Скачать презентацию Reporting Information and Evaluating Likelihood M Grazia Скачать презентацию Reporting Information and Evaluating Likelihood M Grazia

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Reporting Information and Evaluating Likelihood © M. Grazia Busà 2013 Reporting Information and Evaluating Likelihood © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Reviewing reported speech Sources’ information can be quoted directly or indirectly, or paraphrased ØDirect Reviewing reported speech Sources’ information can be quoted directly or indirectly, or paraphrased ØDirect speech: what was said is reported in ‘’ ● ‘I do not believe this is true’, said Mr Hughes ØIndirect speech: the sources’ words are reported with no quotes, as a subordinate clause to the main clause ● Hughes did not believe that the fact was true ØParaphrase: the sources’ words can be reworded and summarised ● Hughes did not believe in the likelihood of the event ● Hughes was sceptical © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Direct speech Ø Assumption: source’s exact words are reported Ø Used to: ● Give Direct speech Ø Assumption: source’s exact words are reported Ø Used to: ● Give objectivity to the quote ● Add vividness to the story, by making it more personal ● Enhance the story’s newsworthiness by making it more involving © M. Grazia Busà 2013

An example ● ‘I want the whole world to know about my country and An example ● ‘I want the whole world to know about my country and my people, ’ the Guadalajara native said ● ‘I imagine that they’re all going crazy in Mexico right now, ’ she said through an interpreter. ‘I’m extremely proud and I’m sure they’re very proud, too. ’ (Oskar Garcia, Associated Press, August 24, 2010) © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Indirect speech Ø Assumption: reported words may be fairly close to the source’s, but Indirect speech Ø Assumption: reported words may be fairly close to the source’s, but not exactly the same ● Focus is on the substance of the source’s words Ø Allows control over the information ● Pieces of information can be combined, moved, omitted, emphasized Ø Indirect speech reported may not be easily distinguishable from the narration ● Used when information is controversial © M. Grazia Busà 2013

An example ● Konigsmark said he was in the home when suddenly, around 7: An example ● Konigsmark said he was in the home when suddenly, around 7: 45 p. m. , the whole house shook with what sounded like a bomb going off on the bottom floor. (http: //www. sfgate. com, November 17, 2008) © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Paraphrases Ø Used when the sources’ words are: ● not particularly dramatic, interesting or Paraphrases Ø Used when the sources’ words are: ● not particularly dramatic, interesting or clear ● difficult for the readership to understand (for example in the case of government reports) ● grammatically incorrect ● too colloquial to look good in writing Example: Jenna Bush Hager confirms pregnancy (www. today. com, December 12, 2012) Compare: Jenna Bush Hager: ‘I'm pregnant!’ © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Other uses of direct speech Ø To give authoritativeness to a story ● As Other uses of direct speech Ø To give authoritativeness to a story ● As a form of validation of information ● Scientists have identified a new species of African monkey whose coloring ‘is unlike anything I’ve ever seen, ’ as one of the researchers put it. (http: //www. nytimes. com, September 13, 2012) Ø To emphasize that a word/phrase represents the source’s opinion, not the journalist’s ● Useful as a disowning device, to distance oneself from the information provided ● Perry says Corsicana man a ‘monster’ (www. chron. com, October 15, 2009) © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Use of modality in news stories Ø Linguistic expressions to indicate the degree to Use of modality in news stories Ø Linguistic expressions to indicate the degree to which a fact or event is considered possible, necessary or desirable ● Modal verbs (can, will, shall, may, must, could, would, should, might) ● Adverbs (likely, undoubtedly, probably, certainly, conceivably …) ● Phrases (it is certain that, it is possible that, it seems that …) can be used to convey a particular perspective on events © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Epistemic modality Ø Expresses the notions of ‘speculation’, ‘probability’ or ‘certainty’ Ø Indicates the Epistemic modality Ø Expresses the notions of ‘speculation’, ‘probability’ or ‘certainty’ Ø Indicates the degree to which speakers/writers are confident about the certainty of occurrence of a present, past or future event ● May/might ● Could ● Can ● Will (strong possibility the action will not or did not take place) (possible but highly unlikely) (possible but unlikely) (prediction: it is likely to happen) © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Deontic modality Ø Expresses the speaker’s/writer’s idea about which future events are necessary, possible, Deontic modality Ø Expresses the speaker’s/writer’s idea about which future events are necessary, possible, desirable, etc. ● Must ● Should ● Have to ● May expresses an order expresses a recommendation expresses necessity expresses permission © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Examples Ø Catholic church in France may become Mosque (http: //rt. com, October 12, Examples Ø Catholic church in France may become Mosque (http: //rt. com, October 12, 2012) Ø Nuclear operators must act now on safety: EU (http: //www. reuters. com, October 4, 2012) Ø Prisoners will not get the vote, says David Cameron (http: //www. bbc. co. uk, October 24, 2012) Ø 7 Foods You Should Never Eat (http: //www. foxnews. com, December 2, 2011) © M. Grazia Busà 2013

Using modality in news stories Ø How likely is it that the headline is Using modality in news stories Ø How likely is it that the headline is true? © M. Grazia Busà 2013

The headline Mysterious woman flanking NK leader highly likely to be his wife (http: The headline Mysterious woman flanking NK leader highly likely to be his wife (http: //english. yonhapnews. co. kr, July 15, 2012) What degree of probability does this modal expression convey that the woman is the NK leader’s wife? © M. Grazia Busà 2013

i. e. , the ‘mystery’ around this woman is the key to the interpreting i. e. , the ‘mystery’ around this woman is the key to the interpreting the story The lead The mysterious woman who has repeatedly been seen closely flanking North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in a recent series of public appearances, is highly likely to be his wife, a South Korean government source said Sunday Modality expression indicates that the news is not certain, it is based on speculations © M. Grazia Busà 2013 Source is not precisely specified

Answer ØThe event is presented as speculative by means of: ● Modal verbs and Answer ØThe event is presented as speculative by means of: ● Modal verbs and modal expressions indicating speculation, possibility ● Lexical choices that convey speculation, uncertainty ● Vagueness about the sources of information © M. Grazia Busà 2013