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Renewing the Sectional Struggle: 1848 -1854 AP US History
Introduction The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and gold ignited a new political/sectional battle • ISSUE = Slavery and its extension into new territory
National Unity At this point in history political parties are a bond in national unity. • Political parties share members in all parts of the nation. • NOT BASED ON GEOGRAPHY (SECTIONAL) The slavery issue will change this!
Political Parties of the Day The two major political parties of the day are… Democrats (state rightists) Whigs (nationalistic) Minor parties were also players such as the Free -Soil Party (anti-slavery) ▪ What major party of the Civil War is missing? REPUBLICAN
Taylor’s Political Triumph Election of 1848 Lewis Cass (Dem) Zachary Taylor (Whig) Winner Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil) Stances on slavery… ▪ Democrats: Took no stance on the issue as a party. Cass let his thoughts be known. Popular sovereignty. ▪ Wanted to make national issue a local issue! ▪ Whigs: Focused on homespun virtues of their candidate and dodged issue. ▪ Free Soil: Clearly against spread of slavery/slavery itself. Didn’t want to share Western lands with blacks.
Big changes So what changed in the US to bring on this political/sectional disunity? • Massive new territory with the Mexican Cession Area • California Gold Rush of 1849 • Lack of Northern support for Fugitive Slave Laws • Underground Railroad
“Californy” Gold was found in California in 1848 • California Gold Rush: masses of people flooded CA in 1849 in search of riches. California needs a government • Crime is rampant in California gold towns. • People draft a constitution and request statehood.
“Californy” Gold Want to join Union as a free state (PROBLEM? ) THIS WOULD THROW OFF THE BALANCE IN SENATE AND MIGHT SET A PRECIDENT FOR MEXICAN CESSION AREA! (15/15) ▪ South had paid for this territory with its blood Up to this point South is still well off politically ▪ Provide many of the leaders ▪ Balance in Senate even if outnumbered in House ▪ They could stop any legislation about abolition
Underground Railroad and Sectionalism Underground Railroad: • A system of homes (stations) which slaves (passengers) would be taken on to go from the South to free Canada. Harriet Tubman: Former slave who made 19 trips freeing some 300 slaves from bondage.
Underground Railroad and Sectionalism Why did the South hate the Underground Railroad? • Simply, they lost valuable property. • South would call for tougher Fugitive Slave Laws. They didn’t work b/c the North didn’t enforce them.
Southern Fears in the Political Realm Southern Fears made their way to Washington in 1850 • Free-soil CA wants statehood • “fire-eaters” in South wanted secession if demands not met New Fugitive Slave Laws WHO WILL SOLVE THE ISSUE? Great Triumvirate
Politics and Sectional Struggle Henry Clay “Great Compromiser” Kentucky 73 yrs old Solution: Urged that both North and South make concessions and that the North enact more feasible fugitive slave laws. ▪ Backed vigorously by Senator Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois)
Politics and Sectional Struggle John C. Calhoun “Great Nullifier” South Carolina 68 yrs old Solution: Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give rights to the minority (Southerners) and restore political balance. ▪ Proposed to have 2 presidents both with veto ▪ One North and One South
Politics and Sectional Struggle Daniel Webster Massachusetts 68 yrs old Solution: In agreement with Clay’s compromise. Gave 7 th of March speech (3 hrs long) Said God had legislated on slavery in new territories through geography. Regarded slavery as evil but disunion as worse. ▪ Union is the issue to most people, not slavery.
Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill Young Guard v Old Guard • Young Guard: Rid Union of slavery and those who support it Led by William Seward (NY Senator) President Taylor agrees and is ready to veto any compromise that would pass his desk. President Taylor dies suddenly in 1850 = helps case fore concession. • Old Guard = Great Triumvirate
Breaking Congressional Logjam Compromise of 1850: Concession on the issue • Terms: California admitted to Union as a free state Permanently tipped Senate balance to free states Popular Sovereignty would settle slavery issue in NM and Utah and establish territorial governments there Nature made slavery useless in these areas. Abolition of slave trade in D. C Continued protection of slavery in D. C Texas gets $10 million towards debt New Fugitive Slave Laws of 1850 North “union savers” love it, South “fire-eaters” despised it NORTH CLEARLY GETS THE BETTER DEAL!
