (a/the) slender book Genitive Sing liber gracilis librī gracilis Dative Singular librō [to/for] (a/the) slender book Accusative Sing librum Ablative Sing librō liber librī librōrum CASE/NUMBER Nominative Sing Vocative Sing Nominative Plural Genitive Plural gracilī gracilem gracilī gracilis gracilēs gracilium of (a/the) slender book, the slender book’s (a/the) slender book with, from, by, in (a/the) slender book [O!/Hey!] slender book (the) slender books of (the) slender books, the slender books’ Dative Plural librīs Accusative Plural gracilēs gracilibus (the) slender books Ablative Plural librōs librīs Vocative Plural librī gracilēs [O!/Hey!] slender books gracilibus [to/for] (the) slender books with, from, by, in (the) slender books

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius How to Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius How to do a Synopsis – by tense, mood, voice, ending, etc. INDICATIVE ACTIVE INDICATIVE LATIN FORMS PRESENT 1 st/2 nd Principal part + ō, s, t, mus, tis, nt 1 st/2 nd Principal part + bam, bās, bat, bāmus, bātis, bant IMPERFECT FUTURE for 1 st/2 nd Conjug. FUTURE for 3 rd /3 rd-io/4 th Conj. PERFECT PLUPERFECT FUTURE PERF. 1 st/2 nd Principal part + bō, bis, bit, bimus, bitis, bunt 1 st/2 nd Principal part + am, ēs, et, ēmus, ētis, ent [“ 1 A, 5 E’s”] 3 rd principal part stem + ī, istī, it, imus, istis, ērunt 3 rd principal part stem + eram, erās, erat, erāmus, erātis, erant 3 rd principal part stem + erō, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erint* ENGLISH TRANSLATION (“I” is an example) (1) I verb, (2) I am verbing, (3) I do verb (1) I was verbing, (2) I used to verb, (3) I verbed, (4) I kept verbing, (5) I tried to verb (1) I will (shall) verb, (2) I will be verbing (1) I verbed, (2) I did verb, (3) I have verbed [true perfect] (1) I had verbed [rare progressive: (2) I had been verbing)] (1) I shall/will have verbed

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INDICATIVE –PASSIVE/DEPONENT INDICATIVE Review for Latin 3 Honors Final Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INDICATIVE –PASSIVE/DEPONENT INDICATIVE LATIN FORMS PRESENT 1 st/2 nd Principal part + or, ris, tur, minī, ntur IMPERFECT 1 st/2 nd Principal part + bar, bāris, bātur, bāminī, bantur FUTURE for 1 st/2 nd Principal part + 1 st/2 nd Conjug. bor, beris, bitur, biminī, buntur FUTURE for 1 st/2 nd Principal part + 3 rd / 3 rd-io/4 th ar, ēris, ētur, ēminī, entur Conj. [“ 1 A, 5 E’s”] PERFECT (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2 words) (2) sum, est, sumus, estis, sunt PLUPERFECT (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2) eram, (2 words) erās, erat, erāmus, erātis, erant FUTURE PERF. (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2 words) (2) erō, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erunt* ENGLISH TRANSLATION (1) I am verbed, (2) I am being verbed (1) I was verbed, (2) I was being verbed (1) I will (shall) be verbed (1) I have been verbed, (2) I was verbed (1) I had been verbed (1) I will (shall) have been verbed

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Participles Present Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Participles Present Active Latin Formation 1 English Translation 1 st/2 nd Principal Part stem + ns, -ntis : (āns, āntis; ēns, ēntis, iēns, iēntis) verbing (3 rd declension istem): Perfect 4 th Principal Part (-us, -a, -um) (having been) verbed Passive Future Active 4 th Principal Part stem + ((1) about to verb, (2) going to ūrus, -ūra, -ūrum) verb, (3) intending to verb Future Active 1 st/2 nd Principal Part stem + - (1) must be verbed, (2) ought to (gerundive) nd + us, -a, -um: (1 st): be verbed andus/a/um; (2 nd & 3 rd): endus/a/um; (3 rd-io & 4 th): iendus/a/um) [1] For participles give the nom. form(s); for the present active, also give the gen. sing. Pay attention to # & gender.

