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Reverberation Mapping Extending the Luminosity Range Shai Kaspi Tel-Aviv University & Technion – Haifa Reverberation Mapping Extending the Luminosity Range Shai Kaspi Tel-Aviv University & Technion – Haifa Israel A black hole obsessed/addict …it’s Hagai’s fault…. “AGNs: From Atoms to Black Holes” Tel-Aviv University, 22 February 2006

Outline - Introduction to reverberation mapping by B. Peterson - Current BLR Size – Outline - Introduction to reverberation mapping by B. Peterson - Current BLR Size – Luminosity Relation Maoz D. , Netzer H. , Peterson B. M. , Vestergaard M. , Jannuzi B. (Kaspi et al. 2005, Ap. J, 629, 61) - Broadening the luminosity range - Mapping low luminosity AGNs Laor A. , Maoz, D. , Peterson B. , Filippenko A. - Mapping of high-luminosity quasars – preliminary results Maoz D. , Netzer H. , Brandt W. N. , Schneider D. P. , Shemmer O. (Kaspi et al. in preparation)

Reverberation Mapping Peterson et al. (2004) compiled all studies to date. 35 objects with Reverberation Mapping Peterson et al. (2004) compiled all studies to date. 35 objects with Balmer (mainly Hb) lines time lag. Characteristic BLR size = Time Lag * speed of light. The BLR size – luminosity relation Both are measured quantities. Luminosities in the Optical, UV, and X-rays. BLR size from averaging all Balmer lines time lag.

Linear Regression Uncertainties in both quantities And Intrinsic scatter in the relation Two regression Linear Regression Uncertainties in both quantities And Intrinsic scatter in the relation Two regression methods: 1. FITEXY from Press et al. 2. BCES (Bivariate Correlated Errors and intrinsic Scatter) by (1992) implemented by Akritas & Bershady (1996). Tremaine et al. (2002). …and also outlier points…

Hb RBLR – Optical luminosity (5100 A) RBLR [ L (5100 Å)] (0. 69± Hb RBLR – Optical luminosity (5100 A) RBLR [ L (5100 Å)] (0. 69± 0. 05)

Hb RBLR – Optical luminosity (5100 A) RBLR [ L (5100 Å)] (0. 518± Hb RBLR – Optical luminosity (5100 A) RBLR [ L (5100 Å)] (0. 518± 0. 039) (Bentz et al. Aph/0602412)

Hb RBLR – UV luminosity (1450 A) 58 points 32 points RBLR [ L Hb RBLR – UV luminosity (1450 A) 58 points 32 points RBLR [ L (1450 Å)] (0. 56± 0. 05)

RBLR – X-ray luminosity (2 -10 ke. V) 54 points 30 points RBLR [ RBLR – X-ray luminosity (2 -10 ke. V) 54 points 30 points RBLR [ L (2 -10 ke. V)] (0. 70± 0. 14)

RBLR – luminosity Relation, conclusions • Though small differences exist between the different regression RBLR – luminosity Relation, conclusions • Though small differences exist between the different regression methods the results are generally consistent. • Average slope is 0. 52± 0. 04 for the optical continuum and broad 0. 67± 0. 05 Hβ luminosity, about 0. 56± 0. 05 for the UV luminosity, and about 0. 70± 0. 14 for the X-ray luminosity. • We find in these relations an intrinsic scatter of about 40%. • In most energy bands the slope is roughly like the naive theoretical prediction of 0. 5. This prediction is naively based on the assumption that all AGNs have the same ionization parameter, BLR density, column density, and ionizing SED.

Broadening the Luminosity range - Hb Current studies span 4 orders of magnitude. There Broadening the Luminosity range - Hb Current studies span 4 orders of magnitude. There are 4 more orders of magnitude to be explored. We need to expand the luminosity range with reverberation mapping studies. Extrapolation does not necessarily give the real situation.

Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Up to 2004 only four AGNs with Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Up to 2004 only four AGNs with C IV BLR size measurements

Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Peterson et al. (2005) added NGC 4395 Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Peterson et al. (2005) added NGC 4395 four orders of magnitude in luminosity lower

Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Still there are the high luminosity quasars Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV Still there are the high luminosity quasars at three orders of magnitude higher

Higher luminosities monitoring Photometrically monitoring 11 quasars for the past decade. 7 of which Higher luminosities monitoring Photometrically monitoring 11 quasars for the past decade. 7 of which are spectroscopically monitored for the past 5 years. 2. 1 < z < 3. 2 1045. 6 < L (5100 Å) < 1047 erg/s Photometric observation at the 1 m Wise Observatory. Spectroscopic observation at 9 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and at the Wise Observatory. Lines monitored are C IV and Ly using the method of a comparison star simultaneously with the quasar in the slit. … Some preliminary results… (Kaspi et al. in preparation)

Continuum light curves log L R B 2. 628 46. 14 0. 34 0. Continuum light curves log L R B 2. 628 46. 14 0. 34 0. 44 3. 177 46. 88 0. 16 0. 22 2. 172 46. 05 0. 34 0. 44 2. 824 46. 62 0. 25 0. 27 3. 200 46. 96 0. 14 0. 19 2. 722 47. 04 0. 16 0. 20 Z

SBS 1116+603 L (5100 Å) = 1. 4× 1046 erg/s z = 2. 628 SBS 1116+603 L (5100 Å) = 1. 4× 1046 erg/s z = 2. 628 R=0. 34 B=0. 44

SBS 1116+603 : C IV – Continuum CCF No measurable time lag is found SBS 1116+603 : C IV – Continuum CCF No measurable time lag is found

S 4 0636+68 L (5100 Å) = 7. 6× 1046 erg/s z = 3. S 4 0636+68 L (5100 Å) = 7. 6× 1046 erg/s z = 3. 117 R=0. 16 B=0. 22

HS 1700+6416 L (5100 Å) = 1047 erg/s z = 2. 722 R=0. 16 HS 1700+6416 L (5100 Å) = 1047 erg/s z = 2. 722 R=0. 16 B=0. 20

S 5 0836+71 L (5100 Å) = 1. 1× 1046 erg/s z = 2. S 5 0836+71 L (5100 Å) = 1. 1× 1046 erg/s z = 2. 172 R=0. 34 B=0. 44

S 5 0836+71: C IV – Continuum CCF Rest frame time lag: 188+27 days S 5 0836+71: C IV – Continuum CCF Rest frame time lag: 188+27 days -37

Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV A preliminary result suggest a correlation between Broadening the Luminosity range – C IV A preliminary result suggest a correlation between the C IV size and the luminosity

Mass – Luminosity Relation S 5 0836+71: M Peterson et al. (2005) . Mass – Luminosity Relation S 5 0836+71: M Peterson et al. (2005) .

Scaling C IV size to Hb size S 5 0836+71: CIV lag: days ⇒ Scaling C IV size to Hb size S 5 0836+71: CIV lag: days ⇒ Hb lag about: days NGC 4395: CIV lag: min ⇒ Hb lag about: min In two weeks, optical monitoring of NGC 4395 spectroscopically from KPNO and photometrically from four observatories around the world cover 22 hours a day for four days.

Summary • In the 1042 to 1046 erg/s luminosity range a firm relation exist Summary • In the 1042 to 1046 erg/s luminosity range a firm relation exist between the BLR size and luminosity. Slope ranging from 0. 5 to 0. 7. • Expanding the luminosity range is important and first steps are being taken: • Low luminosity Seyferts and LINERS to cover the luminosity range of 1040 to 1042 erg/sec. • High luminosity quasars – preliminary results are encouraging. When this long term project is concluded reverberation mapping studies will cover the luminosity range up to 1047 ergs/s, an additional one order of magnitude to the current luminosity range and 7 orders of magnitude in total. • Dust Reverberation mapping (torus size? )