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RETURN TO NORMALCY (1920 - 1929) CHAPTER TWELVE AND CHAPTER THIRTEEN
Before We Move Forward, Let’s Look Back… What war had just ended? What were the MAIN causes of that war? What was the outcome of the war? Why is that war sometimes called “The War of the Industrial Revolution? ” What is the legacy of that war for the U. S. ’ economy? African Americans? Women? Prediction: What do you think will happen in the United States?
Roaring Twenties Objectives 1. trace the political and social changes after World War I 2. understand such issues as Prohibition and the changing role of women
Chapter Twelve - OVERVIEW Americans lash out at those who are different while they enjoy prosperity and new conveniences produced by American businesses.
Chapters in Brief Events in faraway Russia had an effect on the United States after World War I. Massive protests led the Russian ruler to step down from the throne in March 1917. In November of that year, radicals seized the government and established the world’s first Communist state. Soon, this new government issued a call for worldwide revolution. Its leaders wanted to overthrow the capitalist system and abolish private property. About 70, 000 people, called “Reds, ” joined the new Communist party in the United States. Though their numbers were small, their radicalism and threats aroused fear among many people. As a “Red Scare” swept the nation, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer decided to remove threat. Palmer formed a new agency in the Justice Department to find and punish radicals. His agents arrested Communists, Socialists, and anarchists, who opposed any government at all. The agents often disregarded the rights of the people they arrested. Hundreds of radicals were sent out of the country without a trial. But Palmer never found evidence of a conspiracy to overthrow the government, and the fear passed. The U. S. was actually becoming isolationist again—pulling away from world affairs. Dislike of foreigners resulted in a new immigration law. With the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, Congress limited the number of people admitted into the country each year. A revised version passed in 1924 cut the flow of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. It put a stop to Japanese immigration altogether. In 1929, Congress voted to further limit the number of immigrants admitted each year.
Chapters in Brief Many suffered in the hysteria. A celebrated case involved two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. The pair—both admitted radicals—were arrested for a double murder during a robbery in Massachusetts. Although the case was not strong, they were convicted and executed. Protests poured in from around the world. The “Red Scare” revealed a general sense of unease in society, as did the revival of the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan began to flourish in the early 1920 s. Klan leaders opposed African Americans, Jews, immigrants, and Catholics. By 1924, KKK membership numbered about 4. 5 million, and the Klan helped elect officeholders in many states. Its popularity declined with increased criminal activity. The postwar period also saw a revival of labor troubles. A strike of Boston police officers was forcefully put down by Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge. Violence erupted over a massive 1919 steel strike, with workers demanding the right to unionize. Steel makers labeled the workers as Communists, and the strike was broken in 1920. Later, a church group revealed the harsh conditions in steel mills. Embarrassed steel makers shortened the workday to eight hours. However, the steel workers still had no union.
Chapters in Brief United Mine Workers president John L. Lewis was able to win wage increases for coal miners. A. Philip Randolph also successfully organized an African. American union of railroad porters. Unions were not generally successful in the 1920 s, however, as union membership dropped from about 5 million to about 3. 5 million workers.
Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues Postwar Trends World War I left much of the American public exhausted ○ debate over the League of Nations divided America ○ Progressive Era caused wrenching changes in American’s lives ○ the economy had difficulty adjusting to modern times ○ unemployment returning soldiers needed work women / minorities lost jobs to those returning soldiers ○ cost of living doubled ○ farmers and factory workers suffered as wartime orders diminished
Postwar Trends Americans wanted to return to “normalcy, ” which was a reactionary result of the progressives’ changes The 1920 s Involved Three Major Trends: 1. 2. 3. renewed isolationism resurgence of nativism political conservatism (people were burned out on change)
Postwar Trends Isolationism: a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs Nativism: prejudice against foreignborn people
Fear of Communism U. S. sends troops to assist the “Whites” against the “Reds” Communists take over Russia and rename it the Soviet Union The Soviets were not happy with the United States
Fear of Communism 1. factory workers are a natural supporter of this new Communist movement (“have nots”) 2. big business owners natural enemy (“haves”) 3. radicals mail bombs to government and business leaders, which caused the government to combat the Communist movements
Fear of Communism Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes action against “The Reds” ○ J. Edgar Hoover was appointed as director of new “anti-radical” division of the Justice Department. ○ Purpose is to hunt down suspected communists and radicals Civil Rights Violations? ○ Eventually known as the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
Fear of Communism According to A. Mitchell Palmer, the Attorney General, what was “eating its way into the homes of the American working man, its sharp tongues… licking at the alters of our churches…” was Communism and Radicalism Palmer believed in protection from political radicals Palmer staged raids, but no evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy was ever found in the United States
Fear of Communism Sacco and Vanzetti 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. both were immigrants from Italy they known communists/ anarchists they were arrested for the crimes of murder and robbery the case against them was based on circumstantial evidence (suspects “looked Italian”) they were not given a fair trial (they had alibis and the judge made prejudicial statements) still, a jury found them guilty, and sentenced them to death they were electrocuted on August 23 rd, 1927
Political Cartoon/Propaganda Poster Create a visual that illustrates the perspective of someone who fears one or more of the following: Communists Immigrants Women/minorities Create a caption that expresses their postwar anxiety and why they are anxious Use color and write legibly: you will be analyzing another cartoon tomorrow!
Visual Analysis What group is the cartoon/visual afraid of? WHY is there a fear? (what does the cartoon show, what’s the connection to our notes from yesterday? ) Answer on back of another group’s cartoon. Write your name(s) on the back of that cartoon.
Limiting Immigration “Keep America for Americans” becomes the prevailing attitude in the United States
Limiting Immigration Two Key Events Happen KKK rises again > devotion to 100% Americanism > wanted to keep African Americans “in their place, ” destroy saloons, oppose unions, and drive Catholics, Jews, and foreigners out of the country Quota System > established the maximum number of people who could enter the U. S. from a foreign country (discriminated against specific countries) – stopped Japanese immigration
World War I has ended. As Americans struggle to rebuild broken lives, the voices of angry workers can be silenced no longer. Despite public criticism, many risk losing their jobs to strike and join unions. The streets become a battleground for fair pay and better working conditions. Would you strike and risk your family’s welfare? 2. Do city workers have a responsibility not to go on strike? 3. Should the government intervene in disputes between labor and business? 4. Does the success of a strike depend on you? What happens if individuals do not participate? 1.
A Time of Labor Unrest postwar conflict festered between labor and management. during the war, workers could not strike; nothing could interfere with the war effort. 1919: more than 3, 000 strikes 4, 000 workers walked off the job Workers wanted more money and the ability to join unions. Three Main Strikes 1. The Boston Police Strike 2. The Steel Mill Strike 3. Coal Miner’s Strike
A Time of Labor Unrest in spite of limited gains, the 1920 s hurt the labor movement badly. union membership dropped dramatically from five to 3. 5 million people work force consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions language barriers led to difficulty in organizing previous farmers were used to depending on themselves most unions excluded African Americans
Essential Question Do you think Americans were justified in their fear of radicals and foreigners in the decade following World War I? Justify your answer. Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section
Chapter Twelve Politics of the Roaring Twenties Section 2 The Harding Presidency
Chapters in Brief In the presidential election of 1920, Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding, a pleasant man of little ability. Harding and Calvin Coolidge swept into office in a landslide victory. In the 1920 s, the United States promoted word peace. A 1921 conference in Washington produced a historic agreement among five major naval powers to dismantle some of their naval ships. For the first time, nations had agreed to reduce their weapons. In 1928, virtually all the world powers signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact. In doing so, each nation renounced war. However, new conflicts arose. The U. S. wanted Britain and France to pay their war debts. This was difficult, since Congress had enacted a high tariff that made it impossible for them to sell their goods to the United States. The two countries pressured Germany to meet its payments for reparations, but Germany’s economy was destroyed. A series of U. S. loans to Germany left Britain and France angry. On the home front, President Harding’s cabinet choices were just as burdensome. While some of his Cabinet appointments were distinguished, a number were soon found to be engaged in bribery and corruption. The biggest scandals involved tracts of public land called Teapot Dome and Elk Hills. The lands held oil, and Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall secretly leased the land to two oil companies. He received money and property in return. Amidst rumors of corruption in his administration, Harding died. Calvin Coolidge became president.