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INFINITIVES Present Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INFINITIVES Present Active LATIN FORMS 2 nd Principal Part (āre, ēre, ere, īre) Present Passive 2 nd Principal Part (ārī, ērī, ī, īrī) Perfect Active 3 rd Principal Part Stem + -isse Perfect Passive (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2) esse (2 words) Future Active (gerundive) 4 th Principal Part stem + (-ūrus, -ūra, -ūrum) + esse Gerundive + esse: (1 st): andus/a/um esse ; (2 nd & 3 rd): endus/a/um esse ; (3 rd-io & 4 th): iendus/a/um esse ) ENGLISH TRANSLATION (1) to verb, (2) to be verbing (3) = time simultaneous in I. S. (4) = the English gerund as subject or direct object (1) to be verbed (2) = time simultaneous in I. S. (3) = the English gerund as subject or direct object (1) = time prior (active) in indirect statement (2) to have verbed (1) (2) (3) = time prior (passive/deponent) in indirect statement to have been verbed = future active tense in indirect statement to be about to verb to be going to verb [seen in indirect statement] (1)must be verbed, (2)ought to be verbed

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius SUBJUNCTIVE Active Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius SUBJUNCTIVE Active PRESENT IMPERFECT PLUPERFECT LATIN FORMS ENGLISH TRANSLATION (* May change depending on Context or construction!!!) 1 st/2 nd Principal part + [We beat a giant liar] + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt 2 nd Principal Part + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt (1) hortatory: let me/us verb (2) jussive: let her/him/it/them verb (3) I may verb (purpose) (4) same as indicative present 3 rd Principal Part Stem + erim, eris, erit, erimus, eritis, erint (1) 3 rd Principal Part Stem + -isse + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt… OR… (2) Perfect Active Infinitive + m, s, t, mus, tis, nt (1) same as indicative perfect (2) I may have verbed (1) I might verb (purpose) (2) same as indicative imperfect (3) I would verb (4) I could verb (potential) (1)same as indicative pluperfect (2)I might have verbed (3)I would have verbed

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius SUBJUNCTIVE Passive Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius SUBJUNCTIVE Passive PRESENT LATIN FORMS 1 st/2 nd Principal part + [We beat a giant liar] + r, ris, tur, minī, ntur IMPERFECT 2 nd Principal Part + r, ris, tur, minī, ntur PERFECT (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2) sim, sīs, sit, sīmus, sītis, sint (1) 4 th Principal Part + (2) essem, essēs, esset, essēmus, essētis, essent PLUPERFECT ENGLISH TRANSLATION (* May change depending on Context or construction!!!) (1) hortatory: let me/us be verbed (2) jussive: let her/him/it/them be verbed (3) I may be verbed (purpose) (4) same as indicative present (1) I might be verbed (purpose) (2) same as indicative imperfect (3) I would be verbed (4) I could be verbed (1) same as indicative perfect (2) I may have been verbed (1) same as indicative pluperfect (2) I might have been verbed (3) I would have been verbed

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Imperatives LATIN Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Imperatives LATIN FORMATIONS English SINGULAR (ACTIVE) Drop off –re from 2 nd Verb! PLURAL (ACTIVE) Drop off –re from 2 nd Principal Part (ā, ē, e, ī) Verb! Principal Part + te (āte, ēte, ite, īte) SINGULAR (Deponent) Looks just like the 2 nd Verb! Principal Part of active verbs (Deponent) (āre, ēre, ere, īre) PLURAL (Deponent) Drop off –rī from 2 nd Verb! Principal Part + -minī (āminī,

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Periphrastic Future Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Periphrastic Future Subjunctive (found in indirect questions) Primary Sequence (2 words) Secondary Sequence (2 words) (1) Future Active Participle + (2) sim, sīs, sit, sīmus, sītis, sint (1) I will verb (primary sequence) (2) I am about to verb (primary sequence) (1) Future Active Participle + (2) essem, essēs, esset, essēmus, essētis, essent (1) I was about to verb (secondary sequence) (2) I would verb (secondary sequence) What is the Passive Periphrastic? )

MATCHING Match the meaning to the verb by putting a letter in the left MATCHING Match the meaning to the verb by putting a letter in the left hand column. Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius secūtus/a/um sequēbātur sequerentur sequāmur sequēns, sequentis hīs actīs secūtī eritis sequuntur sequere secūtī essent sequentur secūtūrus/a/um sequantur secūtī sumus secūta erat puellīs secundum est agendus, a, um agendō agite agant vaccās ad forum. a. about to follow b. by doing c. they will follow d. they had followed (subjunctive) e. they might follow (imperf. Subj. ) f. following (present active participle) g. having followed, following (perfect participle) h. must be done; to be done (in the future) i. the girls must follow j. let us follow k. you all will have followed l. we followed m. do, drive! (plural), come on! n. with these things (having been) done o. let them drive the cows to the forum/market. p. she had followed q. Follow! r. let them follow s. they are following t. she was following

