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Research & Development @ IIT Bombay Prof. Krithi Ramamritham Dean R & D, IIT Bombay
IIT BOMBAY Vision “To be the fountainhead of new ideas and of innovators in technology and science. ” Mission “ To create an ambience where new ideas, research and scholarship flourish and where the leaders and innovators of tomorrow emerge. ”
Some Examples of Recent Technology Transfers- Society • ASAN: The Low Cost ATM • A Learning Based Tool for Automatic Address Segmentation • Palletized Tea Storage Methodology employing Controlled Atmosphere • Design & Development of Composites passenger coach doors for Railways • Modular FRP toilet units for Railways • A PC based communicator for children with special needs • Pedal power devices for rural applications • Animal driven battery charging unit • a. AQUA web portal for providing information to farmers • Design & development of rehabilation aids for physically handicapped using light weight polymers • Development of LPG stove for blind • Improved design of post boxes • Silicon Locket-for Cardiac monitoring • Artificial hand for amputees • Bio Char unit for charcoal production
a. AQUA • Need To insert It is an Online expert Question & a picture Answers based community forum for delivering information at the grassroot levels to the Indian Community. http: //aaqua. persistent. co. in/aaqua/forum/index a. AQUA ia a multilingual communication framework conceived: To provide a language independent knowledge database TO provide an easy to use interface to accommodate even inexperienced users To integrate the agricultural domain of a. AQUA with the Agro-explorer group Developed at KRe. SIT IIT Bombay.
Computer Keyboard for Indian Languages Salient Features • An alternative design mechanism for text input in Devnagari. • Amongst several alternatives, a keyboard called Key-Lekh was developed with a goal to enable persons familiar with Devnagari to use it without instructions. • For example, on a ticket vending machine at a railway station, literate passengers should be able to 'walk up and use' this keyboard to type their name, destination and other details to buy train tickets. • The underlying concept of the design of Key-Lekh is based on the 'Varnamala'the well-structured Indian alphabetic system. Prof. Anirudha Joshi and his team at the Industrial Design Centre (IDC) have worked on designing alternative mechanisms for text input in Devnagari. … continued
Computer Keyboard for Indian Languages Demonstration Projects • Studies on a prototype have proven that the Key-Lekh is an efficient 'walk-up-and-use' keyboard, and can also work as a desktop keyboard. • The prototype has been subjected to extensive tests by users in various age-groups through road shows and competitions held on the campus. • The initial feedback suggests that Key-Lekh is the easiest-to-learn keyboard yet developed for Indian scripts. Presently its performance is being tested more rigorously. • Key-Lekh's design is being further improved to make it sufficiently robust and useful as a commercial product.
Silicon Locket for Cardiac Monitoring Salient features of product are: The SILICON LOCKET - an efficient and high performance medical device Optimized to observe cardiac patients with state-of-the-art electronics, embedded into an ultra small form factor - thus named ‘locket’. The system a web enabled heart monitoring device with a host of advanced features to accelerate modern treatment schemes. The subject is required to wear a match-box sized silicon locket with the electrodes strapped at proper locations, and he/she may be at home or in hospital. Prof. Rakesh K. Lal and Prof. Dinesh K. Sharma from the Microelectronics group at IIT Bombay, and Dr. Sunil D. Sherlekar from TCS have mentored the project for the last three years. Prof. Saumyo Mukherji has also been associated with this project since its inception. Vivek Vaid, Ashrut Ambastha and Sudip Nag have made major contributions to circuit and system building. The custom IC for linear functions was designed by Dr. Maryam Shojaei.
Silicon Locket for Cardiac Monitoring Salient features of product are: The device is optimized to acquire three simultaneous channels of electrocardiogram (ECG) data and store it on-board memory. The locket is equipped with a USB, Ir. DA, RS 232 and 2. 4 GHz direct sequence spread spectrum wireless connectivity for seamless integration with the public network, existing mobile phones and high-end PDAs. A miniaturized and pluggable PSTN modem is constructed to transfer data remotely to a doctor’s computer or medical database. In case, an abnormality is detected (such as arrhythmia) in the patient’s ECG, the silicon locket can connect to a mobile phone and send an alert SMS to the doctor. Simplified communication protocols are used to eliminate code complexity and task overhead on the 16 -bit processor. A low cost polymeric accelerometer (MEMS) has also been fabricated using electron beam lithography, which will be useful for detecting motion artifacts in ambulatory subjects. The project was sponsored by Tata Consultancy Services (TCS).