Breaking Congressional Logjam NORTHERN GAINS California admitted as a free state Senate Balance tipped permanently Popular Sovereignty would settle slavery issue in NM and Utah • Geography made the slave system useless there. SOUTHERN GAINS Texas gets $10 million towards debt Halted abolition movement in D. C. for time being Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 “Bloodhound Bill” • Pushes moderates towards anti-slavery ranks • Biggest blunder of South Turned more away then gained.
Breaking Congressional Logjam RESULTS: • The North clearly gets a better deal. • South will be looking for new territories to regain a balance in Senate. (Where? ) • Compromise of 1850 WON THE WAR for the North. Provided Time
Defeat and Doom for Whigs Election of 1952 • Franklin Pierce (Dem) Platform: Territorial Expansion and endorsed the Compromise of 1850. • Winfield Scott (Whig) Platform: Praised the Compromise of 1850, not as much as Democrats Problem: Whigs are split (N love Scott but hate Compromise (FSL) S love Compromise but hate Scott) • John Hale (Free-Soil) He steals votes from the Northern Whigs who hate compromise.
Defeat and Doom for Whigs Result of 1852 Election • Pierce wins in landslide Marks the beginning of the end for the Whig party = Rise of sectional political parties. Whig Contributions: Upheld the Union ideals Great leaders (Clay/Webster)
Pacific Railroad promoters and the Gadsden Purchase With all the territorial expansion Transportation becomes a huge issue. • WHY? We see our need for transportation during Mexican War Sea routes are to long Land transportation is necessary or new Western prizes (California, Oregon, etc) could break away. TRANSCONTINENTIAL RAILROAD IS THE ANSWER
Pacific Railroad promoters and the Gadsden Purchase RAILROAD = Money and Power • Due to this there is a battle over who will get the main terminal (North or South) • South has a plan… Try to negotiate with Mexico to buy land just South of border which seems perfect for railroad. Gadsden Purchase 1853: (Opposed by N) James Gadsden $10 Million Approved by Senate despite opposition from N (Manifest Destiny)
Pacific Railroad promoters and the Gadsden Purchase Southern Claims for Railroad look better… • Gadsden Purchase Territory • There are not many mountains • Would not go through unorganized territory Northern Land would have to go through unorganized Nebraska
Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Scheme North wanted Railroad, especially Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois) • Proposes the Kansas-Nebraska Act TERMS: Territory of Nebraska would be split into two (Kansas and Nebraska) Popular Sovereignty would settle the issue of slavery in the new territories Kansas would probably be a slave state Nebraska would probably be a free state PROBLEM: Contradicted the Missouri Compromise (36*30’ Line)
Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Scheme Consequences Act 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. of the Kansas-Nebraska Repealed the Missouri Compromise, heightening the sectional tensions Permitted the expansion of slavery beyond Southern states. Led to a decisive debate over the expansion of slavery in these areas (Lincoln-Douglas Debates) Ignited a bloody contest over the territory of Kansas Split the Democratic Party Sparked the formation of the Republican Party
Congress Legislates Civil War THIS WILL IN EFFECT LEGISLATE A CIVIL WAR! • WE NOW HAVE A DREADED SECTIONAL DIVISION!
Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion: 1854 -1861 AP US History
Introduction • The main issue pushing the nation towards disunion is the extension slavery and the political balance. • Peaceful solution seemed very unlikely as tempers became hostile EX: Kansas territory, Dred Scott decision and John Brown. Video
Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries Two literary works helped fuel the flames of discontent between North and South • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe Awakened the North to wickedness of slavery Hit worldwide audience (would hurt South in future) RESULT: North now really does not want to enforce Fugitive Slave Laws, Impression on youth who would fight in war. • The Impending Crisis of the South by Hinton R. Helper. Fueled the fear of the elite planters that non-slave holding majority might abandon them in sectional cause.