MATCHING Match the meaning to the verb by putting a letter in the left MATCHING Match the meaning to the verb by putting a letter in the left hand column. Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius g. t. e. j. f. n. k. s. q. d. c. a. r. l. p. i. h. b. m. o. secūtus/a/um sequēbātur sequerentur sequāmur sequēns, sequentis hīs actīs secūtī eritis sequuntur sequere secūtī essent sequentur secūtūrus/a/um sequantur secūtī sumus secūta erat puellīs secundum est agendus, a, um agendō agite agant vaccās ad forum. a. about to follow b. by doing c. they will follow d. they had followed (subjunctive) e. they might follow (imperf. Subj. ) f. following (present active participle) g. having followed, following (perfect participle) h. must be done; to be done (in the future) i. the girls must follow j. let us follow k. you all will have followed l. we (have) followed m. do, drive! (plural), come on! n. with these things (having been) done o. let them drive the cows to the forum/market. p. she had followed q. Follow! r. let them follow s. they are following t. she was following

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template of a Normal Verb with 4 principal parts 1. Principal parts + meaning: Conjugation #: Person: tenses, moods, LATIN ACTIVE FORMS etc. ↓ Present Indicative Present Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive Future Indicative Perfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Indicative Pluperfect Subjunctive Future Perfect Indicative Number: Gender: LATIN PASSIVE FORMS

Synopsis Template of a Normal Verb with 4 principal parts - continued. Tertius Review Synopsis Template of a Normal Verb with 4 principal parts - continued. Tertius Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Passive Participle Future Active Infinitive Future Passive Participle = Gerundive Gerund in the Ablative

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template of a Deponent Verb with Translations 1. Principal parts + meaning: Conjugation #: tenses, moods, etc. ↓ Present Indicative Present Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive Future Indicative Perfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Indicative Pluperfect Subjunctive Future Perfect Indicative Person: LATIN FORMS Number: Gender: ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Synopsis Template of a Deponent Verb with Translations - continued Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Participle Future Active Infinitive Gerundive – Translate Passively Gerund in the Ablative

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Principal parts + meaning: pāscō, Conjugation #: 3 rd Person: 3 rd tenses, moods, etc. LATIN ACTIVE FORMS Present Indicative Present Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive Future Indicative Perfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Indicative Pluperfect Subjunctive Future Perfect Indicative pāscere, pāvī, pāstus/a/um = to feed Number: Singular Gender: Masc LATIN PASSIVE FORMS

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 1. Principal parts + meaning: pāscō, Conjugation #: 3 rd Person: 3 rd tenses, moods, etc. LATIN ACTIVE FORMS Present Indicative Present Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive Future Indicative Perfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Indicative Pluperfect Subjunctive Future Perfect Indicative pāscit pāscat pāscēbat pāsceret pāscet pāvit pāverat pāvisset pāverit pāscere, pāvī, pāstus/a/um = to feed Number: Singular Gender: Masc LATIN PASSIVE FORMS pāscitur pāscātur pāscēbātur pāscerētur pāscētur pāstus est pāstus sit pāstus erat pāstus esset pāstus erit

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Principal parts Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Principal parts + meaning: Conjugation #: 3 rd Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Passive Participle Future Active Infinitive Future Passive Participle = Gerundive Gerund in the Ablative pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstus/a/um = to feed Person: 3 rd Number: Singular Gender: Masc

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Principal parts Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Principal parts + meaning: Conjugation #: 3 rd Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Passive Participle Future Active Infinitive Future Passive Participle = Gerundive Gerund in the Ablative pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstus/a/um = to feed Person: 3 rd pāscere pāscite pāscēns, pāscēntis pāvisse pāstūrus/a/um esse pāscendō Number: Singular Gender: Masc pāscī pāscere pāsciminī pāstus/a/um esse pāstus/a/um pāscendus/a/um

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal parts + meaning: hortor, hortārī, hortātus/a/um sum = to encourage, urge Conjugation #: 1 st Deponent Person: 2 nd Number: Plural Gender: Fem LATIN FORMS ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS Present Indicative Present Subjunctive Imperfect Indicative Imperfect Subjunctive Future Indicative Perfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Indicative Pluperfect Subjunctive Future Perfect Indicative