Harding Struggles for Peace Warren G. Harding President good looking, good natured, and calming not the best, the smartest, nor the most exciting, but Americans loved him. Americans were tired of progress, and wanted normalcy. In 1921 Harding invited several major powers to the Washington Naval Conference; excluded Russia because of its Communist government The world’s naval powers agreed to disarm their naval forces; first time in history
Harding Struggles for Peace Settling War Debts France and Britain could not repay loans to the U. S. ($10 billion) Britain and France looked to Germany to pay their debts (Germany was experiencing inflation, so they couldn’t pay) Dawes Plan: U. S. investors loaned Germany $2. 5 billion to repay Britain and France then used this money to pay back the U. S. the United States was essentially being repaid with its own money this deal caused resentment all around
Harding Struggles for Peace 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact 1. fifteen countries signed 2. weak agreement to renounce war as a national policy 3. had no way of enforcing
Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Charles Evans Hughes was appointed Harding’s Secretary of State (good); eventually becomes Chief Justice of Supreme Court Other Cabinet appointments came from “The Ohio Gang” Harding’s old supporters and poker playing cronies (not so good) the Ohio gang caused a great deal of embarrassment. Harding did not understand many issues, which allowed his cabinet members to take advantage of the situation. corrupt friends use government position to get rich (GRAFT!)
Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Teapot Dome Scandal Government set aside oil-rich public lands for the use of the United State’s Navy Albert Fall, the Secretary of the Interior, actually sold U. S. owned oil reserve land to private companies and pocketed the money! Fall was eventually convicted of taking more than $400, 000 in bribes (first Cabinet member convicted of a felony while holding a Cabinet position). Harding stated, “I have no trouble with my enemies… But my… friends…, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor nights!”
Essential Question Summarize President Harding’s scandals while in office. Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section
Chapter Twelve Politics of the Roaring Twenties Section 3 The Business of America
Chapters in Brief American business was transforming American society, and the automobile led the way. America became a car culture. By the late 1920 s, about 80 percent of all motor vehicles in the world were in the United States and cities built an elaborate network of new roads and highways. As cars made it possible for workers to live farther from their homes, cities grew larger. Cities in Ohio and especially Michigan grew as major centers of automobile manufacturing. The airplane industry grew as well. Planes carried the nation’s mail, and passenger service was introduced. Another major change was the spread of electricity. Whereas electricity had been found only in central cities before, it now stretched to the suburbs although farms still lacked electric power. Electrical appliances—radios, washing machines, and vacuum cleaners among them—began appearing in homes across America. To convince people to buy these new appliances, businesses adopted new methods of advertising. No longer content only to give information about products, they now used ads to sell an image. Widespread advertising meant that certain brand names became nationally known. A new form of mass entertainment—radio—provided advertisers a way of reaching huge audiences. The prosperity that business was generating seemed unstoppable. National income rose from $64 billion in 1921 to $87 billion in 1929. This prosperity masked problems, however.
Chapters in Brief First, the business scene was not completely healthy. As workers produced more in the same number of hours, businesses grew, sometimes producing more goods than they could sell. Chain stores spread across the nation. With this growth, however, the difference in income between business managers and workers grew. Also, mining companies, railroads, and farms were suffering. Second, consumer debt rose to alarming levels. Businesses helped promote consumer spending by allowing customers to buy on credit. By making the payments low and spreading them over a long period of time, businesses made it easy for consumers to decide to purchase all the goods that the businesses were producing.