The North-South contest for Kansas’ slavery issue is to be settle by popular sovereignty (Compromise of 1850) • Both abolitionists and pro-slavery groups want the territory. NE Emigrant Aid Company- group financed by northern abolitionists to settle Kansas. (Keep slavery out/profit) South tried this but bullets and volatile slaves are not a good combo (death/revolt)
The North-South contest for Kansas South claims betrayal (Compromise 1850) • They supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act based on thought that Kansas would be slave state. Unspoken understanding.
The North-South contest for Kansas In 1855 TWO governments are formed • “Border Ruffians” pour into Kansas from Missouri to vote for territorial legislature. (pro-slavery) • Free-soilers form their own government in Topeka, claiming fraud by border hoppers. • One gov based on fraud (pro-slavery) another illegal (abolitionists) • PURPOSE: This government was to set up constitution for the state so it is very important. Breaking Point: 1856 Lawrence, Kansas pro-slavery raiders shot up and burned free-soil Lawrence.
Kansas in Convulsion “Bleeding Kansas”: civil war in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery parties. • Border Wars • John Brown: In response to Lawrence led a small band of followers who killed 5 presumably pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creek. Sets off civil war in Kansas
Kansas in Convulsion In 1857 Kansas applies for statehood on the basis of popular sovereignty. • Solution to slavery… Lecompton Constitution: Vote on constitution with or without slavery (Scheme by proslavery legislature) Provisions in place if voted without
Kansas in Washington James Buchanan (under southern control) upholds the Lecompton Constitution. • Opposed by Stephen A. Douglas (Popular Sovereignty) Violence in Kansas had poured onto the Senate floor in 1856. Charles Sumner beaten by Preston Brooks (S. C) after he condemns slavery and insults Andrew Butler (S. C Sen) RESULT: Sumner’s speech spread to thousands who would have never heard it and more Republicans vote. Showed how dangerous the dispute of slavery would be!
Dred Scott Bombshell Dred Scott v Stanford (1857) • Dred Scott, a slave, had lived in Illinois/Wisconsin for 5 years with his master (free territories). He sues saying due to extended time in free territories he should be free! Roger B. Tanney: ruled that he was not a citizen but property so he didn’t have any rights. 5 th Amendment: Congress can’t deprive people of their property w/o due process of the law. Ruled the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional. This is a sacred document in the North even though it was repealed in 1854. Split N & S Democrats (Sectionalism)
The Financial Crash of 1857 Panic of 1857: more psychological then economical panic. • CAUSES: California gold = inflation Over stimulated grain growth (N) to produce for Crimean War. Over speculation of lands/railroads • RESULT: South thought they were more powerful then North (cotton prices still high) Gives the North two election issues for 1860 Farms for the farmless (push for free land) Higher protective tariff
An Illinois Rail-Splitter emerges/The Great Debate: Lincoln v Douglas Lincoln runs for Senate v Stephen A. Douglas Lincoln-Douglas Debates (Aug-Oct 1858) • Lincoln challenged Douglas to debates • Freeport Question: If the people in a territory voted slavery down who would prevail the Supreme Court (Fed, Dred Scott) or people? Douglas is huge supporter of popular sovereignty Freeport Doctrine: No matter how courts ruled, if people voted slavery down it would stay down. Very Democratic answer
An Illinois Rail-Splitter emerges/The Great Debate: Lincoln v Douglas RESULSTS of DEBATES: • Lincoln is now in the national spotlight • Democratic party even more split Southern Democrats hate Douglas b/c of his opposition to Lecompton Constitution and his defiance of the Supreme Court with Freeport Doctrine.
John Brown: Murderer or Martyr? Harper’s Ferry (Oct 1859) • John Brown and 20 followers planned to invade the south and set up a black free state as a safe haven for slaves. Captures Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA but slaves fail to rise up and support him. Captured by US Marines and Robert E. Lee Brown was convicted of murder and treason Brown knew he was more valuable to the abolitionists cause dead then in insane asylum.