Technologies for the Physically Challenged “Science is People” Prof. Alan Mac. Diarmid Nobel Laureate (Chemistry), 2000
An LPG kitchen stove for the sight-challenged The Technology Developed has: • Design made conducive for the blind by using the principle of kinesthetic and facile sensation. • Low cost mechanisms developed for auto ignition and flame failure detection. The project was sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. Product Cost: Approximately Rs. 3, 500/- to 4, 000/- per stove. Status: 30 stove units have been developed in association with M/s. PK Limited, Hyderabad, of which five were handed over to the National Association of Blinds for trial. … continued
An LPG kitchen stove for the sight-challenged Salient features of product are: • Two-burner gas stove. • Separate auto igniters for each stove. • Auto flame failure detectors for each burner with different tone. • Flame guard ring for each burner. • Five-prong pan support. • Drip disc around each burner. • Drip tray underneath the stove. • Easily operational burner control knob with three control positions. • Two step body for easy location of burner and control area. • Reference ridge on the body for easy location of burners and easy repositioning of pan support and flame guard by the blinds after cleaning. • Stainless steel body. • Central groove on the front surface for keeping vessels etc. • User can replace the battery • Aesthetically pleasing and safe product form. • Can be efficiently used both by the visually handicapped and sighted persons. • Low cost. • Easily serviceable. . This problem was addressed through a project taken up by Prof. G. G. Ray and Mr. M. S. G. Rajan of the Industrial Design Centre, at IIT Bombay.
A communicator for Children with Cerebral Palsy Development of Keyboard: Keyboard Layout proposed by the school – a complex keyboard requiring lots of memory recall Keyboard Layout suggested by IITB – a simple keyboard with executable commands Developed By Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay
Artificial Hand Salient features of product are: Version 1: Only hand – single motor for grasp/prehension. Two-motor hand grasp and forearm rotation. Discrete electronics with low-cost lead-acid battery. Overload detection and protection. IIT-Bombay design: 1999 -2002. A low cost artificial hand was developed at IIT Bombay under a project funded by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment Version 2: Hand forearm – additional (MSJ&E) 1999 -2001 (budget motor forearm supination/pronation. Rs. 6. 65 lakhs) (Investigators: Microcontroller based electronics. Suresh Devasahayam, R Lal, and P C Pandey). Improved control using 3 switches. Two The initial design was done at IIT mobile phone batteries. Redesigned at Bombay, (Version-I), and after CMC-Vellore: 2002 -2004. preliminary testing at the Rehabilitation Institute in Mumbai, Version 3: Hand, forearm and elbow – third clinical trials with long term follow motor for elbow flexion/extention. Single -up was done at CMC-Vellore. mobile phone battery, 12 volt motors, 2 The design was revised substantially at CMC-Vellore in switch control for multiple functions. 2003, (Version-II), and production Elbow movement. CMC-Vellore design: of the revised version started in 20052004 … continued
Artificial Hand Salient features of product are: • Artificial hand would cost less than Rs 10, 000 as compared to the imported ones for more than 3 lakhs • The motorized hand has several userfriendly features including myoelectric and whistle controllers. • A single motor helps the co-ordinated movement of the fingers and thumb, while another motor turns the hand at the forearm. • The motors are operated by switches placed in the socket of the artificial hand. • The bulging of the muscles and the slight movement in the residual limb of the amputee are used to control these switches. • works better in humid climates.