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal parts + meaning: hortor, hortārī, hortātus/a/um sum = to encourage, urge Conjugation #: 1 st Deponent Person: 2 nd Number: Plural Gender: Fem LATIN FORMS ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS Present you (pl. ) are encouraging Indicative Present you (pl. ) may encourage* Subjunctive Imperfect you (pl. ) were/kept encouraging, used to Indicative encourage, etc. Imperfect you (pl. ) might encourage* Subjunctive Future you (pl. ) will encourage Indicative Perfect you (pl. ) (have) encouraged Indicative Perfect you (pl. ) may have encouraged* Subjunctive Pluperfect you (pl. ) had encouraged Indicative Pluperfect you (pl. ) might have encouraged* Subjunctive Future you (pl. ) will have encouraged Perfect Indicative hortāminī hortēminī hortābāminī hortārēminī hortābiminī hortātae estis hortātae sītis hortātae erātis hortātae essētis hortātae eritis

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal parts + meaning: hortor, hortārī, hortātus/a/um sum = to encourage, urge Conjugation #: 1 st Deponent Person: 2 nd Number: Plural Gender: Fem Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Participle Future Active Infinitive Gerund in the Ablative

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius 2. Principal parts + meaning: hortor, hortārī, hortātus/a/um sum = to encourage, urge Conjugation #: 1 st Deponent Person: 2 nd Number: Plural Gender: Fem Present Infinitive Present Command Imperative Singular Present Command Imperative Plural Present Active Participle Perfect Infinitive Perfect Participle Future Active Infinitive Gerund in the Ablative hortārī hortāre to encourage* encourage (!) hortāminī encourage (!) hortāns, hortāntis hortātae esse hortātae hortātūrae esse hortandae hortandō encouraging to have encouraged* encouraging, having encouraged about to encourage to be about to encourage* to be encouraged* by encouraging

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius out a Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius out a verb synopsis for one of the following deponent verbs in the 3 rd person PLURAL, feminine. Choose one for which you remember the meaning AND you may (carefully) bucket only the English translations: Fill a. fruor, fruī, frūctus sum (3 rd conjugation) b. cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum(1 st conjugation) c. lābor, lābī, lāpsus sum (3 rd conjugation) OR OR

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INDICATIVE PRESENT Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE PERFECT INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE FUTURE PERF. INDICATIVE Present Active PARTICIPLE Perfect PARTICIPLE Future Active** PARTICIPLE Future Passive Participle LATIN FORMS ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius TENSE/VOICE LATIN Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius TENSE/VOICE LATIN FORMS ENGLISH TRANSLATION Present INFINITIVE Perfect INFINITIVE Future** INFINITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PERFECT** SUBJUNCTIVE PLUPERFECT** SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVES SINGULAR IMPERATIVE PLURAL IMPERATIVE

Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Praedonēs nōbīs Review for Latin 3 Honors Final – Oxford Latin Course, Liber Tertius Praedonēs nōbīs capiendī sunt. Quid nunc faciamus? Dormiendī causā in cubiculum meum ambulāvī. Quintus, laboribus confectīs, cum amicīs colloquēbatur. Athenās Brutus navigāvit nē ab Antoniō caperetur.

Quintus senem rogat quando parentēs discessissent. Utinam Domina Gaga nē cantāret! Quintus cognoscit parentēs Quintus senem rogat quando parentēs discessissent. Utinam Domina Gaga nē cantāret! Quintus cognoscit parentēs suōs Venusiā discessisse. Ulixes, veritus ne Polyphemus dolum cognosceret, quam celerrime ad navem festinavit. Nōn discessissem, si epistolam misisses!

Brutō duce, Quintus Pompeiusque Philippīs pugnāvērunt. nesciebant tamen quae Augustus in animo haberet. poetae Brutō duce, Quintus Pompeiusque Philippīs pugnāvērunt. nesciebant tamen quae Augustus in animo haberet. poetae canebant eum copias in Parthos ductūrum esse. librōrum legendōrum causā puerī ad bibliothēcam cucurrērunt.