John Brown: Murderer or Martyr? Results of Harper’s Ferry • South: Pushed them more towards secession b/c they thought the violent abolitionist view was shared by entire north. • North: the moderates in the N were outraged by the thoughts of the South lumping them in with the radicals. • Abolitionists: Infuriated by Brown’s execution b/c they thought he was murdered for a righteous cause.
The Disruption of the Democrats 1860 Election = most fateful in American History Democratic Convention • The Democrats can not decide on a delegate for the 1860 Election. The convention adjourns twice w/o choosing a candidate. THE PARTY IS SPLIT BETWEEN THE NORTH AND SOUTH.
The Disruption of the Democrats Southern Democrats: • John C. Breckenridge • Platform: Extension of slavery in new territories, Annexation of slave populated Cuba. Northern Democrats: • Stephen A. Douglas • Platform: Popular Sovereignty solves slavery issue by state. Constitutional-Union Party: • John Bell • Platform: Represented Southern interests but they still wanted Union.
Rail-Splitter Splits Union The Democratic Party split almost assures Republicans of victory. Republicans • Abraham Lincoln (over William Seward) • Platform: Non-extension of slavery (Free-soilers) Protective Tariff (N Industry/manufacturing) No Abridgment of rights (immigrants) Pacific Railroad (NW, Chicago) Internal Improvements at Federal Gov expense (West) Free Homesteads for public domain (Farmers/poor)
Rail-Splitter Splits Union South (secessionalists) threatened to secede if Lincoln elected. • South begins to raise a militia in southern states bordering free states. Many states are ready for secession
Electoral Upheaval of 1860 Lincoln wins the election of 1860 (66% of vote went elsewhere) • He wins all 18 Northern states • Not on the ballot in 10 Southern states • S. C loves this b/c it gives them a reason to secede. Dec 20, 1860 James Buchanan does nothing.
Electoral Upheaval of 1860 The South is still in good political shape. • 5 to 4 advantage in Supreme Court • Democrats still control House and Senate • B/C you needed a Constitutional amendment to touch slavery it could not be legally done away with w/o South’s support.
The Secessionist Exodus South Carolina starts a chain reaction • Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas all secede within 6 weeks. • Confederate States of America (Feb 1861) President Jefferson Davis (Miss)
The Secessionist Exodus Crisis of secession worse because of Buchanan. • “Lame Duck” president Lincoln wouldn’t take office until March 1861 • He is devoted to Union but surrounded by pro- slavery advisors • He didn’t think legally South could secede but found nothing constitutionally which said he could use force/guns to stop them. • He still had hope of Compromise.
Collapse of Compromises had begun to be discussed as soon as Lincoln is elected. • Many give south benefits (Lincoln refuses to hear them) • Crittenden Amendments (best attempt) Suggested that Congress extend the Missouri Compromise line to California. Slavery protected federally South of that line and in any new territories. Future states both N and S of Line could join Union as free or slave (popular sovereignty) MEANT TO APPEASE THE SOUTH! Rejected by Lincoln!
Farwell to Union Reasons states left Union (all related to slavery) Republican party seemed to threaten rights of slave holding minority. Underground RR, John Brown, abolitionists, etc. 2. Many thought there secession would be unopposed Though N was dependent on S economically. 3. Southern leaders wanted to not be dependent on North 1. 4. 5. Create own industry/economy, tariff issue Self-Determination They chose to be a part of the Union so they had the right to not be a part of it (13 separate colonies) Historic Parallels US had seceded from Britain
Breakdown How did these events lead to sectionalism in the US? • • • • Cotton Gin Missouri Compromise Annexation of Texas Manifest Destiny Kansas-Nebraska Act Gold in California Polk’s Presidency Underground Railroad Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Laws Dred Scott Lincoln-Douglas Debates Election of 1860