American Industries Flourish Presidents Coolidge and Hoover favored policies that would keep taxes down and profits up They wanted to keep government involvement in business to a minimum For most of the 1920 s, their approach seemed to work
American Industries Flourish Impact of the Automobile 1. Literally changed the American landscape ○ construction of new paved roads (Route 66) ○ Changed architectural styles ○ Gas stations, motels, etc. 2. Liberated isolated rural families (they can now travel to cities)
American Industries Flourish 3. Allowed for greater independence for young people 4. Created the urban sprawl (workers can live further away from their jobs) 5. Cars become a status symbol, yet still affordable enough that they were attainable by many
America’s Standard of Living Soars Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth. Average income up 35% (from $522 to $705 average salary) People found it easy to spend their increased income. Advances in alternating current allowed the power grid to extend out to many more people. New electric machines ○ Some had irons, refrigerators, ranges, toasters, washing machine, vacuum cleaners, etc.
America’s Standard of Living Soars Modern Advertising Psychologists were consulted to help focus appeal on people’s desire for youthfulness, beauty, health, and wealth Brand names became familiar and luxury items were made to seem like necessities Businesspeople applied the power of advertising to other areas of American life
America’s Standard of Living Soars Advertising made people want things Installment plans (paying a little each month, with interest rates low) allowed people to buy goods they otherwise couldn’t. Advertisers pushed the idea of installment plans. “You furnish the girl, we’ll furnish the home!” “Enjoy while you pay!”
America’s Standard of Living Soars ** Prosperity of the 1920 s was superficial 1. major industries like steel, automobiles, and home construction were suffering 2. the number of products purchased on credit rose substantially 3. more than 80% of the American people earned less than $3, 000 per year, yet they continued to spend lavishly 4. farms were producing more food than needed and drove down the price of food ***
A Superficial Prosperity The Paradox Coolidge stood for economy and a frugal way of life, but he was favored by people who “lived in the now. ” Problems on the horizon Some economists thought buying on credit could get out of hand. Growing income gap between workers and managers Oversupply in some industries drove down prices (and profits!) Still, life seemed easier and more enjoyable for hundreds of thousands of Americans
Letter to the President Take on the perspective of a concerned citizen who is aware of a “superficial economy” and wants to warn President Coolidge of doom on the horizon. Identify two examples of superficiality. Analyze how these trends of superficiality will be dangerous to the long-term health of the American economy Include a call-to-action or solution in your last 1 -2 sentences
Marketing Advertisement How would you use modern advertising to market these items? Create an advertisement for one of the items below: Double Boiler: $1. 19 Coffee Pot: $1. 19 Western Electric Clothes Washer: $125. 00 Electric Toaster Green: $6. 75 Aluminum Coffee Percolators: 98¢ Electric Table Stoves: $1. 95 to $12. 50 Wind up Gramophone: (phonograph) $85 Gas Ranges: $88 **($100 in 1920 = about $1000 today)**
Essential Question How did changes in technology in the 1920 s influence American life? Explain. Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section
Chapter Thirteen - OVERVIEW During the 1920 s, rural America clashes with a faster-paced urban culture. Women’s attitudes and roles change, influenced in part by the mass media. Many African Americans join in the new urban cities.
Chapter Thirteen The Roaring Life of the 1920 s Section 1 Changing Ways in Life
Chapters in Brief The 1920 census revealed that for the first time more Americans lived in towns and cities than in the country. The 1920 s sped that process of urbanization. New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia became huge cities, and 65 others had more than 100, 000 people. As 2 million people a year left their farms, city values—not small-town values—began to dominate the nation. The transition was not always easy. One clash concerned Prohibition, favored by many rural people and opposed by many city dwellers. In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution took effect and Prohibition became law. However, the effort to stop drinking was doomed. The government did not have enough law officers to enforce the law. Illegal nightclubs sprang up across the country. People began making their own illegal liquor. Others bought from “bootleggers”— resulting in large sums of money flowing to organized crime. By the middle of the decade, only 19 percent of Americans supported Prohibition. It remained law until 1933, however.
