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Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status in CAMBODIA By Mr. Sovanna Toch Renewable Energy Office, DET/MIME 4 November 2003
Table of Contents RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE) STATUS RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY POLICY/PLANNING CASE STUDY OF TWO NEDO PROJECTS Photovoltaic & Micro hydro in Kampong Cham province Photovoltaic & Biogas in Sihanouk Ville
1. RE & EE STATUS (1/3) 1. 1. RE Status q Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) in Asia Program , under fund support of Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), through AIT q Demonstrative Research Projects funded by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan q Solar systems for bridges, schools and training centers funded by Samdech HUN SEN Prime Minister of Royal Government of Cambodia and other donors q Rural energy for productive use and income generation q Renewable Electricity Action Plan (REAP)
1. RE & EE STATUS(2/3) 1. 2. EE Implementation #1/2 Energy Efficiency Office has cooperated with other organizations to implement some projects such as: ESMAP/WB Funding (1997 -1999): i) Focused on capacity building and strengthening of MIME and EDC capabilities in energy efficiency ii) Activities to increase the efficiency of the power sector in order to make it attractive for investment by the private sector iii) Actions that have been taken: - EE promotion program in garment industry with lighting audit of 10 garment factories - Initialization of code of practices (standards) in the electricity sector - Workshop on electricity efficiency and dissemination of information (on lighting)
1. RE & EE STATUS (3/3) 1. 2. EE Implementation #2/2 MIME OWN FUNDING (2000 -2003): Audit of 3 commercial buildings (3 luxury hotels, one in Phnom Penh and 2 in Siem Reap) which were introduced to ASEAN contests in Brunei, Indonesia and Vietnam FUNDING FROM FRENCH ADEME, with the assistance from Vietnam ENTERTEAM of HOCHIMINH CITY (2002): - Feasibility Study of 4 buildings (Medical Clinic, office, hotel, and residential/commercial/office) with full audit of the last 2 buildings -Workshop on Building EE UN-ESMAP in association with ECCJ (Japan) in 2002: Audit of two garment factories on energy conservation (boilers and distribution system, lighting, etc. )
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PLAN 2. 1. RE Plan The RGC has established Four long-term objectives for electricity-generating renewable energy technologies: 5 % of new electricity generation, or about 6 MW, will be supplied by renewable electricity technologies, including 3 hydropower mini-grids and some proven, clean and efficient biomass/biogas electricity generation, 3 viable renewable energy technologies (RET) businesses and 50 -100 trained RET personnel. All this should be achieved in the first 5 -year period; 100, 000 households (HH) will be supplied by electricity from renewable technologies on a competitive basis. Of this volume, the goal is to get 45, 000 HH electrified by the Rural Electricity Enterprises (REE) in the first 5 -year period; 10, 000 households will be served by Solar Home Systems (SHS). This should be achieved in the first 5 -year period; A sustainable market for renewable electricity systems will be developed and evidenced by households willing to purchase renewable electricity products and services in a competitive business environment.
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PLAN 2. 2. EE Plan We have a plan as follow: q Looking for fund from other institutions to continue EE projects in towns and provinces q Dissemination through leaflet to the Cambodians on effective use of electrical appliances, gas stoves, petroleum, to contribute to poverty reduction q Training programs both within and outside the country q Joining the competition in the ASEAN EE Building Programme We have Energy Labeling Program to inform the consumers of energy intensive devices, such as air-conditioners and refrigerators, etc.
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PLAN 2. 3. Strategy on Renewable Energy-based Rural Electrification in Cambodia The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC), through the implementation of the National Rural Renewable Electricity Policy, shall: i) Endeavor to provide access to reliable, safe and environmentally clean electricity services to rural areas, at an affordable cost to the national community; ii) Act as a market enabler and encourage private sector participation in providing rural renewable electricity services; iii) Provide effective legal and regulatory framework for enabling access to reliable, safe and clean electricity services to rural areas, at an affordable cost to the national community; iv) Encourage the most efficient systems for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity from clean and renewable energy sources, to enable a rational electricity tariff policy through promotion of differentiated tariffs based on cost recovery principles; v) Promote renewable electricity systems for rural applications, as part of a national portfolio of grid and off-grid technologies, provided they are the least-cost option for the national communities; and vi) Ensure adequate resources and appropriate institutional mechanisms to empower the poor, particularly those in rural areas.
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PLAN 2. 4. Rural Electrification Fund REF is the result of a join effort of the Royal Government of Cambodia and the World Bank, with the goal of encouraging the private sector for investment in electricity supply to the rural population, with smart subsidies scheme for reason of social equity. Agreed electricity price sold to the rural population would be such that the rural entrepreneurs will still make project. Investment funds will come from grants and loans with low interest rate from various credit and financing institutions.