Helvetiī, hīs prīmīs rātiōnibus adductī et auctoritāte Orgetorigis permōtī, constituērunt peragere ea quae ad Helvetiī, hīs prīmīs rātiōnibus adductī et auctoritāte Orgetorigis permōtī, constituērunt peragere ea quae ad proficīscendum pertinērent, comparāre iumentōrum et carrōrum quam maximum numerum emere, sementēs quam maximās facere, ut in itinere copia frumentī suppeteret, cum proximīs cīvitātibus pācem et amīcitiam confirmāre. Ad eās rēs conficiendās biennium sibi satis esse existimāvērunt; in tertium annum profectiōnem consensū ūniversō confirmant. Ad eās res conficiendās Orgetorix deligitur. Is sibi legātionem ad civitātes suscepit. In eō itinere persuadet Casticō Sequanō ut regnum in civitāte suā occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat; itemque persuadet Dumnorigī Haeduō, fratri Diviciāci, qui eō tempore principātum in civitāte obtinebat ac maxime plebī acceptus erat, ut idem conārētur persuadet, eīque fīliam suam in matrimonium dat. Tandem Orgetorix dīxit sē ipsum suae civitātis imperium obtentūrum esse. -Caesar, De Bello Gallico I Helvetii = Helvetians; people who lived in what is now Switzerland 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 [1] [2] addūcō, addūcere : a stronger form of dūcō, dūcere = to influence, draw to/by [3] Orgetorix, Orgetorigis M = Orgetorix, the leader of the Helvetii [4] peragere is a stronger form of ago, agere [5] pertinere : think of our english derivative “pertain” or “relate to” [6] comparāre is a stronger form of parāre. [7] iumenta = pack animals (e. g. , donkeys, horses) [8] sementis, sementis F = sowing, planting [9] suppeto, suppetere = to supply [10] consensus, consensūs M = agreement [11] Casticus, Casticī M. = Casticus, the member of the Sequani tribe (Sequanus is the ancient name of the River Seine)

[1] Helvetii = Helvetians; people who lived in what is now Switzerland [2] addūcō, [1] Helvetii = Helvetians; people who lived in what is now Switzerland [2] addūcō, addūcere : a stronger form of dūcō, dūcere = to influence, draw to/by [3] Orgetorix, Orgetorigis M = Orgetorix, the leader of the Helvetii [4] peragere is a stronger form of ago, agere [5] pertinere : think of our english derivative “pertain” or “relate to” [6] comparāre is a stronger form of parāre. [7] iumenta = pack animals (e. g. , donkeys, horses) [8] sementis, sementis F = sowing, planting [9] suppeto, suppetere = to supply [10] consensus, consensūs M = agreement [11] Casticus, Casticī M. = Casticus, the member of the Sequani tribe (Sequanus is the ancient name of the River Seine) [12] item = likewise, in tlike manner [13] Dumnorix, Dumnorigis M = Dumnorix, a high-ranking member of the Haedui

(line 2): constituērunt is best translated ----------. a. they accomplished b. they conquered c. (line 2): constituērunt is best translated ----------. a. they accomplished b. they conquered c. they perfected d. they decided (line 1): adductī and permōtī are both Perfect Passive Participles in the a. nominative case . b. genitive case c. dative case d. ablative case (line 2): proficīscendum a. infinitive is a(n) ---------. b. gerund c. gerundive d. present participle (line 3): quam maximum a. as great as possible b. very large d. larger than c. larger

(line 4): suppeteret is a(n) -----------. a. present subjunctive in a result clause b. (line 4): suppeteret is a(n) -----------. a. present subjunctive in a result clause b. imperfect subjunctive in a purpose clause c. imperfect subjunctive in a result clause d. present subjunctive in a purpose clause (line 5): conficiendās is a ------------. a. gerundive b. gerund c. perfect participle d. present participle (line 7): Ad eās rēs conficiendās expresses ------------. a. result b. an indirect question c. purpose d. a necessity (line 7): sibi is a(n) -----------. a. genitive b. dative c. nominative d. accusative (line 8): persuadet takes the --------case (of the person persuaded). a. ablative b. genitive c. accusative d. dative

(line 10): eō tempore is an ----------. a. ablative of place where b. ablative (line 10): eō tempore is an ----------. a. ablative of place where b. ablative of time when c. ablative absolute d. ablative of manner (line 11): ut idem conārētur is best translated: a. that the same thing might be tried b. to try/attempt the same thing c. with the result that he tried the same d. if only he were to try the same thing (line 11): Who marries the daughter? a. Diviciacus b. Orgetorix c. Dumnorix d. Casticus The leader of the Helvetian migration was ------------. a. Diviciacus b. Orgetorix c. Dumnorix d. Casticus

 Which of the following did the Helvetians NOT INITIALLY do in preparation for Which of the following did the Helvetians NOT INITIALLY do in preparation for departure? a. strengthen peace with neighbors b. buy carts and animals c. establish laws for departure d. plant many fields How many years did they think were needed for preparation for the migration? a. one b. two c. three d. four