Chapters in Brief The country also saw a revival of Christian fundamentalism. Christian fundamentalists believed that every word in the Bible was literally true. Religious revivals and preachers drew large crowds, especially in the South and West. Soon fundamentalists clashed with science in the Scopes trial. Fundamentalists, who rejected the scientific theory of evolution, persuaded some states to outlaw teaching of that theory in schools. Teacher John Scopes protested the law by openly teaching the subject. The trial brought famous attorneys and large crowds to a small Tennessee town. After Scopes was found guilty, the state Supreme Court reversed the conviction.
Rural and Urban Differences “Cities were the place to be, not to get away from. ” Cities rise to prominence and formed the new urban scene ○ New York (5. 6 million), Chicago (3 million), Philadelphia (2 million) are the largest cities in the United States ○ They had a diverse population and were busy all the time (fast paced life) ○ Cities revolved around the 3 “I’s” = Immigrants, Industry, and Indecency ○ Small towns saw the behavior of city dwellers (drinking, gambling, casual dating) as shocking and sinful
Prohibition Lasted from 1920 -1933 18 th Amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol Some thought alcohol led to crime, abuse, accidents, and social problems Drinking did not disappear, it just went underground to Speakeasies. Bootleggers smuggled alcohol in from other countries Others distilled and sold their own alcohol, or obtained a prescription for alcohol use The 21 st Amendment repealed the 18 th Amendment
Organized Crime An unintended consequence of Prohibition was the contribution to organized crime Al Capone Headed Chicago criminal activity by age 26 He made $60 million per year through his empire. Killed off competition (522 gang killings) By the mid 20’s, 19% of Americans favored prohibition, the rest thought it made things worse
Al Capone Mini Biography https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Vzf WQ 7 TRF 8 w
Science and Religion Clash American Fundamentalism ○ Believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible ○ Fundamentalists rejected Darwin’s theory of evolution Scopes Monkey Trial ○ John Scopes taught evolution to his class, contrary to Tennessee state law, and was arrested
Science and Religion Clash ○ Scopes was supported by the ACLU, and they hired the famous lawyer Clarence Darrow to defend him ○ William Jennings Bryan was chosen as special prosecutor ○ High point is the cross examination of Bryan as an expert on the Bible. ○ Bryan admits that the Bible might be interpreted in different ways ○ Scopes found guilty, teaching of evolution was still illegal in Tennessee
This clash over evolution, Prohibition, and urbanization were evidence of the changes and conflicts occurring during the 1920’s. This led to women redefining their role in society….
Essential Question Explain how the overall atmosphere of the 1920 s might have contributed to the failure of prohibition. Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section
Chapter Thirteen The Roaring Life of the 1920 s Section 2 The Twenties Woman
Chapters in Brief The new urban culture influenced many women to demand greater freedom, symbolized by the “flapper. ” These young women wore shorter skirts, shorter hair, and more jewelry than was customary before. They also smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Not all young women were flappers, of course. Many felt caught between the old values and the new. Many women across America were adopting new roles at work. More women worked outside the home than before the war. They took many different jobs, but hundreds of thousands became teacher and nurses, secretaries, or sales clerks. Wherever they worked, though, women faced discrimination. The 1920 s began trends that continue today: identifying jobs as women’s or men’s work and paying women less than men. Most married women did not work. Those who did found it difficult to juggle the demands of both job and family. Women also experienced changes at home. Married women had fewer children than before. Ready-made clothes and labor-saving devices made housework easier. Other changes affected families. Marriages were more often the result of the two partners’ choice, not their parents’ arrangements. More teenagers stayed in school than before but sometimes rebelled against parental supervision.