Ascender: The Climbing Wheelchair Salient features of product are: The Industrial Design Centre has produced an innovative wheelchair design, named Ascender, for the increased comfort and ease of operation by disabled persons. Special features • Allows users to negotiate kerbs and steps with greater ease • Provides users with higher level of operational freedom and self-reliance • Facilitates transfer of persons to and from the wheelchair • Design eliminates extensive use of hands • Easy transportation and assembly of parts • Uses new materials and joining methods The design is available for commercialisation. Prof V P Bapat, Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay
Lightweight Rehabilitation Aids for Polioaffected Children Salient features of product are: The main disadvantage associated with steel (metallic) rehabilitation aids is the weight that has to be borne by the user, especially so when the user is a child. A lightweight prosthesis, employing novel material, has been developed by the Aerospace Dept jointly with the SDM Hospital, Jaipur. Clinical trials on over 1000 patients have confirmed the superiority and acceptability of the product in cases of lower limb paralysis. Developed at the Aerospace Engineering Department, IIT Bombay
Different Aids for Children with Cerebral Palsy Salient features of product are: • Ergonomically designed aids to help improve neuromuscular and communication skills of such children. • These include therapeutic aids, educational aids, mobility aids, and personal aids with several advantageous features to suit different age groups. • Some of the products are suitable for use by normal children as well. the product in cases of lower limb paralysis. Prof G G Ray, Prof U A Athavankar, Prof V P Bapat, Industrial Design Centre IIT Bombay
Products and Technologies for Rural and Urban requirements “… Care must be taken to ensure that modern technology does not merely become a preserve but that its benefits reach also the fields and villages of rural India” -Smt Indira Gandhi -December 9, 1982, in a message to the Institute on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee Celebration of IIT Bombay
Tools and Technologies for the Cane and Bamboo Craft Salient features of project are: An estimated 13. 5 lakh persons in India are dependent on bamboo for livelihood, of which 5 -6 lakhs are involved in bamboo craft. IIT Bombay has developed a number of technologies to bolster the unorganized craft sector by helping artisans produce valueadded, contemporary bamboo products to compete with other materials in the urban and international markets. Prof. A G Rao, Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay. . continued
Tools and Technologies for the Cane and Bamboo Craft A tool-kit (Fabricated by: M/s Lamicraft and M/s Kadirus ) with 97 product-specific hand tools to process bamboo. • Small hand-operated machines for bamboo-processing, suitable for remote areas with unreliable power supply • Jigs, fixtures and moulds to aid control of sizes and give better finishes • Variety of treatments such as smoking, alum, etc. to prevent fungal and insect attacks and various surface finishes using natural dyes • New weaves and product designs for ergonomically, functionally and aesthetically improved products. Prof. A G Rao, Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay
Bio-Char Unit for Low Cost Production of Charcoal Salient features of product are: • simple to operate & non-polluting • Is adaptable to other waste although developed for bamboo waste • Uses the otherwise polluting gases as thermal fuel • a uniform yield of 25% charcoal from bamboo waste, and about 28% charcoal from other woody biomass is obtained, with a consistent calorific value of 28 MJ/kg Sponsored by the National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA), TIFAC, The Department. of Science and Technology, developed by the biomass research group led by Prof Anuradda Ganesh (Energy Systems Engineering), IIT Bombay
Bio-Char Unit for Low Cost Production of Charcoal Demonstration Projects A single person can operate the unit, which costs Rs. 35, 000. • A bio-char unit was set up at an activated carbon manufacturing plant in Hyderabad, where the suitability of bamboo charcoal as raw material was successfully demonstrated. • Another BCU sponsored by KVIC is being put up at a bakery unit at Yusuf Mehrauli Centre, Tara Village, Maharashtra to demonstrate the use of thermal energy from gases for generating charcoal as a by-product. • Through NMBA, 15 such units at five different locations in Tripura, Meghalaya, Bastar, Amravati and Pune districts are being deployed for training and further dissemination of the technology. • A 10 kg batch unit was also demonstrated at the VII World Bamboo Congress, New Delhi. The BCU is expected to help generate rural employment, and ensure village energy security
Engineered Ecosystems for Waste Management Salient features of process are: Organic wastes from human and animal habitations can accumulate in, and endanger the environment. Engineered ecosystems research for waste conversion has led to the development of Vermiculture Technology at IIT Bombay. This process overcomes the problems associated with conventional methods such as solid state composting, activated sludge, and extended aeration in which bio-energy gets dissipated. It engages an ecology consisting of soil, plants and soil micro and macroorganisms including geophagous earthworms. The process obtains synergy between photosynthesis and respiration, so that bio-energy of wastes is fully utilized. Facilitated through initial support by the Department of Biotechnology, the process has major potential in city farming, animal husbandry, agriculture, wasteland development, and agro-industrial waste processing. Prof. H S Shankar, Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay
Bio-reactor for Recycling of Wastewater Engineered ecosystems may also be used for treatment of liquid wastes. Cultured Soil Filter Technology developed for this purpose consists of impervious containment (typically 1. 0 - 1. 5 m below ground), and incorporates soil, filtration media, soil organisms like earthworms, Applications and plants. • Treatment of water for irrigation, construction, and soil Special features application • Industrial effluent treatment • A cost-effective ‘green’ technology, • Processing solid wastes suitable for all solid and liquid organic • Non-chemical purification of swimming pools and drinking waste water The technology has been • Very low energy consumption adopted by several user • Bio-mineral fertilizers and soil as byorganisations products • No sludge production, unlike Prof. H S Shankar, Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay conventional units • Self-sustaining revenue model
Dam project - Karjat Salient features of project are: Karjat Taluka of Raigad district in spite of the heavy rainfall received here, many villages and hamlets face a severe shortage of drinking water in summer Project was to construct small dams in some of these hamlets with the main objective to hold enough water so that drinking water needs for the villagers and their livestock are met for the whole year. The project developed by The Centre for Technological Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA) with Civil Engineering Department, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, Earth Sciences Department and Humanities & Social Sciences Department of IIT Bombay in association with the Academy of Development Science (ADS), Kashele, Karjat CTARA, IIT Bombay
Dam project - Karjat Two sites of Gudwanwadi and Belachiwadi have been selected initially for the current year and next year respectively, along with nearby hamlets of Amberpada, Kathewadi. The dam for Belachiwadi will be roughly 80 m in length, with a 20 m spillway and a maximum height of 8 m with storage of about 30, 000 cu. m. The survey and study of the sites has been done by the Earth Sciences students and CSE students have developed a geometry code on Gram ++ developed by CSRE for watershed/storage estimation. Civil Engineering researchers will undertake Geodesy, Dam Design, Construction and Analysis. Humanities and Social Sciences staff and students conduct a need analysis, site selection and social analysis. ADS will be responsible for the social mobilization, local support and execution getting technical consultancy from Gangotree, an agency with considerable experience in social watershed development. Rough estimates for the dams are Rs. 12 lakhs for Belachiwadi and Rs. 18 lakhs for Gudwanwadi, A large donation of Rs 20 lakhs by IITB alumni, Dr Shridhar Shukla, of G S Labs, Pune has helped taking this initiative further. CTARA, IIT Bombay
Briquetting Machine • Different kinds of fuels are used for heating purposes. In rural areas most of the people use fuel-wood for cooking and heating the water. The large scale use of fuel-wood has led to the deforestation. • In a view to conserve the forest, alternative fuels such as briquette can be used for every day heating works. Briquettes are made from dried leaves, dung, saw dust etc. • The mixture, prepared by adding sufficient water, is placed in the mould and it is compressed by hand lever. • • Two person can make 25 – 30 briquettes in an hour. Density of briquettes made in the hand briquette machine is around 500 – 600 Kg/m 3. . Dr. N. G. Shah, CTARA, IIT Bombay
Box Type Solar Cooker Solar cooker is an enclosure with area of around 2500 sq. cm and depth of 1520 cm. It traps the solar energy and converts it into heat which can be used for cooking the food. The temperature up-to 120°c can be obtained on sunny days. Pulses, rice, vegetables can be readily cooked. The time taken for cooking depends upon the solar radiation and varies from ½ to 2 ½ hours.
Rain Water Harvesting Structure There is heavy rainfall in Konkan region; however, water run away on the slopes and very little water (around 18%) is left for the use. Hence, people face severe scarcity of water in summer season. Six houses are constructed around the sides of the hexagonal water tank. When the rain falls on the roof of the houses, it runs away on the roof and gets deposited in the tank. The capacity of water tank is 1. 2 lakh liters. Considering the per capita consumption of 25 lit/day, water stored in the tank will be enough for six families for four months of summer season.
Pedal Powered Battery A Pedal Powered generator provides a method of generating electricity by means of a modified bicycle for producing electricity by means of a Direct Current (DC) generator that is connected by a chain to the flywheel. The energy generated by the DC generator can be stored in various types of dry/lead-acid batteries. Also, energy that is stored within the battery can be utilized as DC current for use in DC appliances and by using inverter can be use to run alternating Current (AC) appliances. The unit can generate 100 W power by peddling 1 hr @40 -50 rpm. It is enough to light two CFL lamps (10 W) for five hours. A prototype unit is installed at YMC-TARA village Rural Industry centre in December 2003 with requisite training to the concerned technical staff. Initial feedback from the user has been very encouraging.
