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 Responsible and Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste in the European Responsible and Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste in the European Union Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom Adopted on 19 July 2011 Ute Blohm-Hieber European Commission, Head of Unit DG ENER-D. 2

 Art. 1 Subject matter 1. Community framework ensuring responsible and safe management of Art. 1 Subject matter 1. Community framework ensuring responsible and safe management of SF and RW to avoid imposing undue burden on the future generations 2. National arrangements for a high level of safety to protect workers and the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation 3. Ensuring necessary public information and participation IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 2

 . Context Each Member State remains free to define its fuel cycle policy: . Context Each Member State remains free to define its fuel cycle policy: Spent fuel can be regarded either as a valuable resource that may be reprocessed or as radioactive waste that is destined for direct disposal. Whatever option is chosen, the disposal of high-level waste, separated at reprocessing, or of spent fuel regarded as waste should be considered. Type of disposal commensurable with hazard of waste. IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 3

 Storage versus Disposal » The storage of RW, including long-term storage, is an Storage versus Disposal » The storage of RW, including long-term storage, is an interim solution, but not an alternative to disposal. » In the longer term, only disposal with its inherent passive safety can guarantee protection against all potential hazards. need for human action passive safety IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 4

 Structure CHAPTER I – Scope, Definitions and General Principles . . . . Structure CHAPTER I – Scope, Definitions and General Principles . . . . CHAPTER II – Obligations National framework (Art 5) Competent regulatory authority (Art 6) Licence holders (Art 7) Expertise and skills (Art 8) Financial resources (Art 9) Transparency (Art 10) National programmes (Art 11, 12, 13) Reporting (Art 14) CHAPTER III – Final Provisions: Reporting & Transposition IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 5

 . . « Directive in a Nutshell » Euratom Treaty Chapt III supplementing . . « Directive in a Nutshell » Euratom Treaty Chapt III supplementing BSS Directive (Art 1. 4) Civilian Spent Fuel & Radioactive Waste all stages of management from generation to disposal (Art 2) Based on IAEA Safety Standards and Joint Convention » Internationally endorsed principles and requirements for SF and RW management – not legally binding and enforceable » definitions consistent with IAEA glossary – JC (Art 3) National Programme: Heart of Directive IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 6

 General principles Art. 4 National policies on SF and RW management Member States General principles Art. 4 National policies on SF and RW management Member States have ultimate responsibility » » The generation of RW is kept to the minimum practicable » SF and RW are safely managed in the long term with passive safety features » » Graded approach applied » Evidence-based and documented decision-making process Interdependencies between all steps in SF and RW generation and management SF and RW producers cover the costs for their management IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 7

 General principles Art. 4 Disposal of RW, including SF considered as waste » General principles Art. 4 Disposal of RW, including SF considered as waste » » » Disposal of RW/SF in the MS in which it was generated “Shared” repositories in the EU possible Disposal outside the EU possible under very strict conditions, e. g. : - Equivalent high level of safety - Repository in the country of destination authorised for the RW/SF to be shipped and in operation prior to the shipment IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 8

 Obligations Art. 5 1. National framework (legislative, regulatory and organisational) Provisions for: » Obligations Art. 5 1. National framework (legislative, regulatory and organisational) Provisions for: » national programme for implementation of the national policy » » » national arrangements for the safety » enforcement actions licensing system for activities and facilities a system of appropriate control, a management system, regulatory inspections, documentation and reporting IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 9

 Obligations Art. 5 National framework 1. Provisions for: » » national arrangements for Obligations Art. 5 National framework 1. Provisions for: » » national arrangements for public information and participation » 2. allocation of responsibilities to the bodies involved in different steps of SF and RW management the financing scheme(s) for SF and RW management To be improved operational experience to be taken into account IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 10

 Obligations Art. 6 Competent regulatory authority independent and given legal powers and resources Obligations Art. 6 Competent regulatory authority independent and given legal powers and resources Art. 7 Licence holder prime responsibility for the safety ‘Safety case’ concept introduced as ‘safety demonstration’ for any activity or facility commensurate with the complexity of the operation and the magnitude of the hazards associated Art. 8 Expertise and skills education and training, R & D IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 11

 Obligations Art. 9 Financial resources Adequate financial resources be available when needed for Obligations Art. 9 Financial resources Adequate financial resources be available when needed for the implementation of the national programmes for SF and RW management, taking due account of the responsibility of SF and RW generators Art. 10 Transparency » » public information the public be given the necessary opportunities to participate effectively in the decision-making process regarding SF and RW management IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 12

 National programmes Art. 11 National programmes » » Art. 13 to be implemented, National programmes Art. 11 National programmes » » Art. 13 to be implemented, regularly reviewed and updated to cover all types of SF and RW and all stages of their management from generation to disposal Notification » » » National programmes / subsequent significant changes Commission’s opinion or request for a clarification Commission will consider national programmes when deciding on the provision of Community financial or technical assistance for SF and RW management IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 13