Chapters in Brief With prosperity and the need for a more educated workforce, more students received a high school education. High schools changed, offering vocational training for future workers and home economics for future homemakers. Educators met the challenge of teaching millions of children of immigrants, many of whom did not know English. As a result, an increasing number of people could read. With these increased demands, schooling costs rose dramatically. American tastes were shaped by mass media. The number of people who read newspapers increased sharply, and national magazines flourished. The most powerful of the mass media, though, was radio. It grew into national networks that offered programming to many millions. The growing prosperity of the 1920 s gave Americans more money to spend—and more leisure time in which to spend it. Fads swept the nation. Many entertainment dollars were spent on tickets to sporting events as athletes in many sports set new records. Chief among them was baseball’s Babe Ruth, a long-ball hitter. America’s biggest hero was pilot Charles A. Lindbergh, who thrilled the nation in 1927 by flying alone across the Atlantic Ocean.
Chapters in Brief Americans by the hundreds of thousands found entertainment in movie theaters. For most of the decade, the movies were silent. In 1927, Hollywood released The Jazz Singer—the first major talking picture. Movies, like magazines and radio, helped create a national culture. Many artists contributed to a flowering of American culture. Playwright Eugene O’Neill dramatized family conflicts. Composer George Gershwin wrote music that combined jazz rhythms with classical forms. Sinclair Lewis, the first American to win a Nobel Prize in literature, wrote best-selling novels taking a critical look at the shallow life of middle-class Americans. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels showed the dark underside of the flashy life of the 1920 s. Dorothy Parker, Edith Wharton, and other women writers added a unique perspective in their work. In the 1920 s, hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved to the cities of the North. Many left the South for big cities in search of jobs. By 1929, 40 percent of all African Americans lived in cities. Racial riots erupted in the North, however. W. E. B. Du Bois, president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), protested racial violence. Another NAACP official, James Weldon Johnson, spearheaded the organization’s effort to get Congress to pass a law to put an end to lynching of African Americans. While the law never passed, the number of lynchings did drop. Marcus Garvey voiced a message of black pride that appealed to many African Americans. Garvey promoted the formation of black-owned businesses. He also urged many African Americans to return to Africa.
Chapters in Brief Harlem, a section of New York City, became home to a flowering of African. American culture called the Harlem Renaissance. Writers Claude Mc. Kay, Langston Hughes, and Zora Neale Hurston—among others—wrote moving poems, plays, and novels portraying the difficulties and pleasures of black life. Paul Robeson won renown as an actor. Musicians Louis Armstrong, “Duke” Ellington, and Bessie Smith delighted audiences with jazz and blues. This great decade of social and cultural change, though, would soon be overshadowed by an economic crash
Young Women Change the Rules Flappers become a symbol of a free young woman who embraced new fashion and urban attitudes Style ○ Skirts above the knee! ○ Short, boyish hair ○ Wore “kiss-proof” lipstick
Young Women Change the Rules Women become more assertive (began smoking and drinking in public, more willing to talk about sex) The Double Standard ○ Women were expected to observe stricter standards of behavior than men ○ Casual dating increased, but men only officially “courted” women who they would marry
Women Shed Roles New work opportunities ○ Nurses, teachers, secretaries, librarians, social workers ○ Unequal treatment and wages ○ Male view that women really belonged in the home The Changing Family ○ Lower birthrate from increased birth control information ○ Marriages from personal choice rather than family ○ Teenagers spent more time with other kids their age, and less with family ○ Child labor laws limit house income
Education and Popular Culture Newspaper and mass circulation magazines rose in circulation Radio was most powerful communication method in the 1920 s (allowed the shared national experience of hearing news live) Babe Ruth was glorified as a superhero
Education and Popular Culture Charles Lindbergh completed the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean movies begin to appear with sound in them it is one of the richest eras in American literature
The Harlem Renaissance was a literary and artistic movement celebrating African. American culture. African-American ideas, politics, art, literature, and music flourished in Harlem (and elsewhere) Politics: Marcus Garvey Writers: Claude Mc. Kay, Langston Hughes Performers: Paul Robeson Musicians: Louis Armstrong, “Duke” Ellington, Bessie Smith
Essential Question During the 1920 s, a double standard required women to observe stricter codes of behavior than men. Do you think that some women of this decade made real progress towards equality? Support your answer. Answer the question in three complete sentences in your summary section