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Japan Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME) Kingdom of Cambodia Demonstrative Research Project On Dispersed Power Generation Systems (Photovoltaic and Micro-Hydro) In Cambodia Tokyo Electric Power Services Co. , Ltd. Toshiba Engineering Corporation Okiden Sekkei Co. , Inc
Objective of the Project Technology Verification of Dispersed System Ø Ø Ø Early commercial application of a system that maximizes the utilization of renewable energy to promote mass introduction of renewable energy provided by PV power generation, etc. Establishment of measures on the supply side Reduction of output fluctuation due to climatic variations by connecting dispersed photovoltaic power generators, etc. , to small-scale grids Improvement of power generation efficiency of the whole system and control of output fluctuation Verification of system efficiency taking into consideration the stability in electricity supply and improved economics by such as reducing storage battery capacity requirements
System Outline Ø Small-scale hydro power generation plant (approx. 40 k. W) to be installed in the existing agricultural dam Ø Electricity supply to each household in the village through installed distribution lines from small-scale hydro power generation plant Ø Dispersed photovoltaic power generation systems installed to supply electricity
Project Organization Japanese side Cambodian side METI MOU MOM NEDO Cooperation Tokyo Electric Power Services Co. , Ltd. (TEPSCO) Toshiba Engineering Corporation Okiden Sekkei Co. , Inc. MIME
System Diagram Specifications PV: • 30 k. W of PV at concentration site (with a main battery of 30 k. Wh) • 7. 5 k. W x 5 of PV at dispersed sites (with battery charger) Micro-Hydro: • about 20 k. W x 2 Transmission Line: • Total length of 9. 7 km (Distribution line runs along transmission line)
Micro Hydro Power Generation Plant Upper Reservoir P 3 Channel Dam Main Spillway P 1 Channel Lower Reservoir
PV Sites and Transmission Lines
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Japan Department of Energy Technique Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy (MIME), Cambodia Demonstrative Research Project On Combined Power Generation Systems (Photovoltaic and Biogas) Sihanouk Ville Shikoku Electric Power Co. , Inc. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. Meiden Plant Engineering & Construction Co. , Ltd.
Objective of the Project Technology Verification of Combined System (PV & Biogas) Ø Utilization of Unstable PV Output for Auxiliary System of Biogas Power Generation Ø Stable PV Output supply to Customers through Distribution Network
Items of Demonstrative Research Ø Investigation of Control Method to Utilize PV Output Fluctuation to Biogas Auxiliaries Ø Development of Appropriate Biogas Power Generation System for Cambodia Ø Economic Evaluation of Total Combined System
System Outline Ø Stable output of electricity produced by PV is supplied directly to grid and Unstable output is utilized for a biogas generation system to produce biogas during the daytime Ø During the nighttime when the demand increases, electricity is supplied by a gas power generator utilizing biogas
PV System Basic Design System outline ØMain equipment PV array 50 k. W (Multicrystal PV module ) Inverter Auxiliaries ØSimulation of generated 30 k. VA Grid Connection 20 k. VA August March
Image of Combined System (PV and Biogas)
Project Organization Japanese side Cambodian side METI MOU MOM NEDO Cooperation Shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. Meiden Plant Engineering & Construction Co. , Ltd. MIME
Summary of Village Survey ・ There are 4 groups in the targeted village with a total of 210 households. ・ Some families already use fluorescent light, radio cassette by battery. ・ Almost all families use kerosene lamp. ・ Some families leave village in the rainy season. ・ Villager’s average income is 150, 000 – 300, 000 Riels/month. ・ Economic standard of villagers groups is different from each other. ・ Villagers pay approximately 5, 000 Riels/month/household for fuel fees. ・ Villagers may be able to pay 5, 000 – 10, 000 Riels/month for electric fees when the electricity is available from distribution line. ・ If villagers have an economic margin, they will purchase not only lighting and radio cassette but also other electric appliances such as TV, VTR, fans, etc.
Village Outline Temple 1. 2 km 0. 4 km Monorum Group 114 HH 0. 2 km National Route No. 4 0. 4 km 160 m Tapioca entrance Sereisoksan Group 33 HH factory Tapioca Group 43 HH 1. 5 km 0. 5 km 1. 5 km Office Cattle Farm Caltex 20 HH Group 0. 2 km 0. 5 km
Distribution Line Temple Ｔ National Route No. 4 22 k. V High-voltage line 220 V Low-voltage line Ｔ 22 k. V/220 V Transformer Ｔ Ｔ Cattle Farm