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RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF INDIA---- A REVIEW DR. S. BISWAS DIRECTOR BITM, SANTINIKETAN A UNIT OF CAMELLIA GROUP
Conventional power • Combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and oil) • Nuclear fission of uranium • Fossil fuels have environmental costs from mining, drilling or extraction, and emit greenhouse gases and air pollution during combustion • Although nuclear power generation emits no greenhouse gases during power generation, it does require mining, extraction and long-term radioactive waste storage
Renewable energy • Resources that rely on fuel sources that restore themselves over short periods of time and do not diminish. • Such fuel sources include the sun, wind, moving water, organic plant and waste material (eligible biomass) and the earth's heat (geothermal). • Although the impacts are small, some renewable energy technologies can have an impact on the environment. For example, large hydroelectric resources can have environmental trade-offs on such issues as fisheries and land use.
Green power • Subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit. • EPA defines green power as electricity produced from solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, eligible biomass and low -impact small hydroelectric sources. • Customers often buy green power for its zero emissions profile and carbon footprint reduction benefits.
Benefits of Using Green Power Using green power helps to: • Improve the environmental profile Support renewable energy development (either directly or indirectly) • Reduce the carbon footprint associated with your purchased electricity • In case of using of renewable sources as generation of electricity will enhance the encouragement of on-site generation (OSG) For organizational users, green power can: • • • Serve as a brand differentiator Generate customer, investor, or stakeholder loyalty and employee pride Create positive publicity and enhance your organization's public image Demonstrate civic leadership OSG i. e. decentralized energy generation may reduce the transmission losses Decentralized energy generation indirectly enhance the generation through saving mode.
What is the best possible distribution? • • In 2015, the distribution of U. S. renewable consumption by source was: Hydropower 25% Biomass Wood 21% Biomass Waste 5% Biomass Biofuels 22% Wind 19% Geothermal 2. 5% Solar 5. 5%
Sources of Renewable Energy The important renewable energy sources, which can be utilised for generating electricity in our country are as follows: • Solar energy (direct): Solar thermal power and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, Solar energy (indirect) • Hydroelectric power (large and small units) • Wind energy (on land offshore) • Biomass power • Wave energy, marine currents, and ocean thermal energy conversion • Tidal energy
Potentiality of Renewable Energy in India as on date • India has an estimated renewable energy potential of about 900 GW from sources like Wind – 102 GW, Bioenergy – 25 GW, Small Hydro – 20 GW and Solar power – 750 GW. Renewable energy enjoys 15. 90% shares in total installed capacity in India as on 31. 03. 2016.
Growth of Renewable Energy in India • As of March’ 2017, renewable energy installed capacity totaled to 57, 700 MW. • Renewable energy has been witnessing over 20% growth in the last five years. • From the total renewable power installed capacity of 14, 400 MW at the beginning of 2009, it has increased to the capacity of 38, 822 MW at the end of December’ 2015. • It has also increased to the capacity of 45924 MW as on March, 2016 to 57, 700 MW by March’ 2017. • Wind energy continues to dominate India’s renewable energy industry accounting for 29151. 29 MW by March’ 2017 from 25, 088 MW by December’ 2015.
Generation of Energy from. Renewable Sources as on 31. 03. 2017 • • Solar : 10941 MW Wind : 32352 MW *Biomass : 6125 MW Small hydro : 5495 MW *Biomass means sawdust, ricehusk, baggase, corncob i. e basically waste to Energy.
Conclusions • The utility electricity Sector in India had an installed capacity of 319606 MW as on 31/03/2017. • Renewable power plants constituted 15% of the total capacity. Out of renewable power generation of 45924 MW, wind is contributed 58% of electric energy and solar is contributed 15% of energy as on 31/03/2016. • Renewable power generation has increased to the capacity of approximately 57, 700 MW as on 31/03/2017 indicates the enhancement of generation of renewable energy by 25 % compare to earlier year. • Normally, non renewable energy sources are generating electricity in centralized manner and for utilization of this energy a huge distribution network through transmission line is required. During transmission a reasonable amount approximately in some cases more than 30% wastages of energy is taking place. • In case of using of renewable sources as generation of electricity will enhance the encouragement of on-site generation (OSG) or decentralized energy generation which may reduce the transmission losses and indirectly enhance the generation through saving mode.