Pedal Powered Potters Wheel Pedal power Potters wheel consists of a driving mechanism, seating arrangement, rotary wheel and plastic splash pan. The driving mechanism consists of a chain and sprocket drive with set of bevel gears, which convert human energy into horizontal rotary motion and transmits it to the wheel. Wheel itself acts as “Potters wheel” as well as flywheel that curbs the effect of the unevenness associated with pedaling. The wheel would have a full range of speed control from slow revolutions to fast (i. e. 100 to 300 rpm). It can hold both fast and slow speed accurately under load. A prototype unit is installed at YMC, TARA village rural Industry centre with requisite training to the concerned technical staff. Initial feedback from the potter having used the unit has been very encouraging. Cost of Prototype : Rs. 5000/-from the user has been very encouraging.
Improvised Designs – for local adaptability
ASAN: ATM Enclosure Design • ASAN, a low cost Automated Teller Machine (ATM) was launched in December 2003. • ASAN has several advantageous features over the currently deployed ATMs to suit the Indian customer and settings. • The attractive new design incorporating elements from traditional Indian architecture • ASAN's ergonomic design suits the typical Indian body dimensions with respect to the height of the keypad and the inclination of the screen • The machine has a provision for keeping one's personal belongings, and protruding wings for ensuring privacy during transactions. • A multi-coloured card reader status indicator guides users unfamiliar with new technology like smart DIP card readers • ……. continued
ASAN: ATM Enclosure Design • A multi-coloured card reader status indicator guides users unfamiliar with new technology like smart DIP card readers. • The machine has NCR-intelligent powersaving hardware and software. An integrated pedestal accommodates a UPS, providing maximum availability during outages. • The robust engineering design ensures trouble-free operation in hot, humid and dusty environments. • Additionally, a unique airflow system allows deployment at non-air conditioned sites. Such features make it suitable for interior locations. • Other features include, 40 -column graphics thermal receipt printer, secure encrypting PIN pad and a flat panel screen. The design team won the Excellence in Consultancy Services – 2004 award for this Project on "Design of NCR Easy. Point 57 i ATM: ASAN for NCR", given under Consultancy Development Centre National Awards, supported by DSIR Ministry of Science and Technology. The award was presented by the Honourable President of India Dr A P J Abdul KAlam Designed by Profs A. Joshi, V. P. Bapat and U. A. Athavankar of The Industrial Design Centre
Modular Toilets for Indian Railways Features and advantages: • Factory built, prefabricated product, ‘ready to assemble' in A/C Coaches (manufactured by Integral Coach Factory, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, and Rail Coach Factory, Kaputhala, Punjab) • Unit consists of 5 modules • Can be erected in 3 -4 hours • 3 variations made to suit requirements of different types of coaches: include three Oriental types WCs, one Western Type WC & 2 Units of Outside Panel with wash basin. • All plumbing and electrical wiring concealed • Indian style WC specially designed with ergonomic features for maximum comfort • Good aesthetics and ergonomics the running theme throughout the design process • Visual clutter due to leakage, visible plumbing, loose wiring, rusting elements avoided to make the unit a clean & hygienic place for use. • Modern efficient image given by choosing right materials, form, colour & finishes • Many innovative ideas incorporated to enhance the aesthetics, convenience & safety. The project was taken up at Industrial Design Centre & Department of Aerospace Engineering of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay for Indian Railways. … continued
Modular Toilets for Indian Railways • The project on Modular Toilet Unit in FRP was taken up at Industrial Design Centre & Department of Aerospace Engineering of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay for Indian Railways. The project was supported by the Advance Composite Mission, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. Hindustan Fibre Glass Works, Vadodara, made the prototypes with design and technology support from IIT Bombay • IIT Bombay received a Certificate of Merit from the Consultancy Development Centre (DSIR) for excellence in consultancy services for the project on ‘Design of Modular Toilet Unit for Railway Coaches’ for the year 2001. • After a trial run in 2 -tier air conditioned coaches of the Rajdhani Express, the units were transferred to the Indian Railways. Air-conditioned coaches made at the Integral Coach Factory, Chennai now employ these units.
Concern for man and his destiny must always be the chief interest of all technical efforts. Never forget it in all your dreams and equations -- Albert Einstein Thank You