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Residential Land Use and Population Densities By: Alexis Smallwood, Taylor Poling, Jordan Butts, Meghan Residential Land Use and Population Densities By: Alexis Smallwood, Taylor Poling, Jordan Butts, Meghan Hissam, Tia Le. Master

Mill Creek of Opequon Creek Data Chemical conditions Result Units Temperature (C/F) 5. 5 Mill Creek of Opequon Creek Data Chemical conditions Result Units Temperature (C/F) 5. 5 C p. H 7. 5 Conductivity 680 us Dissolved Oxygen 10 ppm Nitrate/Nitrite 0 ppm Alkalinity 275 ppm Turbidity 0 JTU na na Bacteria (Fecal/E-coli) Phosphate 1 ppm

Physical conditions Run width (ft) na Riffle width (ft) 5. 0' Run depth (ft) Physical conditions Run width (ft) na Riffle width (ft) 5. 0' Run depth (ft) na Rifffle depth (ft) . 43' Discharge (cfs) 5. 5 Streambed color brown Water level normal Surface foam slight Water clarity clear Algae color light gr / br Water color none Algae abundance moderate Water odor none Algae texture even coating Sediment odor na Channel shade fair: 60 -40% shaded Left Right Sediment Deposition 4 Bank Stability 3 3 Embeddedness 6 Riparian Buffer width 1 1 Substrate comp (LG) na Habitat Score: 18

Mill Creek and Local Residential Areas Mill Creek and Local Residential Areas

Ø Overall, the Mill Creek data that our school collected showed that the stream Ø Overall, the Mill Creek data that our school collected showed that the stream was considered “healthy. ” The Big Run data that was collected by the TMI Watershed group showed that their stream was healthier than the Mill Creek stream. The Big Run stream for example had less algae than the Mill Creek stream. We believe that the reason the Mill Creek stream isn’t as healthy as the Big Run stream is because the Mill Creek area is largely populated compared to the Big Run area.

Current Data of Musselman High School April 12, 2010 Free Chlorine- 0. 0 ppm Current Data of Musselman High School April 12, 2010 Free Chlorine- 0. 0 ppm p. H- 8 Total alkalinity- 120 ppm Total chlorine- 0 ppm Total hardness- 0 ppm Nitrates- 0 ppm Nitrites- 0 ppm Iron- 0 ppm Copper- 0 ppm Sulfates- 100 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide- 0 ppm Chloride- 500 ppm Temp- 14. 4 degrees C April 19, 2010 Free Chlorine- 0. 0 ppm p. H- 8 Total alkalinity- 0 ppm Total chlorine- 0. 2 ppm Total hardness- 0 ppm Nitrates- 0 ppm Nitrites- 0 ppm Iron- 0 ppm Copper- 0 ppm Sulfates- 100 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide- 0. 2 ppm Chloride- 400 ppm Temp. - 15. 0 degrees C

Musselman High School Watershed Photos Musselman High School Watershed Photos

Conclusions of MHS Ø In conclusion, MHS is like a big house, we have Conclusions of MHS Ø In conclusion, MHS is like a big house, we have a kitchen, restrooms, and cars. Due to the similar features our school has a negative affect on the water around Musselman High School. This is caused by the waste, water use, trash, any amount of cars. Fortunately, there are many things being done to help our surrounding water such as the green roof and the watershed groups monitoring, cleaning up the trash and planting trees.

(1) slight, (2) moderate, (3) high; (W) watershed, (M) within ¼ mile, (S) streamside. (1) slight, (2) moderate, (3) high; (W) watershed, (M) within ¼ mile, (S) streamside. Land use Impact single family residences S 3 recreation S 1 paved roads S 2 bridge S 2 Industrial areas W 1 active construction W 2 abandoned mining W 1 logging W 2 pastureland M 1 cropland W 1 sub-urban developments M 1 parking lots S 1 Pipes Urban/residential/road impervious areas NO 2998. 1 acres Location

Examples of land use in this area are restaurants, homes and housing developments, hotels, Examples of land use in this area are restaurants, homes and housing developments, hotels, small businesses, school, banks, state highways, quarry, supermarkets, parking lots, farms, parks, recreational areas, orchards, etc.