 . . . . Provisions of DIR to progress towards disposal RAW management . . . . Provisions of DIR to progress towards disposal RAW management from generation to DISPOSAL (Art 2. 1) SF & RAW to be safely managed in the long term with passive safety features (Art 4. 3 c) Disposal outside EU only under very restricted conditions (safe disposal facility in operation) (Art 4. 4) Obligation of licence holder for comprehensive safety case including closure & post-closure of disposal facility (Art 7. 3) Adequate financial resources for the complete national programme (Art 9) including disposal Notification of national programme (Art 12) for Commission (Art 13) opinion Periodic peer review (< 10 years) on national framework, regulatory body & implementation of national programme IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 14

 . . . Geological disposal – the main challenge The geological disposal concept . . . Geological disposal – the main challenge The geological disposal concept takes advantage of the capabilities of both the local geology and the engineered materials to fulfil specific safety functions in complementary fashion providing multiple and diverse barrier roles. Disposal can be accommodated in a broad range of geological settings, as long as these settings are carefully selected and matched with an appropriate facility design and configuration and engineered barriers. Delaying work on geological disposal – i. e. by adopting a “wait and see” strategy – would require increasingly more demanding care for the waste and its storage facilities. Wastes stored at or near the surface will be more vulnerable over time to extreme natural events or terrorism than wastes disposed deep underground. Geological disposal thus provides an ethical basis for current generations to deal with the waste and it should be implemented. RWM Collective Statement (2008), NEA/OECD IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 15

 National programme as heart of the DIR Art. 12 Contents » » » National programme as heart of the DIR Art. 12 Contents » » » Overall objectives of the national policy » » » Research, development and demonstration needed Significant milestones and clear timeframes Inventory - present amounts and future prospects Concepts or plans and technical solutions Concepts or plans for post-closure period of a disposal facility Responsibilities and the key performance indicators Cost assessment and financial scheme(s) in force Transparency policy or process Agreement(s) with a MS or a third country on SF and RW management, incl. on the use of disposal facility IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 16

 Reporting & Transposition Art. 14 Reporting » MS reports every three years – Reporting & Transposition Art. 14 Reporting » MS reports every three years – taking advantage of the review and reporting under the Joint Convention First reports by 23 August 2015 » Commission report to the Council and the European Parliament on progress made, inventory of SF and RW and future prospects » International peer review - invited by the MS at least every 10 years Art. 15 Transposition » » Compliance with the Directive by 23 August 2013 First notification of the content of National Programmes not later than 23 August 2015 IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 17

 Why to act now? Why detailed National Programme needed? » » Storage – Why to act now? Why detailed National Programme needed? » » Storage – a management step Disposal – a management solution Why to plan disposal today? » Easier knowledge preservation, trained staff availability » Passive safety features of disposal: lower radiation exposure of workers (storage require active long-term monitoring) » To avoid undue burden on future generation (financial, managerial, knowledge, staff, …) <=> disposal: added value in safety vis-à-vis storage IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 18

 The situation in many Member States Burdens on future generations Increasing efforts for The situation in many Member States Burdens on future generations Increasing efforts for ensuring safety and knowledge preservation Distortion of competition “Wait-and-see” policies Lack of political commitment Insufficient scientific, technical and financial resources Insufficient public information and participation IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 19

 Example: time frame for the implementation plan in Finland (Olkiluoto) . . . Example: time frame for the implementation plan in Finland (Olkiluoto) . . . . 1977 Feasibility investigations 1983 Government decision about schedule and goals 2000 Site confirmation 2001 Decision in principle by government and parliament 2001 Construction of ONKALO demonstration project June 2011: excavation of first demo tunnel 2012 Construction license application 2018 Operation license application 2020 Commissioning Onkalo project IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 20

 Recital 24 It is “an ethical obligation of each Member State to avoid Recital 24 It is “an ethical obligation of each Member State to avoid any undue burden on future generations in respect of spent fuel and radioactive waste including any radioactive waste expected from decommissioning of existing nuclear installations. Through the implementation of this Directive Member States will have demonstrated that they have taken reasonable steps to ensure that objective is met” IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 21

 Conclusion Common Drivers towards disposal ü National Programme § § § Technical requirements Conclusion Common Drivers towards disposal ü National Programme § § § Technical requirements Financing Public involvement ü Reporting / Notification ü Peer Review IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 22

 Who fails to plan, plans to fail! THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Ute. Who fails to plan, plans to fail! THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Ute. [email protected] europa. eu IAEA, International Workshop Storage & Disposal, Stockholm, 29 November 2011 l 23