This satellite photograph is the same picture as the previous slide except we made This satellite photograph is the same picture as the previous slide except we made a few changes. The areas on the map that are blacked out areas that have not been affected by population densities and residential land use. Things such as construction sites, quarrys, housing developments, educational facilities, and recreational areas are all dominant land uses in the local Mill Creek watershed area.

In this My World document, it shows different types of housing data. It shows In this My World document, it shows different types of housing data. It shows the number of housing units for different types of people and different types of homes. It tells us that the total number of household units in the Mill Creek watershed area is 844, 623. 108, 142 of these units are vacant homes, 553, 699 are owner households, and 182, 782 of the units are rental households. We believe that the type of owner’s of the units may affect how well the property is taken care of physically. The conditions of the property can affect local watersheds. For example, we believe that rental owners are not as considerate of their property as people who own their property.

 • The Opequon Creek covers 97, 000 acres of land the stream runs • The Opequon Creek covers 97, 000 acres of land the stream runs for 72. 42 kilometers (45 miles). • The Mill Creek watershed has an area of 47. 88 square kilometers (29. 75 square miles) and runs 23. 34 kilometers (14. 5 miles) north and east. • A maximum of 30% of people know about watershed groups. • Berkeley County population as of 2009 is 99, 734 people. • The local sewage is not treated well enough according to a local court case. This contributes to higher nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the streams. • As populations increase, the percentage of people that flush expired prescriptions increases. This causes the fish in the streams to mutate and become intersex. • Since 2004, construction sites clearing over 1 acre of land were required to have an erosion plan to compensate.

Conclusion Ø When population densities and new types of land use increase, the local Conclusion Ø When population densities and new types of land use increase, the local watersheds around that area will be affected negatively. There are multiple factors such as whether the new land uses are constructed of impervious surfaces, the location of homes, and many other things that can affect local watersheds. Due to the 28. 49% increase in population since 2000, local watershed groups (such as the one at Musselman High School) have teamed together to protect our local watershed.

Bibliography Ø Ø Ø Big Run & Millcreek stream data. Retrieved October 9, 2009, Bibliography Ø Ø Ø Big Run & Millcreek stream data. Retrieved October 9, 2009, from http: //www. edline. net/files/_7 CHRz_/ab 7 aae 19 e 4 f 184083745 a 49013852 ec 4/Copy_of_AW SM_Stream. Index. Calculations_MASTER_09. xls Conley Natural Stream Design Project Proposal. (n. d. ). Opequon Creek. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from www. opequoncreek. org/Watershed%20 Based%20 Plan/Proposal. For. S ect 319 Conley 08408. pdf Convert Miles to Kilometers. Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http: //www. convertunits. com/from/miles/to/km Get Wet. Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http: //www. edline. net/files/_DVD 1 o_/91 f 0728 bc 0422 bf 63745 a 49013852 ec 4/Symposium_d anielle-retention_pond-GLOBE_redo. ppt Google Maps. (2010, April 14). Google Maps. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http: //maps. google. com/maps? ll=39. 353419, - 78. 041072&z=15&t=h&hl=en My World. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http: //www. edline. net/files/_DOEp. N_/f 6 c 8 db 8713803 d 7 d 3745 a 49013852 ec 4/Millcreek_wa tershed_pop_in fo_continued__3. doc Opequon Creek Watershed. (2007, June 15). Opequon Creek Project Team. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http: //www. opequoncreek. org/Maps. html Survey Results From Virginia And. (n. d. ). What Do Riparian Owners. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from www. usawaterquality. org/conferences Stewards & Allies Win Jefferson County Sewage Case. (n. d. ). Stewards of The Potomac Highlands. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from www. potomacstewards. com/cleanh 2 o West Virginia County Map - WV Counties - Map of West Virginia. (n. d. ). Free Printable Topo Maps - Instant Access to Topographic Maps. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http: //www. digital-topo-maps. com/county-map/west-virginia. shtml West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. 2006. Department of Natural Resources. 10 Dec. 2007 http: //www. wvdnr. gov/